A content analysis of data visualisation in mainstream media outlets 2020 

A content analysis of data visualisation in mainstream media outlets

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Introduction

The implementation of social media platforms helps the individual to be connected with a wide range of people along with getting relevant and important news through it(Perin, et al., 2018).

Data visualization refers to the application of information and factual data which improves the quality of news or article for a clear understanding of the reader(Dur, 2012). The analysis of content posted in leading media outlets is a simplified thorough overview of the factual details for demonstrating the summary of the article.

The content of the media outlets has followed a summative or narrative approach which makes the article lengthy and the main portion of the discussion points are not evaluated correctly(Krum, 2013).

The truthfulness and relevancy of the news are also demonstrated and supported byusing factual details and data visualization. The content analysis of data visualization help to enhance the quality of representing the dataset for accepting any topic in the context of mainstream media outlets(Boyles & Meyer, 2016).

The journalists have inclined their writing pattern into data visualization which assists them to analyze relevant and crucial factors associated with the topic.

1.2 Background of the study

Data visualization has been implemented in the context of information-driven journalism where the charticles, infographics and other instrumental operation are used for managing data.

The traditional journalists have followed the story-telling approach where the own perspective of the journalists have been enforced(Quispel & Maes, 2014). The logical reasoning of any particular topic is demonstrated through using the factual details and the graphical or chart representation of the data make the article attractive to the readers.

According to a recent report, it has been stated that the literacy rate of Ireland is 17.9% which reflects the wider opportunity for the mainstream media outlets to apply the factual details in their media(Ward, et al., 2015).

The Government of Ireland has also allocated sufficient funding for the research and development process which paves the way for hiring skilled data analytics and consultant to demonstrate the qualitative data related to the topic.

The relevant information such as birth rate, death rate, GDP growth, progress in the field of sports or migration is represented very clearly through the application of data visualization.

1.3 Rationale of the study

The research is based on the content analysis of data visualization in mainstream media outlets which provides the benefits of the application of data visualization in the context of leading newspapers of Ireland.

The simplification in understanding any particular content is also achieved through visualisation of data related to any information(Börner, et al., 2016).

In the era of social media, a wide range of news has been spread over digital medium and some of them are not true which is rectified through the published articles of mainstream media outlets.

The study would also provide an overview and in-depth analysis of the benefits of using content analysis by data visualization in the mainstream media.

The summative or descriptive approach of any article in the media does not always readable by the persons who are involved with important jobs(Fink & Anderson, 2015).

The researchalso executesthe analysis of content by data visualization of Irish newspapers which make the media a reliable one for all of the citizens.

1.4 Significance of the study

The study is based on the data visualization in mainstream media outlets of Ireland which is considered as very important in the context of content analysis. Highlighting the factual details also help to identify the true aspect of any news rather focusing on the descriptive writing or personal opinion of the journalist.

The approach for using data visualization in the newspapers is different from that of the digital medium.

The storytelling approach has also controlled through the application of data visualization which increases the quality and proof of publishing any article.

47% of the Irish citizens have employed in the private sector who are generally fond of reading the overview of the mainstream article(Borkin, et al., 2013). So, the use of data visualization provides them assistance to appreciate the content in quick succession at a glance.

The importance of content analysis through data visualization is reflected through the analysis of three leading newspapers of Ireland which has most of the buyers.

1.5 Research aim

The research aims to deliver content analysis for data visualization in mainstream media outlets such as the Irish Times, Irish Independent and Irish Examiner. The benefits of using data visualization are also demonstrated through the study which helps to enhance the quality of the Irish newspapers.

1.6 Research objective

The objective of the research is considered as follows.

  • To assess how digital storytelling is implemented in the three Irish news outlets.
  • To evaluate if the source of data has an impact on the content analysis in the Irish news outlets or not.
  • To evaluate how visualizations are used as per the news sections.

1.7 Research question

The research questions of the study are as follows.

  • How digital storytelling is implemented in the three Irish news outlets.
  • Does the source of data have an impact on the content analysis in the Irish news outlets?
  • How visualizations are used as per the news sections.

1.8 Structure

The research will be structured as follows.

Chapter 1: Introduction – The brief overview, background, and objective of the research are discussed.

Chapter 2: Literature review – The analysis and evaluation of secondary sources related to data visualization for content analysis from Ireland and global context.

Chapter 3: Research methodology – The approach for conducting the research and the process of gathering or evaluating the data are included in the chapter.

Chapter 4: Findings and discussion – The evaluation and interpretation of the gathered data from the source of Irish Times, Irish Independent and Irish Examiner are demonstrated in this section.

Chapter 5: Conclusions and recommendations – The summary of the overall discussion with the alignment of the study objective is described.

1.9 Limitations of the study

The research is based on the effect of content analysis through data visualization which is described through the context of newspapers especially in Ireland.

But the span of data visualization is reflected through the IT sector, statistical data analysis and another field for simplifying the business process. The research is also taken into consideration by analysis of three leading newspapers of Ireland. The global newspapers and the journalism approach are not included which is the limitations of the research.

