5HR002 – Leading and Managing People In Organisations

Module Code And Title : 5HR002 – Leading and Managing People In Organisations

Introduction

Any business operation requires effective planning and strategy development in order to attain goals and objectives in market and deliver sustainable growth of business. Leaders play a significant role in managing resources to develop production in delivering service to customers. Adequate management of business operations require control, monitoring and directing functions which are needed to be performed with suitable practises in order to develop a comprehensive and profitable business. In this present study, a discussion is conducted on concepts of leadership roles and management operations in organisations. In this respect, theories and practical application of strategies of leaders are evaluated from management perspective along with understanding conflict management operations practices by them in effective leadership roles.

Application and Fundamentals of Theory for Discussing Concepts of Managing Self

Self Management 

Managing self and others effectively helps in growth and improvement of personal and professional effectiveness. In an organisation, self management and people management skills can significantly help in fulfilling goals along with increasing decision making approaches of leaders. Leaders need to manage themselves  along with internal stakeholders. Business operations require control, monitoring and directing functions which are needed to be performed with suitable practises in order to develop a comprehensive and profitable business.

Individual and Family Self-Management Theory

Individual and Family Self-Management Theory is a psychological theory which provides the foundation for developing self regulations in control of behaviours and belief in order to develop health outcomes. In this theory, there is provision for family management through use of effective knowledge along with other skills in order to increase effectiveness and performance to meet individual goals. This theory is a significant step to managing societal relationships and developing a healthy mindscape for individuals with sorted and improved effectiveness. According to the study of Allegrante, Wells and Peterson (2019), the components of self-regulation skills, knowledge and beliefs and abilities along with social facilitation make up the process dimension of self-management. Self-efficacy, teamwork and decision-making are important parts in this concept of self development process. Self-management behaviours, or particular acts performed in view of maintaining health, both physical and mental, along with treating illnesses are significant steps in increasing an individual’s effectiveness and value (Santoso et al. 2020). Health status, quality of life, health costs are distal outcomes in this context. Factors in the respect and processing dimensions are thought to impact distal and proximal outcomes directly or indirectly. Individual and family-centred therapies might focus on either the context or the process dimensions. This theory is used by health professionals in order to analyse the grip and mental strength of individuals.

Leadership

Leadership roles are a crucial function in effective management of an organisation. Empathetic view of others and understanding key requirements in developing business operations are crucial parameters which leaders must monitor. Self-management approaches also are crucial for developing the overall effectiveness and convincing power of leaders to attract and engage others in an organisation (Goldsby et al. 2021).  Leaders need to manage themselves along with internal stakeholders. Business operations require control, monitoring and directing functions which are needed to be performed with suitable practises in order to develop a comprehensive and profitable business. In any business, people form one of the most important aspects of leadership roles.

Transformational Leadership Style

Transformational leadership approach provides a theory in which people management has been idealized with a modern take on leadership roles in any organisational management. This theory provides a team building approach in effective management of organisation along with boosting motivational practices among team members. Transformational leadership is a style of leadership which relies on team’s support in achieving overall success practicing motivational aspects to build engagement of employees (Bonsu and Twum-Danso, 2018). Improving a team’s morale and self-confidence helps in furthering and identifying themselves with a common goal. It has also been identified that transformational leadership encourages employees to work as a unified entity instead of independent components. In this theory, leaders act as inspiration with impact of persona for influencing team members to fulfilling organisational goals and objectives. Leaders with idealised influence are charismatic, inquisitive, and communicate messages with simplicity and sensitivity. As influenced by Alqatawenh (2018), these leaders are excellent role models who are well-liked and respected by all team members. One of the most important aspects of this trait is charisma. Charisma is important because it allows leaders to mobilise their people around a common goal. In addition to this, transformational leaders also help in identifying the needs of team members along with fulfilling their individual interests in the organisation. This increases motivation of the employees. Along with this, these characteristics in a transformational leader also help in engaging employees to increase trust and dependence on leaders.

