An exploration of boutique hotels in the UK: the role of interior design and art in boutique hotels
The key purpose of this study is to evaluate the significance of interior design and art as a major characteristic of boutique hotel in the UK. In this study, a survey is conducted over 180 guests in boutique hotel industry in the United Kingdom to know their views and opinions regarding the influence of interior design and art on their buying perception. From this study, it is identified that interior design and art has been a significant part of the boutique hotel sector in the United Kingdom. The interior design and art forms orientation along with personalized services and high service quality help them to differentiate their services and attract the guests. At the same time, it is also found from this research that customers are being inclined towards art, history, and culture and designs that contributing in the growth of this sector in the UK. It can be recommended that the boutique hotel firms need to focus on local cultural based interior designing to influence the buying behavior of the customers significantly.
Chapter 1: Introduction
In this competitive business environment, it is important for the firms to add value to the customers to attract and retain them for longer period. Regarding this, interior design is a significant part of the delivery of hospitality service that reflects the style of the decorations used within the premise. It allows the prospective guests to develop a view about the organization which provides the hospitality services. The statement “the first impression is the last” can be stated appropriate within the context of the hotels as the guests decide the value proposition of the hotels with the entrance (Kandampully et al. 2011). After arrival, guests explore the surroundings including setups and interior decorations and decorations finishing and decide whether the firm is going to meet their requirements and provide satisfaction.
In previous time, guests wanted the room of hotels to be like home but now they want different in area of decoration. In order to fulfill this requirement, boutique hotels decorate their premise and rooms based on particular interior designing and arts to influence the buying behavior of the guests and improve their satisfaction level. The consideration of new architectural interior designs and arts is significant for the boutique firms to give the rooms a warm, friendly and luxurious look (Orth et al. 2012). It improves the satisfaction level of the customers and encourages them to repurchase the services that help to maximize the revenues and profits in the market. Therefore, it is mandatory for the boutique hotels to pay attention to interior design and arts because the concepts of hotel designing and demand for hotels are interrelated to each other. Interior design is becoming a characteristic of boutique firms as it is difficult for them to have the customer patronization and develop competitiveness without its consideration (Rogerson, 2010). In relation to this problem, this research analyzed the role of interior design and art in boutique hotels in increasing satisfaction of guests and demand of the boutique hotels in the UK.
The main aim of this research is to determine the role of interior design and art as a major characteristic of boutique hotel in the UK. In order to fulfill this research aim, the following research objectives are accomplished by the researcher on completion of this research study:
- To develop understanding of the theoretical concepts related to interior designing and art of boutique hotel
- To critically evaluate the interior design characteristics of the boutique hotels in the UK
- To examine the significance of interior design and arts in influencing hotel demands: in context of the UK boutique hotels
This study is valuable for the hospitality firms including hotels, restaurants and boutique firms to focus on specific characteristics of the interior designing to increase their demand in the market. It is valuable for the development of interior design and arts in the hospitality industry and to assess their interior designing aspects for the betterment in the future. With the help of this study, the marketers can design better strategies to target the customers based on interior designing aspects. This research study also contributes in the development of researcher’s understanding about the interior designing and the demand of boutique hotels and helps to fulfill his academic degree.
In order to conduct this research study, primary research is conducted to determine the views and opinions of the customers regarding the interior design and arts of the UK boutique hotels. In this, interior design characteristics are analyzed to determine their impact on customer satisfaction and demand of the services of those firms. In this study, face to face survey through questionnaire is used to collect the view of the guests of boutique hotel firms in the UK.
This dissertation is categorized in to six chapters as below:
Introduction chapter:This chapter provides the information about the problem statement and research aim and objectives to provide guidance to the researcher for conducting this research. Apart from this, it also mentions the justification for this research indicating the importance of the study for the users.
Literature review chapter:In this chapter, theoretical concepts are explained to develop understanding of the topic by reviewing the journal articles of several researchers.