Chapter 2: Literature review

2.1 Introduction

Digital storytelling has been the current trend which allows the people to tell their story through digital tools(Lambert, 2013). Digital storytelling is often viewed as a captivating way of engaging with readers.

Data visualization deals with the approach of using statistical information related to any subject which improves the understanding ability of the reader. The content analysis is described as the process for evaluation of the main content where the time limit for understanding the topic has mattered a lot.

The GDP of Ireland has been enhanced by 7.8% which reflects that stabile economic structure and the citizens have relied on the mainstream articles to analyze the political aspect(Citizensinformation, 2018).

The literature review chapter describes the overview of the data visualization process and its background along with the application of data visualization. The recent trend and constraints related to content analysis for data visualization are also mentioned in the chapter.

The process of content analysis through data visualization in mainstream media articles of Ireland is demonstrated through analysis of the journal articles and books. This research has briefed about the implementation of digital storytelling in the three Irish news outlets.

It has been identified that three prominent Irish newspaper agencies such as Irish Times, Irish Independent and Irish examiner use the digital storytelling process to create a digital story with the help of full-motion video and sound that assist the news outlets to present their ideas and share their stories.

Content analysis is being used by the three Irish news outlets concerning study a broad range of texts from the transcripts of discussions and interviews whose content is related to magazines or newspapers.

The basic concept of using data visualisation is to convey information with the help of graphical representation more clearly and concisely.

2.2 Implementation of digital storytelling in the three Irish news outlets

According to Lambert, (2013), digital storytelling has proved itself as an opportunity for many media outlets to develop and sustain a deeper relationship with readers. With digital storytelling, media outlets try to present the story in a more meaningful and compelling way to its readers.

Digital storytelling helps the media outlets to present a story which is far visually-rich experience than the traditional ways used by the media outlets to connect with the readers.

The main reason behind outlining the story with the digital medium is to provide more meaning to the story. If the story is implicated well enough through digital storytelling, it creates an affinity for the readers.

Besides, interactive ways provided through digital storytelling offer readers a better understanding of the issue.

The three Irish new outlets have focused upon the development of engaging and media-rich experiences which provide a bigger picture to the readers related to an issue.

With digital storytelling, quality and content have been prioritised by these media outlets to make the reader’s time worthwhile. These media outlets dig out data related to the public interest which are further explained to the general Irish population(Jenkins, et al., 2017).

These media outlets often use digital storytelling to outline the bigger story and charts and graphs are the best ways of putting the comprehensive narrative to the general population.

According to Alexander, (2017) digital storytelling is relatively described as the new practice where people use digital tools to tell their stories. The digital form of stories is often narrated emotionally and compellingly through engaging formats that are interactive to grab the attention of the readers.

The term digital storytelling also covers the range of digital narratives such as interactive stories, web-based stories, and hypertexts which are used for promotions and advertisement by non-profits enterprise and commercials.

Moreover, the digital storytelling process is also known as the process which diverse people share in terms of resonating their life stories and creative imagination with others(Robin, 2015).

The newer form of storytelling process through digital platform allows the people to share their stories over YouTube, Internet, and Podcasts to promote their contents.

Due to the advent of new media technologies, individuals have the opportunity of approaching the storytelling process through a unique perspective.

The most important characteristic of the digital storytelling process is that it no longer conforms to the traditional conventions of storytelling as because it is capable of combining sound, text, moving and still imagery which enhances the experiences for both the author and the audiences in terms of allowing them for greater interactivity.

The three media outlet uses digital storytelling as a community development strategy, the newspaper outlet uses digital storytelling to share community experiences and concerns.

It is through the judicious storytelling that community media can help in turning a community’s shared experiences and concern into a big picture. As stated by Robin, (2016) various data and statistical analysis are being considered in the storytelling process with the help of digital storytelling that helps in community development and providing concrete information to the public

. The newspaper outlet provides training to the employees working within the organisation to design community storytelling events that aim towards building relationships with community stakeholders.

Critical issues related to the society are also being depicted through the digital storytelling process which helps in addressing the local issues and foster growth within the society(Sarıca & Usluel, 2016).

These media outlets often use data and graphs as part of the digital storytelling process in terms of putting up a bigger story to the general population. The digital storytelling process is being used by the three Irish newspaper as a relatable perspective and communicate that elicits emotions from the audiences.

Hence it becomes important for the newspaper outlets to reach out to the hearts of the others. According to Robin & McNeil, (2019) the newspaper agencies also believe that the digital storytelling process also leads to strengthening a relationship that inculcates better results.

The media contents that are provided by the three newspaper outlet such as the Irish Times, Irish Independent and Irish examiner provides detail and brief information to the readers which help in building trust among them.

The digital storytelling platform of these newspaper outlets provides information that is easier to find and enjoy a range of benefits that are not accessible or found out anywhere else(Alismail, 2015).

Example- The Irish times content studio has been developing content through the digital storytelling process to drive brand stories, engage audiences with commercial content that aims towards enhancing the relationship with their commercial partners.

The three newspaper outlet uses various sources of graphical representation in their digital storytelling process which includes area chart. The area chart is used as a graphical representation that is used as quantitative data.

Generally, an area chart is used to compare two or more quantities in respect of determining results.

