Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the deadliest diseases in the world and it has been observed that the diseases may be transmitted from one human to another person which indicates that TB is a contagious disease. In addition to that, global health agents face several issues in mitigating the spread of TB in the world as if the severity of TB is increased in the human body it may result in death.

Every year several people face critical health issues due to TB, however, proper treatment and medication are needed for the proper treatment of TB. In this essay, the globalisation factors and the challenges of global agents in fighting with TB will be discussed in detail.

Critically discussing about the globalisation factors of tuberculosis and the ways to prevent tuberculosis (TB)

It may be opined that there are several globalised factors of developing TB in the world such as tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, indoor and outdoor air pollution, malnutrition and many more.

On the other hand, it may be implicated that smoking is one of the biggest reasons for increasing TB cases in a country as it has been mentioned that excessive smoking creates a direct impact on the human body which helps to develop TB bacteria on human lungs.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), excessive smoking may increase the risk factors which are related to TB and it has been proved that there is an intimate connection between smoking and developing of TB disease (Euro.who.int. 2021). Moreover, it may be asserted that the tendency of smoking has increased among TB patients and for that reason global health professionals face several issues to control the spread of TB.

Along with that, regular smoking of TB patients may decrease the effectiveness of medicines and enhance the risk factors of TB as well as it also results in painful death of the patients (World Health Organization, 2020). Nowadays, several new variants of TB have been found which have a lower improvement rate such as Drug Resistant TB (DR-TB) as if DR-TB is found in the human body then it required more improved treatment and medication (Wang et al., 2020).

Rising TB cases may result in a huge burden on global health as if TB cases are raising by day then it may create a huge pressure on global health agencies (Harding, 2020). In addition to that, in developing countries such as India and China most TB cases have been found.

On a specific note, rising TB cases has a direct realisation with poverty as it has been mentioned that there is a huge rate of poverty in India as in urban areas most of the people live in slums which may help in developing TB cases in India (Reid et al., 2019). According to the World Bank, it may be argued that one in every five TB cases belongs to India and for that reason more than 300,000 people have died due to TB in India (Worldbank.org. 2021).

Additionally, it is one of the biggest responsibilities of the Indian government to reduce the rate of poverty in the country or else it will be extremely difficult to deal with the burden of TB cases (Churchyard et al., 2017). Nowadays, TB treatment cost is increasing significantly as most of the Indian people are not able to do treatment due to lack of money which may be considered one of the biggest reasons for increasing TB in India (Dara et al., 2020).

Alcohol drinking is one of the main reasons for increasing worldwide TB cases as it has been observed that in European countries most of the people use to drink. Moreover, excessive consumption of alcohol may stimulate the chance of TB in the human body which indicates that alcohol drinking is related to the increasing cases of TB in many countries (Conradie et al., 2020).

Furthermore, taking alcohol of more than 40 gm per day increases the risk factors of tuberculosis as excessive alcohol drinking is the main cause for 10% of TB cases and deaths in the world (Imtiaz et al., 2017).

TB is one of the deadliest diseases which directly impact the lung of a human being as excessive alcohol consumption may create a negative impact on the working activities of the human lung (Migliori et al., 2020). It needs to be argued that if a TB patient may not be able to control to reduce alcohol drinking then it will be extremely critical for the health professional to improve the condition of the patients.

If a man takes both cigarettes and alcohol then there will be a huge possibility that the man may be affected from TB disease and in this case it may be resulted as a DR-TB (Sterling et al., 2020).

It needs to be argued that malnutrition is one of the main reasons for the rise of TB cases in developing and underdeveloped countries as it is the duty of the government to implement proper policies to reduce the malnutrition in these countries (Das et al., 2020). Moreover, there is a positive relationship between malnutrition and increasing TB cases in a country. On a specific note, in developing and underdeveloped countries the infant’s face the issues of malnutrition which reduces the immunity  power of new born children and increases the risk factors which are co-related with tuberculosis (Floyd et al., 2018).

Nutrient plays an essential role in improving the immunity power of a human against chronic and severe diseases and for this reason there is a huge importance of micro and macro nutrients such as minerals and vitamins in order to boost the immunity power against TB (Chandrasekaran et al., 2017). Additionally, TB may be transmitted by human touch, respiratory activities as if a human is suffering from malnutrition then the man has a higher chance than a normal person to be infected with TB disease.

In addition to that, a proper nutritious diet needs to be maintained by health professionals which may create a beneficial impact on improving the condition of the TB patients (Holmberg et al., 2019).