Methodology chapter: This chapter provides the information related to the research methods and techniques to collect the required data and information on research issue. It also helps to develop understanding of data collection methods which are used to collect the needed data to complete this study.
Results: In this chapter of dissertation, the findings related to the research study are presented in the understandable manner to conclude the meaningful outcomes.
Analysis and discussion of results: This chapter provides analysis and discussion on the findings obtained from the previous chapter.
Conclusions and implications and recommendations:This chapter provides conclusive statements in relation to the achievement of the research objectives along with the research implications for the future researchers.
This chapter helps to review the journal articles and books on the research topic, which are written by several researchers in past. It helps to develop theoretical understanding about the research topic and relate it with the overall findings of the research. In this chapter, the previous researches related to the interior designing and related role in hospitality industry are reviewed to develop theoretical concepts and aspects of the research topic.
2.2 Theoretical Concepts
According to the recent years’ academic researchers, there is little attention about boutique hotels as a show of the lack of clearly definitions in the terms of “boutique hotel” (Joneset al. 2013). In today’s hospitality industry, boutique has been related to specialty hotels (Dayet al. 2012). According to Kosar (2014), boutique hotel refers to a business that is catering to specialized and sophisticated customers. Thus, it is as exclusive business specializing in serving customer.
Due to the lack of academic research, there are no official definitions that address boutique hotel. Xothels Ltd. Defines a boutique hotel as “a small and intimate hotel, halt in a stylish design décor with a personal note” (Hotel Management Company – Hospitality Group – Xotels Ltd., 2017) with the characteristics such as size, individuality, design and location (Konard and Bongkochmas, 2011). Culture, service, ownership, decoration, gastronomy and leisure are also the characteristics that describe a boutique hotel (Konard and Bongkochmas, 2011).
A boutique hotel is a small, unique and autonomous business, which is different from other hotel chains such as Marriott and Hilton. Boutique hotels have been classified as a part of luxury or first-class hotel and located in a fashionable urban area. They are unique and modern with an average number of 100 rooms each hotel and offer unique leveled of personalized service and high-tech facilities (Aggett, 2007). Every room combines modern design. An incomparable level of service and the relations of customer are the most attractive features of boutique hotel. Customers will feel at home when they spend their daytime in this type of hotel. Boutique hotel is individuality and the atmosphere make the guests feel unique and special. What’s more, it also offers custom-made services. Many researchers and industry professionals support the restricted number of room in boutique hotels as it will enhance the ability of the hotel to effectively provide personalized quality services with consistency and ensure that each guest receive a superior experience during stay (Jones et al. 2013). Accordingly,the idea of boutique hotel is contrary to traditional hotel, it aims to offer customer a personal experience and a high quality of service (Konard and Bongkochmas, 2011).
According to Jones et al. (2009), hotels that showcase a high level of differentiation from other lodging services form the boutique hotels. The differentiation is based on design aspects (interior designs appeal), art and cultural component and exclusivity of a hotel assets and other property. The differentiation is seen with the adoption of boutique concept in the housing hotels that have been transformed into heritage buildings in the United Kingdom. Thus, orientation for unique design or cultural aspect in establishment forms another unique feature in defining boutique hotels. The literature also points to the characteristics of the boutique hotels evolved from the different definitions. Many researchers underline the unique design, compact size, high quality services, personalized services and location to be key differentiating attributes from traditional hotels and lodging services. The studies found that the differentiating features of boutique hotels are linked with uniqueness of design, art and culture, location and personalized services provided to the guest in state-of-the-art facilities. In support of this, Lwin et al. (2014) reports friendly environment, location of the establishment, modern theme design, uniqueness of services and amenities as attractive attributes that differentiate the services of boutique hotels from housing hotels. Thus, the definition given by different author highlighted in the literature points that boutique hotels are independent and small-scale establishment that have inclination for unique customer and value oriented service. The concept of boutique hotel revolves around providing innovative and high level of personalized services in a unique design or cultural setting that create value for its guest customers.