Furthermore, it has also been noticed that the digital storytelling process is being used by the newspaper outlets based on the combination of arts, texts, graphics and audios through which narrations are being delivered easily and memorably concerning foster collaboration, communication and creativity skills.

According to Anderson & Macleroy, (2016) the newspaper media agencies such as Irish Times, Irish Independent and Irish experts use different forms of digital storytelling process which includes statistical analysis concerning data collection to maintain quality at the end of the process.

The focus of a newspaper outlet is to provide the digital narrative that should be delivered effectively and infused with multimedia elements namely as generated videos with images, sounds and music, and animations(Dunford & Jenkins, 2017).

The digital storytelling process also includes personal narrative, events, and stories that are used by the newspaper outlets to create digital storytelling that attracts the attention of the readers.

2.3 Highlighting if the source of data has an impact on the content analysis in theIrish news outlets or not

As digital storytelling presents captivating data related to the subject of discussion, it outweighs the general content and puts forward solid facts in front of the readers.

With the presentation of graphs and charts, these media outlets facilitate quality and content-driven articles to the readers. As stated by Wu, et al., (2016), the facts provided through graphs and charts make the readers have a stronger grip on the complex subject matter.

The source of the data i.e. authentic and reliable plays a major role in adding volume to the content of the article and attracting readers towards the news outlets(Gray, et al., 2012).

If the news article displays unreliable and fake facts then not only it would have an impact on the reputation and brand of the media outlet but also would force the readers away.

These three media outlets use a different source of data and these can be either open data or obtained data.

Open data can be obtained easily from different media outlets, government agencies, enterprises and even own data compiled by these media outlets. Cukier & Mayer-Schoenberger, (2013) stated that these open-source of data are often free and the media outlets do not have to pay for it.

On the other hand, obtained data can be accessed from the same sources as stated for open data but it generally requires a fee to be paid.

The data are normally extracted from different sources by these Irish media outlets such as government websites and entities, other media outlets such as Bloomberg and news channel, public opinion etc. Thus the source of the data is quite reliable and authentic, making the content of these more appealing to the readers.

According to Neuendorf, (2016), the sources of data have a significant impact on the content analysis in the Irish news outlets because the data that are being used such as line chart, Venn diagram, and pie chart are used to gather information in terms of interpreting results.

The sources of data that are being used to extract information provide concrete results that help the readers in reading quality-driven content.

It has been noted out that the facts and information that are being provided by the graphs, charts, and diagrams enhance the knowledge of the readers alongside makes them eligible to have a stronger grip on the complex subject matter(Krippendorff, 2018).

The authenticity and reliability of sources of data impacts on the content analysis such as its help in providing the audiences with personalised information which they can use for their purpose such as improving their knowledge and keeping them engaged.

The sources of data have a significant impact on the content analysis in Irish news outlets such as primary sources of information are being gathered to maintain the authenticity of the information. This type of information is mainly provided by those people who have witnessed a phenomenon and have concrete evidence to support their statement.

As stated by (Riff, et al., 2019)News outlets use primary sources of information concerning maintain authenticity and reliability.

Furthermore, it has also been noticed that news outlets also use written sources which they acquire from various published articles and documentary.

The sources of information make it easier for the news outlet to research the content and analyze the information which is useful and justified for the readers.

As stated by Drisko & Maschi, (2015) it has also been identified that Irish news outlets often use secondary sources of information which they procure from the sources who pass on the news to the journalist.

The secondary sources of information are not reliable but this form of information is being carried out to determine results. Evaluating the sources of data it has also been identified that during the time of the digital storytelling process the news outlet uses a different form of data sources such as line charts(Grosse, et al., 2017).

Line charts are typically depicted as the chart that displays information as a series of data points that are called markers which are connected by straight line segments.

The Irish news outs use a line chart to depict important events that have taken place in major time. Moreover, as part of data sources in the content analysis, it has also been identified that news outlets use sources of information containing Venn diagram and pie chart as because it provides a visual representation of the facts and figures which the readers use to understand the importance of the events.

Moreover, digging deep in sources of data collection it has been observed that Irish newspaper outlets mainly two types of data sources such as open data or obtained data. According to Wang & Ji, (2015), the form of open data comprises of different media outlets, enterprises and from different government agencies.

The main reason for Irish newspaper outlets to use open data sources as because the information is free to access from these data sources, as well as the information, are reliable and dependent. Whereas, obtained data can also be extracted from the same sources but it requires fees and permission to use those data for content analysis.

The different forms of data sources are being used by media outlets during the time of designing and developing the news(Shema, et al., 2015). With the help of the different forms of graphical representation, audios, and videos the news agencies garnish the user-friendly content and are used to enhance the knowledge of the readers.

The sources of open data comprising of television, radio and government websites provide the most authentic and reliable sources of information which help in maintaining the authenticity of the information and give a detailed and brief overview of information to the audiences or readers.

Whereas, on the other hand, obtained data in form of handouts and notes are less formal but it too provides a significant amount of information to the readers so that they can avail the best available information and use it for their purposes(Marine-Roig & Clavé, 2016). Therefore, examining the sources of data it can be stated that it does play a significant part in the content analysis in Irish news outlets.