Air pollution is the most highlighted cause which is directly related to the rising cases of TB in the world. On the other hand, in developing and developed countries the amount of carbon emission is increasing day by day which decreases the quality of air and results in severe lung disease such as TB (Nemes et al., 2018).

Moreover, air pollution is directly related with the increasing cases of TB disease in the world as excessive urban air pollution may help in developing the infection and risk factors of TB disease in the human body (Ibironke et al., 2019). Additionally, urban air pollution and indoor air pollution increase the amount of micro particles in the air which may help in developing the TB in many countries, however, air pollution needs to be controlled to resolve these issues.

Due to excessive air pollution the amount of Particulate matter 10, So2 is raising significantly which is harmful for human lung and these micro-pollutants play a crucial role in increasing the case of TB in a country. In the developing and developed nations such USA, India and China the numbers of factories are growing day by day and for this reason the quality of air has decreased while if the governments of these countries will not be able to reduce the air pollution then it may be immensely difficult to reduce the spread of TB (Martino et al., 2019).

The world is changing rapidly and in the era of digitalization and globalization the people of the world are always focusing on the way to develop their lifestyle. In addition to that, changing of lifestyle is one of the main reasons for the increasing case of TB in many countries (Lange et al., 2018).

On the contrary in many countries most of the people are used to legal smoking and alcohol drinking. It has been previously stated that smoking and alcohol consumption create an adverse impact in the human body and enhance the risk factors of TB.

More specifically, the current and modern lifestyle is not suitable for the health of humans as it has been observed that TB patients are excessively addicted with smoking and drinking, if the both of the drinking and smoking are not strictly controlled then the effectiveness of treatment and medicines will be decreased which may resulted in spread of TB disease in the whole world.

Additionally, DR-TB is immensely harmful for human life as it has the lowest success rate even though this TB variant is resistant to the effects of antibiotics. WHO also planned for a TB end strategy as proper planning is needed to control the prevention of TB in the future.

Global climate is also changing and due to the air pollution the number of severe decisions such as TB, HIV is rising day by day, however, the governments of several countries are not focused on climate change. In addition to that, Climate change creates a harmful impact on global public health as climate change changes the pattern of TB disease which creates so many difficulties and burdens for low and middle income nations (Maharjan et al., 2021).

Due to the climate changes the temperature and humidity is also changing which is not good for human health as in this changing condition the patterns of TB bacteria are also changing. Along with that, there are several types of TB diseases such as active TB disease, latent TB infection and Miliary TB, however, a TB patient may be identified through specific symptoms (Cohen et al., 2019).

On a specific note, if a human has been suffering from a cough for more than 3 weeks and if the patient feels fatigue, loss of appetite and fever then the patient needs to go for health checkups. Proper treatment and medication is required for TB treatment or else it may be fatal and it may harm the lungs and other organs of the human body (Mayo Clinic. 2021).

On a specific note, it is the duty of the government of a country to reduce the burden of TB in a country as the government may use several policies such as vaccination and improvement of health infrastructure. Moreover, in developing countries such as India, Bangladesh the health infrastructure is not as improve as developed countries and the TB burden of Indian is also increasing, the government of India needs to take a proper action to reduces the burden of TB as the use of Bacille Chalmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine may be immensely impactful to control the spread of TB in the country (Goletti et al., 2018).

According to the WHO report, it has been observed that around 1.5 million people have experienced death due to TB and 484,000 people have suffered with DR-TB in 2018 (Duko et al., 2020). On the TB patients may experience other symptoms such as depression, however, it is the duty of health professionals to provide mental support to TB patients (World Health Organization, 2017).

Furthermore, TB patients may experience severe inflammation which is one of the main reasons for nervous problems and mental health issues while anti TB medication is needed to reduce the depression of TB patients. Depression with TB is a deadly combination as it may increase the chances of developing MDR-TB which finally results as a severe mortality (Duko et al., 2020).

On a broader note, it may be implied that there is a relationship between the rapidly increasing cases of TB disease and the global factors of TB. More specifically, if the government of a country finds a way to control global factors then it will be easy for the country to control the spread of the disease in the overall country (Menardo et al., 2019).

Furthermore, if the severity of TB has been identified in a professional manner then it may help a country to reduce the mortality rate which is related to TB. Governments of the countries need to provide adequate nutritious foods to infants which may be useful to reduce the cases of TB among newborn children (Cole et al., 2020). It is also important to focus on improving the air quality in urban areas or else TB cases will be increased in the future.

Apart from that, the global leaders need to recognize the global factors which influence TB disease or else the challenges of global health agencies will be increased.