Transactional Leadership Style

Transactional leadership theory provides a take on modern leadership roles and relationships between leaders and other employees in an organisation. In this theory, it has been ideated that relationships in any organisation between leaders and owners of an organisation and the employees is followed by a transactional relationship. A transactional leader focuses on structure and in increasing regulatory order in an organisation through provision of rewards and benefits to motivate employees to fulfil goals (Purwanto et al. 2020). Motivating and leading others through a transactional leadership requires appealing, essential to self-interest and development in organisation. Transactional leaders preserve an official authority and responsibility in the organisation, which in turn influence others to deliver outcomes. The integral role of employees in this situation is to observe the leader’s instructions. Transactional leadership is results-oriented, follows an organization’s present structure, along with gauging performance of employees using rewards and sanctions (Kark, Van Dijk and Vashdi, 2018). In any firm, transactional leaders portray official responsibilities and power. This sort of leader is in charge of keeping things on track by overseeing individual performance and facilitating collective performance. This theory can be used in adapting leadership strategies to provide both monetary and non monetary benefits and rewards to employees for increasing their motivation and engagement within an organisation.

Conflict Resolution

Conflict resolution is one of the most crucial role practices by leaders in order to deliver smooth outcomes with fulfilment of the interests of individual stakeholders and growth of the overall organisation. Leaders need to have an amicable settlement among parties to dissuade any chaos or disagreement within the organisation (Pekmezi, Cadmus-Bertram and Lewis, 2020). This is necessary in the strategic development of overall organisation.

Dual Concern Model

The Dual Concern Model lays down principles for effective conflict resolution with a show of empathy and assertiveness. This model has provided adequate measures to be taken by leaders in coercing cooperation within employees and in dissuading conflict and chaos within internal atmosphere of the organisation. Leaders in effectively managing people and self in an organisation need to undertake strategies to increase unanimity and resolving any conflict situation (Zhao, Thatcher and Jehn, 2019). Interests of all stakeholders in an organisation need to be maintained in order to develop a comprehensive approach to the development of the organisation. In this process, the Dual Concern Model can be applied in delivering effective outcomes for increasing flexibility and satisfaction of team members in any business approach. These can be delivered through use of a combination of empathy and assertion to understand the needs and pain points of others and reach a middle ground keeping the wellbeing and goals of the organisation at priority (Van Vugt and Smith, 2019). This will increase a leader’s influential capacity and help in generating value and trust among team members. In addition to this, conflict resolution approaches will also help in engaging and motivating the in organisational operations and boosting their performance.

Teamwork

Teamwork and collaboration is a crucial aspect in attaining a common goal and in increasing overall organisational performance and efficiency. In this aspect, leaders play an essential role in inculcating a culture of collaboration with a positive and healthy environment within the internal organisational framework of the organisations. This is helpful in people management along with increasing the effectiveness of leaders to adopt effective strategies in managing team collaboration for reaching a unified goal. Adequate teamwork and collaboration within employees helps in increasing engagement and increasing overall efficiency of operations of the organisation.

Tuckman Theory

Tuckman Theory lays down principles for effectively tacking ad building teamwork in an organisation. This theory focuses on building effective relationships among teammates in order to improve their overall coordination and collaboration for reaching a goal within a stipulated time frame. In this theory, formation of a team has also been discussed with effective strategies for engaging and delivering work goals (Milhem, Muda and Khalil, 2019). This provides a transformational aspect in effectively delivering outcomes in order to convey the finishing task. According to this theory, forming, storming and forming are three stages for developing teamwork. The team is formed and the mission has been assigned during the first stage. Team members often act autonomously while having excellent intentions; trusting can be an issue (Tripathy, 2018). The group initiates brainstorming solutions to any issue rising in such case and engage conflict resolution operaitons. Different concepts may be ideated ill management of which may raise conflicts and be quite damaging to the team. This plays role in developing amicable working methods, agreement being made amongst teams with foreground of principles and ideals. Team trust is build at this stage. Leaders need to engage in conflict resolution and other people management strategies to implement a positive and productive teamwork.