2.4 Evaluation of how data visualizations are used as per the news sections.

According to Wolfe, (2015), data visualization is defined as the approach of implementing statistical information to judge any particular argument more deeply which cannot be countered further.

Content analysis has also become a crucial factor for the readers and their mindset of handling the mainstream media article. In a general sense, the application of data visualization clears or precise the content for a clear understanding of any content or subject(Kirk, 2012).

For example, The Guardianhad used the industry-specific information through using data visualization which helps to enhance their readers and be the global brand of serving accurate and reliable data(Theguardian, 2018).

The purpose of the data visualizationis to connect the information with readers effectively and clearly through the application of chart and graphical mediums.

According to Boyles & Meyer, (2016), the application of data visualization is reflected in the education sector by Mendeleev which is later approached by the journalists. The bar chart, doughnut chart, column chart and pie chart were started using from 1856 to demonstrate concise and brief information.

On the other hand, Perin, et al., (2018) argued that analysis of any particular content has become simplified and time-efficient for the readers which provide them comfort. Use of different colors in different regions of a map is considered as an example of data visualization.

On the other hand, showcasing the scorecard of previous matches through data visualization provide accurate and on-point information which is required for the reader.

According to Börner, et al., (2016) the concept of implementing data visualization has become frequent for the readers which also demonstrates the authenticity of the news.

As most of the individual is connected with social media platforms, many information can be accessed from the global range. Some of the information is not authentic and genuine which is to be rectified by the mainstream media outlets through data visualization(Wood, et al., 2014).

On the other hand, Perin, et al., (2018) argued that the process of content analysis has become simplified to the readers and the reach of the article also help to gain popularity by the journalists. Thus the quality of the newspapers has been enhanced through the application of data visualisation in different sectors of newspapers.

According to Ward, et al., (2015), the implementation of data visualization in newspapers help to improve its quality and make attractive to the readers.

The main content and the perspective of the content is justified with the headline of the topic by application of data visualization process(Boyles & Meyer, 2016).

The mind of the human being can recall or analyze the graphical or chart representation of data very quickly which is considered as the main concern of the mainstream news articles(Borkin, et al., 2013).

On the other hand, mainstream media articles also have the responsibility to identify the statistical information for justifying the article which is to be shared for removing the conflict related to any topic.

According to Simon, (2014), the approach of journalism has been changed through improving the literacy rate and the understanding capability of the citizens.

Highlighting the factual details also help to identify the true aspect of any news rather focusing on the descriptive writing or personal opinion of the journalist.

The approach for using data visualization in the newspapers is different from that of the digital medium(Ward, et al., 2015).

On the other hand, the representation of the policy and procures are also can be evaluated systematically for meeting the dimension of the reader. The quality of journalism and the representation of data has become simplified through the approach.

The Government of the countries has focused on the education process and the development of the education field also assist in improving the quality of journalism and writing of article(DeWitt, 2015).

For example, Irish Times applies a wide range of graphs and charts in their newspapers as they have extracted the factual details and statistical information from the authentic sources for adding value to the readers(Irishtimes, 2018).

Data visualisation for the Irish media outlets is done through area cartogram, pictogram, line chart, Venn diagram, Choropleth map,Proportional symbol map etc. On the other hand, the data visualization of complex pattern restricts the process of clear understanding which is sometimes problematic for the readers(Fink & Anderson, 2015).

The Government of Ireland has also allocated sufficient funding for the research and development process which paves the way for hiring skilled data analytics and consultant to demonstrate the qualitative data related to the topic.

According to Mital, et al., (2016) data visualisation is used in the news sections because it provides a revealing intricate structure in data that cannot be observed in any other way.

The process of data visualisation includes pure textual representations of data that are used in the spreadsheets to provide a better visible picture. The news media uses data visualisation as because it helps them to represent the data statistically which helps the audiences or readers to compare and contrast the data for accessing better information band results(Wesley, 2019).

Moreover, it has also been identified that news media uses data visualisation to provide insight to the information which they want to convey to their audiences. Besides, it has also been noticed that the process of data visualisation comprises of steps which the news outlets have to follow such as visualise, analyse and interpret, document insights and transform dataset.

2.5 Summary

This chapter focuses on the data visualisation, digital storytelling and source of the data for content analysis for three Irish media outlets. Digital storytelling helps the media outlets to present content in a more comprehensively and appealingly to its readers.

Data visualisation plays a significant role to make the data more presentable and easy to understand for the readers. Source of the data is highly important as it facilitates these Irish media outlets to present quality and reliable content.

Analysing the literature review section it has been identified that digital storytelling in Irish news outlets are being used to provide information to the audiences so that they can enjoy better content.

The digital storytelling process uses a different form such as videos, audios, and graphs which are used to provide more generalised content for the audiences. A different form of data sources are being used such as open data and closed data by the news outlets which they access to extract reliable data from government website and enterprise.

Both the sources of data provide reliable information to the audiences and news outlets to increase their brand equity.

Chapter 3. Research methodology

3.1 Introduction

Research methodology in the research study plays a crucial and vital part because its main assistance to the researcher is to evaluate the topic in respect of determining results which helps the observer in performing the study ina conclusive and systematic manner(Clarke, et al., 2013).