2.2.2 Interior Design
According to Konard and Bongkochmas, (2011), interior design is the art or job that is associated with the selection of the paint, carpets and furniture for the decoration of the inside view of a site. In hospitality industry, interior design is not only related to the inside of the hotel, but it also related to immediate surroundings of the hotel. In the words of Strannegård&Strannegård (2012), interior design is the planning, establishing and decorating the inside of a hotel. On the other hand,Wardono et al. (2012) defines interior design as the management of lines and shapes as decoration.
The literature in hospitality innovation highlights the uprising of interior designs from hotel lobby and reception area to lodging rooms and restroom and to overall inside space of the establishment (Dzhandzhugazova et al., 2016). Low (2010) underlines that interior design begins from the entry of guest customers in the premises of the establishment. The interior design hold relevance in the hotel industry as it creates a first impression of the hotel establishment in the minds of customers. With the emergence of boutique hotel concepts, Whitemyer (2010) viewed interior design to play an influencing role in attracting customers to the establishment and building a positive perspective towards the service and amenities of the design oriented hotel establishments. This is essential as consumers are becoming selective in making decision based on the appeal of the overall hotel setting. In support of this, Smith (2010) specifies that interior designs make the overall look of the furniture of hotel rooms and other space a highly rated (four or five stars) and classy feel and had become a selling point for making reservations or repeat booking in luxury hotels and boutique hotels segments. Norbäck and Cai (2011) recognize furniture as an important component in the interior designs. The author state that choice of furniture (beds, chairs and tables) influence a certain style and provide a distinct atmosphere for the guests. Moreover, Whitemyer (2010) also points that statues, furniture, paintings, vases, that are placed in strategic location increase to interior design involvement in hotel establishment. The findings of Simpeh et al. (2011) reveals that lightening and motion-detecting lights play an enhanced role in interior design of a hotel space and also by increasing its technological appeal to enable the guest to adjust lightening preference during the day/night creating convenient stay experience. Thus, it can be said that interior designs impact on the stay experience of the guest customers in hotels.
It can also be added that the integration of hotel segments with internet services has allowed the potential customers to get a glimpse of the exterior and interior setting of the hotels and style of decoration from websites and social sites and thus, customers form expectation of high quality services (Lwin et al., 2014). Thus, the interior design in hotel industry is implemented by achieving a balance between visual appealing factors such as furniture and décor items and hotel amenities.
In recent years, the development of boutique hotel has been one of the most attractive trends in hospitality industry. Due to the brand standardization, hotels like Hilton, Marriott and IHG (InterContinental Hotel Groups) has been provided customers a level of standard services over the marketplace, it has noticed that the products provided by the business are differentiated in the hotel sector. Thus, the rapidly growth of boutique hotel has become a segment of the lodging sector from Las Vegas to Dubai, from London to Shanghai (Day, Quadri and Jones, 2012).
In the early 1950s, the hospitality industry had been dominated by traditional brand chains such as Marriott, Hilton and IHG (InterContinental Hotel Groups) with exacting brand standard. However, during the expansion of these hotel groups, the boutique hotel has emerged and has been a leading trend (Day, Quadri and Jones, 2012). The academic researchers point of view, the origins of boutique hotel began in 1978 with Blakes Hotel (designed for celebration stylist AnouskaHemple) in South Kensington sited in London, others addressed the start of boutique hotel was Bedford in Union Square located in San Francisco which has a series of 34 boutique hotelsunder the Kimpton Group. In 1984, the Morgans Hotel built by Ian Schrager was opened in Murray Hill in New York City (Anhar, 2001). As early there were bunches of boutique hotel, others classified as mid-level hotels rebuild and create a special service and experience for their guests. Boutique hotel was defined as “intimate” with specific themes and offer unique experience before. Nowadays, with the rapid development of lodging sector, boutique hotels are known as “unique amenities” and “personalized service” (Day, Quadri and Jones, 2012).
