7HURM007W HRM Assignment Sample

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Question 1


Communication is the transfer of information among individuals for the understanding of meaning. This report highlights the attributes of Hall’s model of communication along with determining the barriers of effective communication in the Japanese and American subsidiaries of the MNC. The report has also provided recommendations for possible solutions to communication issues.

7HURM007W HRM Assignment

Features of Hall’s model and barriers to communication

Edward Hall had developed the model of intercultural communication based on high and low context cultures. The communication model details the attributes of communication displayed by high context and low context cultures (Hall, et al., 2017). The features of high context culture as include the development of relationship and trust slowly as groups whereas the interaction is mostly e based on nonverbal means like facial expression and gestures. Verbal communication is indirect whereas space is communal in such cultures. Japan has a high context culture and hence relies on group-oriented tasks for performance and shard goals.  In the low context culture, there is a tendency of its development and ending of relationships and individual goals and performance in a decentralized social structure.

The interactions in such culture are mostly verbal and space is compartmentalized. The American culture is that of the high context where people set individual goas and interact mostly verbally. The barriers to effective communication in the Japanese and American subsidies is caused due to the different context of cultures as the Japanese people prefer mostly nonverbal communication and gestures whereas the American staff are habituated with verbal communications (Merolla, et al., 2019). The different cultures and association of the employees across the American and Japanese subsidies have created the communication barriers, as the Japanese employees prefer to work in groups whereas the American employees rely on individual performance. As per Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, the Japanese have comparatively higher power distance than the Americans and hence there is a communication barrier and lack of clarity regarding the hierarchy and chain of command. Wood’s transactional communication model also indicates the sources of barrier in communication between the Japanese and American subsidiaries due to noise and altering reception and decoding as the Japanese take orders from the top hierarchy but do not involve themselves in much high-level decision-makings and meetings resulting in lack of reaction.

Recommendations to address the communication issues

The cultural environment of The United States of America and Japan is needed to be considered for addressing the communication issues between the employees of both countries. The barriers of communication among the employees of the subsidiaries can be reserved by appointing appropriate candidates acting as mediators for eliminating confusion and providing cross-cultural training to the employees. The employees are required to be provided with training for active listening and providing feedback (King, et al., 2016). The problems of communication can be addressed by establishing clarity of language and providing training on language style to the Japanese and American employee’s alike and making toys of emails and written memos as most appropriate channels of communication. The problems related to communication are recommended to be dealt and any kind of relational conflicts are recommended to be resolved immediately.


Halls model has been evaluated to present high and low context culture-based communication as Japan has a high context culture whereas America has a high context culture that has caused communication barrier. The barriers to communication can be eliminated through cross-cultural training.


Hall, B., Covarrubias, P. & Kirschbaum, K., 2017. Among cultures: The challenge of communication. 2nd ed. London: Routledge.

King, J. et al., 2016. Barriers in communication and available resources to facilitate conversation about infertility with girls diagnosed with Turner syndrome. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, 29(2), pp. 185-191.

Merolla, A., Hall, J. & Bernhold, Q., 2019. Perseverative cognition, distracted communication, and well‐being in everyday social interaction. Personal Relationships, 26(3), pp. 507-528.

Question 2: Motivation

The rewarding system within the organisation comprises of financial and non-financial compensation that is being paid to the employees in return for their services rendered towards the work. Keeping a good reward system help the organisation in keeping the employees happy along with loyal towards the organisation that motivates the employees towards performing their task with highest accountability and integrity (Svačina, 2020). The reward management system within different countries is different based on their cultural norms and beliefs that include employees of western countries beliefs in monetary motivation. Whereas, employees of non-western countries beliefs in recognition as rewards. Two respective countries have been chosen to determine the reward system that includes South Korea as a non-western country and the United States as a western country. Evaluating the cultural dimension it has been noticed that South Korean culture believes in hierarchical society whereas, the USA believes in inequalities. The theory of Maslow’s hierarchy explains that psychological needs for both the employees of the USA and South Korea are equal where all the employees seek towards having food and shelter for basic survival. Determining the theory of Hofstede cultural dimension critical information has also been gathered that signifies Korean culture believes in equality, solidarity and consensus (Hofstede-insights, 2020). Whereas, the US masculinity score signifies that the country holds high masculine values. Comparing the cultural system of both US and South Korea contrasting differences has also been identified where South Korea people believe in collectivistic society, the US believes in an individualistic society. The theory of Maslow’s hierarchy explains that esteem needs for both of the countries are contrasting as because recognition and higher position are the reward system that most intrigues the employees of South Korea (Suyono & Mudjanarko, 2017). Whereas, employees of US culture believes in the financial and monitory reward system that increases their motivation to perform better.

Examining the theory of Trompenaars cultural dimension for USA and South Korea important information has been gathered that points out US culture mainly believes in universalism where the main focus is laid towards maintaining rules and regulations. Whereas, South Korean culture believes in particularism where the focus os stressed towards maintaining the relationship to develop a collaborative working culture. The reward system for employees working in universalism is based upon their performance, whereas, in particularism, the reward system is based upon group activity. Therefore, the theory of culture explains about the different nature of business in two distinctive countries. Examining the goal-setting theory of motivation it has been noticed that employees of the USA and South Korea share common interest where they believe that goals need to be clear to measure and unambiguous which needs to be completed within the definite time set (Latham, et al., 2017). The reward system within the theory of goal setting is based upon measuring the commitment of employees belonging from South Korea and the USA in terms of their involvement towards the decision-making process within the organisation. Furthermore, self-efficiency of employees are also being measured during the goal-setting in terms of offering them rewards that motivate them towards performing the common objectives of the organisation.


Hofstede-insights, 2020. South-korea,the-usa. [Online]
Available at: https://www.hofstede-insights.com/country-comparison/south-korea,the-usa/
[Accessed 18 July 2020].

Latham, G., Brcic, J. & Steinhauer, A., 2017. Applied Psychology. Toward an integration of goal setting theory and the automaticity model, 66(1), pp. 25-48.

Suyono, J. & Mudjanarko, S., 2017. Motivation Engineering to Employee by Employees Abraham Maslow Theory. Journal of Education, Teaching and Learning, 2(1), pp. 27-33.

Svačina, P., 2020. Rewarding employee inventions in corporations. European Journal of Innovation Management, 1(1), p. 18.


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