The topic of the research is based upon delivering content analysis for data visualization in mainstream media outlets such as the Irish Times, Irish Independent and Irish Examiner.

The news outlet has adopted the digital storytelling process with the help of video, audios and statistical representation which helps in laying down concrete and subjective results.

The chapter of research methodology comprises of different research methods such as research philosophy, research approach.

Data collection, research design and data analysis section which becomes essential in respect of determining results. Moreover, in the research methodology section, it also comprises of sampling techniques that are used in the analysis and collection of data.

The first and foremost section of the chapter details the purpose of the research, where the objectives have been laid down.

  • To assess how digital storytelling is implemented in the three Irish news outlets.
  • To evaluate if the source of data has an impact on the content analysis in theIrish news outlets or not.
  • To evaluate how visualizations are used as per the news sections.

During the initial stage of the research methodology, it aims towards meeting the objectives of the research, during this chapter appropriate research methods have been taken into consideration with the help of proper justification which has been mentioned in this chapter.

The research study has been developed to achieve the determined objectives regarding performing the study effectively. During performing the study the researcher might face serious issues and challenges that might create hindrance in the path of completing this research effectively.

Hence, the issue of accessibility issues will also be briefly explained along with ethical consideration which has been laid down during conducting this research.

3.2 Research purpose

During the introductory stage of the research study, it becomes essential for the researcher to evaluate the main purpose of performing the research.

For the observer, it becomes necessary to develop the research purpose during the initial phase of the study to meet the objectives of the study(Clarke, et al., 2013).

Additionally, it also becomes essential for the researcher to determine the purpose of the research because it allows the observer to present the research in enhanced quality. Deriving the concept of research onion it describes the stages through which the purpose of the research is being carried out.

The process of the research approach has detailed about important aspects along with identifying a suitable approach for progressing into the study.

A content analysis of data visualisation in mainstream media outlets 2020 

Figure 1: Research onion

 Source: (Saunders, 2011)

Justification

The overall study of the research is based upon delivering content analysis for data visualization in mainstream media outlets such as the Irish Times, Irish Independent and Irish Examiner.

It has become easier for news outlets to provide customised and audience-centric information with the help of the digital storytelling process.

The digital storytelling process also enables the news out to undertake visual graphics and audios in terms of creating and designing content that helps the audiences in availing information which improves their knowledge.

With the application of the digital storytelling process, it also provides positive growth for the three Irish news outlets through which they can increase their brand equity and achieve better results.

The research is performed through gathering secondary information which helps the researcher to follow the suitable design, approach, and philosophy in terms of performing the study.

3.3 Research approach

In research methodology section research approach also plays a vital part because it helps the researcher in establishing a relationship between the two distinctive variables.

Additionally, it has also been noticed that with the help of the research approach the observer tries to outline the methods that would be used to collect data for the research purpose(Mackey & Gass, 2015).

Primarily there are three types of research approaches such as inductive, deductive and abductive research approach. Moreover, the inductive research approach it also helps the observer in terms of accumulating, extracting and interpreting data for the future purpose.

The inductive research has focused on tests and observations in terms of deriving theory related to the topic.

Justification

The research is based upon delivering content analysis for data visualization in mainstream media outlets such as the Irish Times, Irish Independent and Irish Examiner.

The observer has taken up the inductive research approach in this study because it helps in establishing the relationship between the two variables such as content analysis for data visualisation and mainstream media outlets such as the Irish Times, Irish Independent and Irish Examiner.

With the help of inductive data analysis, it has also been identified that it helps in identifying the sources of data which becomes important for designing audience related content.

Moreover, with the help of inductive research approach, it has also become easier for the researcher to provide a new direction to the study. Henceforth, the inductive research approach has been helpful in terms of completing the study efficiently and effectively.

3.4 Research philosophy

The researcher in the study has also undertaken research philosophy, where the researcher declares the belief in regards to data collection procedure for the research.

The process of research philosophy also assists them in selecting the sources of information based on the requirements of the study. In the research methodology section, there are four types of research philosophy such as interpretivism, pragmatism, Positivism, and realism(Mojtahed, et al., 2014).

The positivism philosophy in the research method focuses on the derivation of hypothesis or accomplishing the research goal with the analysis of factual details.

On the other hand, interpretivism research philosophy focuses on the derivation of the hypothesis which helps the researcher in accomplishing the goal of the research.

Justification

The researcher in this research has considered positivism philosophy because it helps the observer in collecting data based on the facts which allow the researcher to use both quantitative and qualitative research for the data collection methods which help the researcher in conducting the study successfully.

Positivism philosophy also helps the observer in keeping the human interference out of the researcher which benefits the researcher inconclusively performing the study.

The implementation of the digital storytelling process has also helped the observer in using different data forms such as pie charts, line graphs and Venn diagrams which are used to design visual content that attracts the attention of the audiences.

3.5 Research design

Research design in the research methodology section also plays a significant and vital part of the research study because it helps in highlighting the key variables of the study methods and procedures.