It has come to light that in the year of 2010 there have been over 8.8 million cases of TB and 1.5 million death tolls and it has also been mentioned that TB is primarily associated with poverty and malnutrition (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. 2021). On a specific note, there are several globalisation factors that cause TB in people and the health agencies all around the world are facing significant challenges in mitigating the issues to create a world without the existence of TB (Turner et al., 2017).

One of the main reasons for TB is poverty and malnutrition, as mentioned before and it has become a matter of grave concern for health agencies as many developing countries have many people who live below the poverty line. Countries, such as India, Bangladesh and more developing countries have many slum areas where people live in extreme close proximity and also the financial condition of these people are also quite unfortunate.

Therefore, it is extremely challenging for the government officials and health agencies to implement strategies and policies that would be beneficial for eradicating TB completely (Khan et al., 2019).

Other than poverty and malnutrition, the social stigma associated with the disease also causes various challenges in creating a global public health that is able to fight against the disease.

It needs to be mentioned that TB is one such disease that has a lot of stigma attached to it and a TB patient is considered untouchable in many places, which causes the patient to refrain from taking any medical help. According to research, one of the crucial obstacles in achieving the goal of complete eradication of TB around the world is the stigma and superstitions that are attached with the illness (Chakrabartty et al., 2018).

Early detection of TB is one of the main solutions for treating a patient who has contaminated the disease, however, the social stigma prevents patients from getting medical assistance which may even lead to the death of the individual. Therefore, it is imperative to create significant awareness about the disease so that no patient feels reluctant to get the professional help an individual needs to acquire the treatment the individual requires.

Other than that, as a result of globalisation citizens of different countries migrate from their home country to another nation and that may be considered as a reason for health practitioners facing challenges in reducing the spread of TB. Specifically, if a person from a country that is extremely burdened with TB enters another place, it is possible that the individual may carry the germ along and that is a significant reason for the rapid spread of the disease.

On the other hand, it also needs to be mentioned that TB is an extremely contagious disease and the exponential increase of the global population also makes the prevention of TB more challenging. In order to be specific, the population density in many countries is quite extreme and that is also the reason for TB to be transmitted from person to person quite easily.

Research suggests that the occurrence of TB had increased with the concept of urban development and the exponential increase in population density and in 1750 by the time the industrial revolution happened in Europe, it killed over 25% adults (Herchline and Amorosa, 2019).

Another factor that causes TB in people is diabetes and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and it is also a disease that is a matter of great concern for health agencies and health practitioners globally, since it has been challenging to eradicate HIV from society (Ayelign et al., 2019).

HIV is a highly infectious disease and may lead to individuals contracting Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and TB which even pose a great deal of threat to the lives of patients. HIV is mainly transmitted by coming in physical contact with an individual and for having unprotected sex and it has become challenging to make people aware and educate them about the concept.

Another reason for contracting HIV is being exposed to infected blood and in order to avoid that it is extremely imperative to maintain proper hygiene for people. However, people’s lack of concern for safety and hygiene in many places and countries is a main reason for the existence of the disease which further may give birth to TB.

Especially, amongst prison inmates the concept of hygiene is not maintained in a proper manner and it has been reported that in prison the visibility of TB is significantly high. According to WHO, prison inmates in the Eastern European region have a higher risk of being contaminated with TB rather than the rest of the population as a result of greater prevalence of HIV, inefficient practice of infection control and more (Euro.who.int. 2021).

Besides the above-mentioned arguments, another globalisation factor that causes TB in patients is air pollution as TB is a lung disease and due to increased pollution worldwide, people’s lungs are being affected which often lead to contaminating TB and one of the main causes of Covid-19 as well (Sala et al., 2020).

Moreover, as a result of air pollution, individuals are being more exposed to Nitrogen Dioxide (No2) and also Carbon Monoxide (CO) and both these gases make the lungs of people extremely vulnerable and reduce their immunity as well. A study has shown that CO and No2 are two gases that are positively associated with the higher chances and risk of contaminating Pulmonary TB amongst the citizens of Northern California (Liu et al., 2018).

Therefore, it may be asserted that the poor quality of air is significantly correlated to people having higher risk of contaminating TB and it has become difficult to reduce pollution globally.  On a specific note, with the rapid growth of population and urbanization, the amount of vehicles on the road have increased and the amount of carbon these vehicles emit is one of the major barriers in taking effective control measures for TB.