Leading and Managing Others in Respect of Current and Key Theories of Leadership and Management

Leadership roles are a crucial function in effective management of an organisation. Empathetic view of others and understanding key requirements in developing business operations are crucial parameters which leaders must monitor. Self-management approaches also are crucial for developing overall effectiveness and convincing power of leaders to attract and engage others in an organisation (Drouin et al. 2021). Leaders need to manage themselves along with internal stakeholders. Business operations require control, monitoring and directing functions which are needed to be performed with suitable practises in order to develop a comprehensive and profitable business. In any business, people form one of the most important aspects of leadership roles. Using a transformational leadership style can be helpful in managing people in an organisation with effective growth and developmental strategies to fulfil organisational goals (Priarso, Diatmono and Mariam, 2019). Transformational leadership encourages employees to work as a unified entity instead of independent components. In addition to this, current leadership roles also include empathetic understanding and positive relationship development with team members in order to increase their trust and engagement in the organisation. Increasing motivation of team members to influence them with identification and fulfilment of their needs in an organisation, is essential (Atan and Mahmood, 2019). It can also be noted that the transformational theory focuses on leaders to act as inspiration with impact of persona for influencing team members to fulfilling organisational goals and objectives. Leaders with idealised influence are charismatic, inquisitive, and communicate messages with simplicity and sensitivity.

Transactional leadership style is also used by leaders in addition to other conflict resolution theories in order to develop a sustainable and productive business practice. This helps in increasing overall engagement and team collaboration among team members with development of efficient business operations. Transactional theory is used in contemporary business contexts to provide a motivational boost to team members in accordance to their needs and interests in the organisation (Cho et al. 2019). This is also used in increasing team collaboration and coordination of team members in an organisation with the provision of benefits in career development increasing work value for them. In this aspect, increasing collaboration is also influenced through engagement of effective communication for understanding individual perspectives in undertaking decisions in any business operations. Use of a combination of empathy and assertion to understand the needs and pain points of others and reach a middle ground keeping the wellbeing and goals of the organisation at priority (Martini, Suardana and Astawa, 2018). With a democratic style of leadership, team members are provided value with their suggestions being invited and valued, which acts in increasing overall engagement of team members in the organisation. This in turn also helps in effective conflict resolution roles.

Organizational Conflict. Discussion using appropriate theory whether conflict is always dysfunctional in workplace

Organizational conflict is referred to as conflict within workplace which creates a state of disagreement or misunderstanding within an organization. It is common to have conflict between two employees whenever they are interacting within a workplace. Conflict may be due to differences present within opinions with regard to any task or decisions which may be contradictory in nature. According to LEBRAGUE et al (2020), organizational conflict refers to a conflict which hinders normal interaction among individuals which in turn deviates himself/herself from achieving goals of organization. Conflict can be both constructive and destructive in nature and this can be decided based on how it is being managed. Organizational conflicts can also be referred to as a situation when there is a breakdown within process of decision making because of irrational and irrelevant conflict which is taking place within an organization. Conflict is often a deliberate process which is introduced by an individual present within an organization for blocking performance of entire organization as well as ensuring that there is a delay in achievement of goals.. Presence of conflicts within an organization can be reduced with help of Thomas Kilmann Conflict Mode instrument which focuses on resolving conflicts by bringing in collaboration, accommodation and compromising behavior between individuals and industries. These instruments have an enormous capacity for resolving conflicts present at each level of organization and creation of a good working environment within organization.

 According to Zijlstra (2020), three main levels of conflicts are present within an organization which is individual level conflicts, group level conflicts and organizational conflicts. Individual level conflicts states that needs of a human being are directed by needs which are present within them which in turn affects their activities.