The design of the research helps to demonstrate the aspects of the study topic which makes it easier for the observer in a critical manner to determine results(Flick, 2015).

The research design in the research methods is classified as exploratory design, descriptive design, and exploratory design. The observer in respect of performing the study, the researcher has undertaken exploratory research design into consideration.

Exploratory research design in the research method helps in finding out alternative routes to gain meaningful insight into the study. All the aspect of the research has been explored and detailed during the research process.

Justification

The research study is based upondelivering content analysis for data visualization in mainstream media outlets such as the Irish Times, Irish Independent and Irish Examiner.

The key variables such as delivering content analysis and data visualisation in mainstream media outlets such as Irish Times, Irish Independent and Irish Examiner.

The availability of data sources such as graphs, charts, and statistical information makes it easier for the researcher to develop and design content that is user-friendly and reliable for usage for the audiences.

Therefore, exploratory research design helps the observing specific and required direction for the study to be successful.

3.6 Research strategy

The research strategy is one of the essential parts of the research methodology. In the chapter of the research methodology, the research strategy is described as the activity that needs to be undertaken in terms of completing the research work within a given time frame(Doherty & Dickmann, 2012).

It becomes essential for the researcher to accumulate all the required resources in terms of constructing an appropriate research strategy. During the research strategy, it involves the selection of the research approach, philosophy, and design.

Based on the selection of the above research methods, an appropriate strategy for data collection and sampling has been carved out.

Justification

The following research study is based upondelivering content analysis for data visualization in mainstream media outlets such as the Irish Times, Irish Independent and Irish Examiner.

A proper set of strategies has been adapted in terms of completing this study effectively and efficiently. For the progress of the study, the observer has taken quantitative secondary data analysis.

A proper analysis of the section has been based upon evaluating the data from the secondary data sources to complete the research successfully.

3.7 Data collection method

The process of data collection method for any research is based upon research strategy and purpose where the stages of the research have been laid down. For conducting particular research primary and secondary research are being considered.

The researcher in this study has considered quantitative secondary data analysis. Various government websites, enterprise and sources of news articles were being considered for conducting this research(Kumar, 2019).

Graphs, charts and statistical values were also been considered for extracting information and using them to interpret results for the research study.

Chapter 4. Data Analysis and findings

Research question 1: To assess how digital storytelling is implemented in the three Irish news outlets

Digital storytelling is termed as the short form of digital media production that allows people to share aspects of their stories.

The media outlet uses a different form of the digital equivalent of film techniques which includes a full-motion video with sound. Digital storytelling is also described as the new practices which the people with the help of digital tools to tell their story. The digital form of the story often compels emotional engaging formats and can be interactive.

The advantage of digital storytelling is that it helps the people in sharing the stories and creative imaginings with each other. The new form of digital storytelling uses new technologies that individuals use to share their stories over the Internet, Vimeo, YouTube, and podcasts. Media houses use different forms of digital storytelling such as text, video, audio, text and social media elements to design content based on the specific needs of the customers.

Media outlets use the digital storytelling process because it helps the media outlets to present a better understanding of the issues and provide better information to the customers.

The three media houses present in Ireland also use the digital storytelling process because it helps in developing and designing media-rich content that provides a bigger picture to the reader related to issues.

Moreover, with the help of the digital storytelling process, the media outlet focuses on quality and content that has been prioritized by the media outlets concerning grabbing the attention of the customers towards the media outlets. Moreover, the media houses also use a different form of data, graphs, and charts which are related to the public interest which mainly comprising of the Irish population.

It has been noted that the Irish Times uses the digital storytelling process of graphs and charts in the form of the digital narrative to provide better knowledge and access to different sources of information.

Similarly, it has also been identified that media outlets also use the digital storytelling process in form of web-stories and hypertexts which the news agencies use to promote their digital content among the customers.

The form of digital storytelling also enables the people to share their stories, creative imagination and stories through a digital platform such as YouTube and Podcast which helps them to share their individual experiences.

One of the most compelling forms of the digital form of storytelling process is that it now does not uses traditional conventions rather it uses sounds, texts, and characters which allow the audiences to resonate with the better imaginary of the context and increasing interactivity with the source of information.

Moreover, it has also been identified that the three Irish news outlet uses the digital storytelling process as because it helps them in depicting the issues that prevailing within the community.

Through the help of the digital storytelling process, the news outlet can take suggestive steps towards identifying the issues of the community and take steps that help in resolving the issues.

Various data and statistical tools are being used by the news outlet to design the content through graphical representation that helps them in initiating the common issues of community and try resolving them.

Moreover, evaluating the importance of digital storytelling process in the three Irish newspaper it has been seen that they use graphs, charts and line graphs to compare the performance based on previous and past year so that better and uninformed decision can be taken.

With the help of the digital storytelling process, the media outlet process uses a different form of techniques such as imagery, videos, and audios so that better information and content can be developed and design so that better work activity can be performed.

Crucial information has been gathered concerning the digital storytelling process where it has been identified that the Irish newspaper outlet such as Irish Times, Irish Independent and Irish Examiner provides training to the employees which enable the news outlet to improve the skill sets of the employees.