On the other hand, deforestation as a result of urbanization is also a crucial factor that affects the quality of air as cutting down trees increases the amount of Co2 in the air and it negatively impacts people’s lungs. Other than that, smoking and alcohol drinking also causes TB amongst people, as these actions also affect the lungs of individuals and increases the chances of contaminating the disease. It may be stated that the use of alcohol and tobacco is associated with the risk of being infected with TB and may lead to a patient acquiring negative outcomes in the treatment of the disease (Louwagie et al., 2020).

The above discussion has established that TB is an infectious disease and kills many people worldwide every year, therefore, it has become extremely crucial to take the correct measures for controlling the spread of the disease. However, it also needs to be asserted that various health agencies and health practitioners have taken various steps in order to implement effective strategies that would be helpful in mitigating the challenges associated with TB.(7050SOH: Globalisation and Health – MSc Global Healthcare Management)

The first action that may be talked about in reducing TB is the collaboration between the government and the entertainment industry (Imperial et al., 2018). Especially, in a country such as India a cautionary advertisement is shown before the start of a movie or show that warn people against the negative outcome of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking as these actions often cause TB in people. It has also been mentioned that warnings against tobacco may be displayed on the screen in case any product containing tobacco is shown on the screen in a movie or TV programme in India as a static message (The Economic Times. 2021).

On the other hand, on 17th May in the year of 2019 the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Tuberculosis Controllers Association (NTCA) have released an upgraded joint recommendation about various TB related aspects for healthcare professionals (Cdc.gov. 2021). The CDC and NTCA have talked about the time duration during which screening for TB, treatment and testing needs to be conducted in their joint declaration.

This will provide a brief idea to the health care professionals and also the general public and that may make people aware about the necessity of maintaining this frequency in order to prevent TB. Other than that, the CDC has also launched an infection control plan for TB that assures the detection of patients infected with TB and also the treatment of individuals who may have TV or has shown any symptoms (Cdc.gov. 2021).

Other than the CDC, WHO also has taken effective control measures in controlling the spread of TB and eradicating the disease completely from the world to ensure that no life is further compromised owing to TB.

It needs to be mentioned that WHO also promotes several actions that may prevent TB through the process of early screening and significant treatment for the disease (Euro.who.int. 2021). In addition to that WHO also provides universal health care for all countries so that every individual, living in any corner of the world is able to get the proper healthcare one needs regarding TB.

It also needs to be mentioned that the governments of various countries are also attempting to bring changes in order to control TB and have focused on this issue to a great extent in recent years by developing several antibiotics for curing the disease (Tacconelli et al., 2018).

It may be taken as an example that the UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) has collaborated with National Health Service (NHS) of England and have launched an action plan of five years to reduce the cases of TB in England (England, 2021). Similar to the UK, in India also the government has taken severe measures in controlling TB cases in the country, as India happens to be one of the country’s most affected by the disease.

The country has developed a national strategic plan (NSP) in collaboration with various stakeholders, such as the state government, multiple private sectors and various civic organizations to reduce TB cases in India (Tbcindia.gov.in. 2021). In addition to that, the India government in collaboration with various Non government organizations (NGO) has created awareness camps, specifically in the rural areas to ensure that the people living there are well aware of the severity of the disease.

Along with that, the governments of the majority of the countries have declared that the country is trying to utilize more electric vehicles as a mode of transportation in order to reduce air pollution, which is also a cause for TB.

It is important for every country to focus on reducing the carbon emission to keep the quality of air clean and many countries have also agreed that this cause needs to be dealt with utmost importance. Other than that, many countries are attempting to collaborate with various health agencies to create a vaccine for the disease in order to flatten the curve of the disease in multiple nations.

It may be stated that the US has a TB vaccine in use named Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) that is given to infants and children, however, the vaccine does not always protect individuals from TB (Cdc.gov. 2021).

In order to sum up, it may be stated that in order to reduce TB cases globally, it is extremely imperative for various global health agencies to work together to come up with proper guidelines to treat TB. On the contrary, it also needs to be mentioned that the above-mentioned data suggests that governments of various leading countries are focusing more on the issue so that the disease is completely eradicated from the world as well.


Finally, it may be concluded that TB is an extremely infectious and contagious disease and kills millions of people every year and therefore, the matter has become quite a matter of concern and needs to be dealt with extreme efficiency. In addition to that, it needs to be mentioned that there are various globalisation factors that create obstacles in the way of eradicating TB completely to ensure that TB does not exist anymore in the world. Furthermore, in order to achieve the goal of eradicating TB completely and taking effective control measures, various health agencies and practitioners need to collaborate amongst each other for developing the most effective treatment for the disease.








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