Every individual present within an organization tries to match their needs with offerings offered by organizations and if they identify any deviation within set standards they resort to conflicts. Individuals are often categorized based on two categories: intra individual conflict and inter individual conflicts. Intra Individual conflict occurs when an individual needs to compromise his/her individual goals for fulfilling goals of organization. Inter Individual conflicts refers to conflicts which occur between two or more individuals which may be due to scarce availability of resources of rewards within entire organization. Ahmed (2019), in his works states that group conflict takes place when there is presence of divergence, competition, or frequent clashes between individuals and groups present within an organization. There are two types of group conflicts namely intra group conflict and inter group conflict. Intra group conflicts refers to conflicts which occur within a single group whereas inter group conflict refers to conflict which occurs between two or more groups. Graham et al (2018), in his works states that organizational conflict refers to conflict which takes place at all levels of entire organization. Organizational conflict may be intra organizational conflict or inter organizational conflict in nature. Intra organizational conflict refers to conflict which is taking place within an entire organization which may be horizontal or vertical in nature. Inter organizational conflicts refers to conflicts between two or more than two organizations which may belong to same industry or some other industry. These kinds of conflicts result in following practices which are unethical in nature and result in unhealthy competition which ultimately impacts performance to a significant level.

Conflicts present within an organization are not always dysfunctional in nature but may be positive and productive in nature. Conflict resolution theory has guidelines present within its theory which guides an individual for solving conflicts between two or more parties. According to Leshem and Halperin (2020), conflict resolution theory sets a productive tone by allowing party who is raising conflict for speaking first in relation to reasons of their conflicts. These theories give importance on viewing and understanding of entire scenario so that necessary evidence can be collected. Conflict resolution theory tries to introduce a mediator who acts as an assistant in resolving disputes. Mediator is a neutral third party who tries to resolve conflicts of both parties by listening to both parties. Issues or conflicts which may be present or may arise with passing time within my organization would require myself to use these theories for solving these issues. This theory would be used by me for solving conflicts in future as these are successful tools which have helped many organizations in solving problems in past.

Another model of management of conflicts is usage of conflict resolution curve model which focuses on providing resolution either through forced or peaceful measures. Providing resolution by peaceful means is considered to be a better option. According to Wang et al. (2019), this model helps in development of a curve which addresses offering peaceful means of resolving conflicts. This curve separates styles of conflict resolution into two seperate domains namely domains of competing entry and domains of accommodating entries. This curve also helps in easy explanation of adoption of method of governance to reduce conflicts within an organization. I also within my organization would like to introduce these models of conflict resolving so that I can easily identify whether there is a need for implementation of forced conflict resolving measures. This model would also help in identifying governance practices to be adopted so that conflicts can be reduced along with ensuring there are reduced conflicts in future. This model also helps in development of strategies by which negotiation between individuals can be introduced so that conflicts can be reduced. Similarly I also with help of this model try to analyses and decide on points of negotiations so that amount of presence of conflict can be reduced within my organization.

Organizational change and emotional response

Change which takes place within an organization has often been found to have great emotional responses within individuals. Whenever any change is introduced within an organization or there is a need for introduction of change employees think that they would suffer from huge personal losses. According to Insights.lamarsh (2022), there is a model named seven emotional phases model which identifies the amount of emotions an individual passes through during process of organisational change. Understanding these phases of emotional response is very important on part of an organization as it helps in deciding courses of action to be adopted. During stage of immobilization an individual finds difficulties in focusing on new jobs and responsibilities being assigned to them. It becomes my responsibility to ensure key facts and reasons related to change are constantly being delivered to members present within my organization. This would enhance employees focusing more on their jobs and responsibilities being assigned to them  along with ensuring that their interests are increased (Fernandes et al. 2018). It is also found that employees present within organizations show a sense of disbelief and have no idea in relation to new tasks being assigned to them. It becomes extremely important on part of an organization to have a well defined communication structure present in its structure so that employees can be communicated among new tasks and roles which they need to perform.