The training that is provided to the employees helps them in developing and designing content that helps in building a relationship with the audiences and stakeholders within the enterprise.

On the contradictory, it has also been noticed that the Irish newspaper uses a digital form of storytelling process concerning address the crucial issues that arise within the local community and society.

Therefore, the media houses different forms of data and graphs as part of the digital storytelling process in terms of resolving the bigger story of the general population. Based on the shreds of evidence gathered from the analysis it has been noticed that it helps in strengthening the relationship that aims towards building better results and completing the activity successfully.

The usage of different digital storytelling in the newspaper outlet is also useful because it helps in providing detail and brief information that aims towards building a better relationship with the audiences.

It has been noticed that the Irish Times uses the digital form of the storytelling process to promote the content of the news agencies with the help of commercial content that aims towards providing better information to the audiences.

Evaluating the research question of how digital storytelling has impacted the three Irish newspaper it has been identified that they use graphical representation which they use with the help of graphs and charts so that better information can be depicted and results can be predicted.

Chart areas are being used in the digital storytelling process because the more the content is being designed it helps the people in accessing the information uniformly and using it for their purposes.

The aim of the Irish newspaper outlet to use digital storytelling is to develop quality content that is infused with the multimedia elements that generate images, sound, and music that helps them in providing a better and uninformed decision.

The digital form of storytelling process also comprises of events, narrative and stories that the newspaper agencies of Ireland which they use to create and build content that attracts the attention of the readers and the audiences.

Therefore, the use of digital storytelling in the three Irish newspaper outlets helps in providing information that is uniformed and easier to access.

Research question 2: To evaluate if the source of data has an impact on the content analysis in the Irish news outlets or not

The sources of data do have a significant impact on the content analysis in the Irish news outlet because the data provides facts and concrete shreds of evidence that helps in providing quality driven content.

There are primarily two types of data sources such as open and obtained data sources. The open sources of data are government websites and information from internet sources which helps in extracting information that increases the chances of evaluating better results.

The sources of information that are gathered from the government website and news articles resonate about the reliability and authenticity of the facts which supports the statement that its impacts on the content analysis.

Moreover, it has also been noticed that the usage of pie charts, Venn diagram, and line charts are used to extract information that drives quality-driven content that helps in resolving the complex subject matter.

Besides, it has also been identified that the authenticity and reliability of the sources of data impact the content analysis such as it provides a great amount of personalized information which not only helps the audiences in improving their knowledge but also it helps them in keeping them engaged

. Evaluating the sources of data and its impact on the content analysis it has been identified that the sources of information make it easier to analyse and evaluate the content that is justified for the readers.

The secondary sources of information that are used in terms of accumulating information and using it for content analysis in the Irish newspaper outlet it has been seen that it helps in depicting important events that need to be carried out to determine results.

A content analysis of data visualisation in mainstream media outlets 2020 

Figure 2: Data access used by these 3 Irish newspaper

Source: Author

Evaluating the graph which is based upon accessing data that are used by the 3 Irish newspaper are based upon vote cast by them. The three Irish newspapers voted more than 180% where they stated that they access open data that are available publicly on the web.

The open data sources that are available for the three Irish newspaper areas a government website, news agencies, and articles which are used to maintain authenticity and reliability towards the information.

Whereas, the second major source of data that are accessed by the three Irish newspaper is original data collected by authors where it has been noticed that almost 22% of the three Irish newspaper uses the data sources to develop and design user-friendly content.

The three major Irish newspaper outlet prominently uses the open data sources as because those type of information are easier to access and can be used to determine results that will help in completing the study.

Whereas; only 8% of data obtained by contacting the data that are not publically obtained. The three Irish newspaper outlets state that they do not prefer to use this type of data because this type of data is not reliable and dependent hence extracting the information becomes harder.

Whereas. The three Irish newspaper has opted to use open data sources as because all the data that has been gathered from there can be measured and quantifiable as a result of which the results can be generalized.

The data and graphs that are used to extract information are being used to extract and determine results as a result of which it becomes easier for the newspaper outlet to perform their assigned task with higher authority and integrity.

The sources of data have a significant impact on the content analysis because the sources provide benefits to the newspaper through which they can design better content that is dedicated to audiences.

Moreover, it evaluating the impact of data sources on the content analysis is that the three Irish newspaper outlet uses the digital storytelling process in terms of driving brand stories, engaging audiences and increasing content that aims towards building and strengthening the relationship with the audiences and commercial partners.

A content analysis of data visualisation in mainstream media outlets 2020 

Figure 3: Types of the data provider to these 3 Irish newspaper

Source: Author

Evaluating the data that is based upon the types of the data provider to these 3 Irish newspaper, it has been identified that the three Irish newspaper uses media outlet for more than 167%.

The usefulness of the media outlet is that all the information that is gathered from the news agencies is reliable and dependent which are used to develop and design media content to attract the audiences towards the media outlet.

Furthermore, evaluating the graph it has also been identified that 17% of own data are being used by the three Irish newspaper outlet. Henceforth. Evaluating the graph it has been identified that median outlet sources of information are being taken into consideration because it helps in developing and designing the content with the help of the digital storytelling process as a result of which the audiences get to enjoy more refined and quality enabled content.