During stage of denial individuals are often found ignoring discussions related to introduction of change within organization and tend to avoid participation. They tend to start things on a high note but do not give importance on completion of tasks on a timely basis. There is a need on part to make employees have a clear understanding regarding why present situation is not working well and need for introduction of change. I need to divide changes into smaller steps so that employees can have a clear idea for what is being expected out of them. According to Basar et al. (2020),, anger results from inability within an inability to see any kind of positivity within introduction of changes. They constantly share their negative perceptions about changes openly in public forums. It is needed on part of mine to ensure that anger present within an individual in relation to change is addressed and measures should also be taken in defusing it. Depression develops within an individual when he/she develops a feeling that their suggestions are given less importance during process of implementation of change. It is responsibility of mine to ensure that views and opinions of employees are encouraged during process of change. It is also important for providing them with requisite information which would have an idea in relation to resources being provided to them. Negotiation is that level where individuals negotiate on tasks being assigned to them so that scope of change gets reduced (Choi et al. 2018). I need to ensure that only those parts of negotiation are being allowed which are actually desirable in nature. In exploration stage individuals keep on asking questions about future state of changes which are being introduced and try to show a positive attitude. Finally during acceptance stage participates in helping others and understanding along with try to accepting changes.

5HR002 – Leading and Managing People In Organisations 1 Figure 1: Emotional Phases Through An Organizational Change (Source: Insights.lamarsh, 2022)

Use of Organizational development Model as a strategic tool

Organizational development is a model which focuses on improving an capability of an organization by bringing in coordination between strategy structure and people. It is a science backed effort which focuses on capacity of an organization by introducing a strong form of coordination between a numbers of processes which is linked with human resource management. Organizational development model is highly concerned with increasing effectiveness of overall organization during a process of change. According to Golembiewski (2019), there are five phases within organizational development model in which organisations try to make use of formulation of strategies. Entry phase analyses initial contact between employees and organizations along with trying to identify problems and opportunities. Output which is generated during this phase helps an organization in setting mutual expectations expected out of employees and it is made sure that they agree with expectations which have been set. Diagnosis phase is concerned with finding facts which address need for introduction of change within organization. This phase brings in collaboration in process of gathering data so that relevant information can be communicated to employees who are present within organization. According to Td.org (2022), feedback represents analysis of information which is being provided and also helps in exploration of information from time to time. Feedback also helps in review of agreements which has been entered into and whether there is requirement for introduction of any changes further within agreements.

Solution phase tries to identify design, development, and implementation of correct solutions for problems which have been identified. This phase is mainly concerned with improving performance of entire organization and developing a proper set of communication plans which would help in assigning roles and responsibilities. Sullivan et al. (2018), in his works states that there is a need for presence of having a well defined solution and ensuring that it is implemented in such a manner which helps entire organization grow. Evaluation is a continuous process which helps in collection of formative data along with evaluating it from time to time so that goals can be achieved easily. An evaluation report is prepared which helps to identify whether initiatives which have been taken are helping to really achieve goals and acting as indicators of success. This phase also helps in identifying areas for continuous improvements so that performance can be enhanced which will in turn ensure that organization is growing.

5HR002 – Leading and Managing People In Organisations 2Figure 2: Organizational Development Strategy (Source: Insights.lamarsh, 2022)

Conclusion

To conclude it can be stated that self management has a huge role in motivating people present within an organization. Organizational conflict is common amongst individuals as well as industries. Various theories are available which helps in managing conflicts which are present within an industry. Conflict management theory is an important theory which helps in managing of conflicts to a great extent. It is responsibility on part of an organization to ensure that conflicts present within an organization are reduced so that performance of entire organization can be improved.

References

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