The three media outlets such as the Irish Times, Irish Independent and Irish Examiner uses the process of digital storytelling process because it helps in creating brand stories. Engaging audiences and creating content that aims towards building the relationship and earn the trust of the audiences towards the media houses.

Other types of sources of data were also present such as enterprise, government, NGO, non-university and other but accessing information from all this sources are not reliable and dependable hence the three media outlets have taken up the option of using the two major sources such as media outlet and own data for the purpose of engaging customers and developing relationship with them.

Research question 3:  To evaluate how visualizations are used as per the news sections

The principles of data visualization have been demonstrated through evaluating three newspapers of Ireland for describing whether the mainstream media are applying visualization process effectively or not.

The diversified range of visualization techniques helps to support the argument and deliver comfort to the reader for demonstrating any particular argument. From the evaluation of three mainstream media newspapers, it has been analyzed that the submission of different visualization techniques is applied according to the type of news or article posted by hem.

Different category of visualisation process are characterised as area cartogram, area chart, bar chart, back-to-back bar chart, bubble chart, clustered bar chart, choropleth map, flow map, dot plot, line chart, mixed approaches, pie chart, pictogram, range chart, scatter plot chart, Venn diagram, word cloud, sunburst and proportional symbol map which are implemented according to the type of the content which is to be represented.

A content analysis of data visualisation in mainstream media outlets 2020 

From the graphical representation, it has been stated that the newspapers have applied all the statistical techniques for supporting the argument of any topic with the help of applying factual details.

The comparison between two or more parameters related to any particular field is clearly demonstrated through the line chart as the factors are represented through line format by demonstrating the standard one. It also helps to demonstrate the deviation with the standard one.

Cartogram is defined as the approach of mapping where the areal extent is to be aligned with the measured proportion for demonstrating the topic systematically.

The application of cartogram is reflected from the variable of the thematic mapping like population, GNP and travel time with respect to the distance or land.

The geographical emphasis on applying different factors related to the important news is better described through following the technique which also makes the content attractive for the readers.

All of the three newspapers have applied all the statistical techniques but the area cartogram, area chart, line chart, pie chart, and pictogram.

The application of area charts also assists the reporters in demonstrating the main opinion of the content in a clear manner as the reader is able to understand the important aspects related to topic.

Area charts are reflected in short span and limited space which indicates that the content of the news is described through brief and concise manner.

The line chart also reflects the difference between two or more parameters with standard with the help of straight-line representation of the content of the news.

Pictograms are considered as the application of pictures and symbols for understanding any particular content which makes the content nice-looking for the readers.

The pie chart represents the data in the form of circle where the proportion or weight of each component is measured for picturing the data.

All of the newspapers have focused on the application of pictogram for gaining the concern of the readers of all age and assist them to understand main content related to the topic.

A content analysis of data visualisation in mainstream media outlets 2020 

The count of visualization type is also executed for demonstrating the application of visualization techniques reflected in the mainstream media newspapers.

The counting of applying data visualization techniques help to demonstrate the adaptability with newspaper report writing and the statistical approaches.

By analysis of Irish Examiner, it has been evaluated that 79 graphs, charts, and other data visualization approaches are taken for making the newspaper attractive to the customers.

The application of the comparison of any authentic information and yearly comparison with any factors are supported by applying the principles of data visualization.

Due to the emergence of using various social media platforms, the authentic and genuine news is progressed by the mainstream media article Irish Examiner and the application of statistical data.

From the comparison of these three newspapers, it has been summarised that the Irish Times has utilized the principles of statistical data or approaches of visualization for making the quality of news higher.

The summative writing with applying factual details make the content authentic and reliable for the readers and the ethical consideration by the media articles are also followed for guiding the citizens towards the truth news.

Any political or economic decision along with different state-level news will be of rich in quality if the statistical information is applied for the readers.

The rate of using the visualization of Irish Independent has been considered as lower compared to the other two newspapers. The newspaper has also utilized the approach of applying statistical data for supporting the arguments on sports and politics which are very less in number.

The reporters have focused on the expression of the opinion which is relevant to the topic rather focusing on the statistical data or other pictures due to the genuineness of news.

However, it has also been stated that the number of reader is also very much less compared to other two mainstream media outlets.

A content analysis of data visualisation in mainstream media outlets 2020 

Three newspapers are evaluated and the field of using visualization technique are also examined for reflecting its effectiveness in supporting the content of the news.

The data visualization in three leading Irish newspapers is demonstrated in the field of finance, puzzles, sports, and other political or economic perspective. The application of statistical data is mostly found in the sports category as the scoreline or different analysis of player performance are represented by using the visualization process.

All of the three newspapers have also introduced the puzzles which are applied for the young citizens to solve it and make the newspaper or media article attractive to the reader.

The financial data or calculation of any important aspect or political decision are also evaluated by the newspapers by using this technique for supporting the argument.

The amount paid to the charities or the social concerns is also prioritized through using the system which makes the newspapers leading and mainstream one.

Thus, from the above analysis, it has been summarised that all of the three newspapers have utilized the approaches of data visualization to support the argument and simplify the reading process for the readers.

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