According to Kurgun et al. (2011), the growing demand for boutique hotels is due to rise in interest of consumers in exploring fine arts and curiosity to learn about design oriented culture display. It can be noted that boutique hotels are continuously attracting more guests by offering design-oriented concept and art aspects in the hotel interior and rooms with a blend of culture. This has supported the hotel business to charge high room rates from guest customers that for rooms that showcase art and culture thus, giving a boost to hotel to adapt to boutique hotel concept from a simple lodging services. Aggett (2007) states that the growing interest of customers in art and culture would fuel the development of boutique segment in the hotel industry. Moreover, Lowe et al. (2012) reminds that most of boutique hotels operate as four-star rating and add value through enhancing the nature of accommodation services. It can be understood that boutique hotels focus on enhancing the stay experience by fulfilling guest requirements for art and culture know-how to create value to its guest customers. Thus, the concept of boutique hotels is viewed to provide its guest customers with high level of amenities and services for creation of value.
Another reason identified in the growth of boutique hotels is the location factor. The location choice for boutique hotels at prime locations, city-centric and other distinctive locations is a responsible factor for occupancy rate as cited in the work of Henderson (2011). It can be viewed that a strategic location of boutique hotels is essential to provide convenience to customers visit hotel and other potential customers who seek to consume its services. The choice of location by hotelier such as high end residential or commercial area, vibrant cities, and destination like London, New York, etc. also reflects the trendiness and attractiveness of the establishment that contribute in the development of boutique concept in business. Thus, location is viewed as an integral property of boutique hotels that can impact on the performance, service delivery, creating a unique guest experience and overall success of business. On the other side, Lowe et al. (2012) argue the uniqueness of services, personalized services and service quality as the key factors responsible for the attractiveness feature and growth of boutique hotels. These are some of the key factors that can be considered to have influenced the decision of the customers to book or prefer accommodation boutique hotels thus, providing a boost to the growth of overall hotel industry.
2.4 Overview of Boutique Hotel in the UK
Recently year in UK, there is a rapid development of boutique hotels. Hotel du Vin, Firmdale Hotels, Malmaison and Eton Group are the key players represent in the UK’s boutique hotel sector. However, the traditional hotel chains like IHG (InterContinental Hotel Groups) and Rezidor SAS are now building their own boutique brands as their marketing strategy (Aggett, 2007). There has a boutique hotel opened in London under the brand of Hilton and Starwood created their “W” brand and successful sited in London Leicester Square. According to Aggett (2007) key boutique hotels, which have already operated are now expanding their marketplace for further growth. Hotel du Vin and Malmaison are planning to expand another 10 hotels in the UK by 2010. Moreover, Abode Hotels aim to build up their brand in towns and main cities all over the UK in the next few years (Aggett, 2007).
In the United Kingdom, the boutique hotels concept has attracted more guests though the art and culture concept in the interior designing of lobby, reception areas, lodging rooms and other hotels interior space. However, Millar and Baloglu (2011) argue that development of the boutique hotel industry is also credited to the consumers that seek replacements to the standardized establishment of more traditional lodging in the United Kingdom, Spain, US and many more. In the study of Lowe et al. (2012), found that boutique hotels in the UK are operating from middle to luxury markets. Jones et al. (2009) mentions that the boutique hotel segment of the overall lodging sector in the UK has shown remarkable growth in 2006 -07. The author concluded the findings on the basis of occupancy rate, average daily rate (ADR) and revenue per available room (RevPAR). However, Kurgun et al. (2011) viewed that the recessionary phase has impacted the performance of boutique hotels in the UK. The author state that during economic slowdown the lowered the yield from the boutique hotel and slow down growth of overall hotel industry in the UK. The impact of economic slowdown also slowed the rate at which new boutique establishment were developed and opened as the overall accommodation services faced financial pressure. In a similar study, Kurgun et al. (2011), specifies big chain organization in the United States such as Morgons group suffered from the global financial crisis resulted in selling possession of property to fulfill its debt payments and increase liquidity in hotel business.
In the opinion of Craggs and Schofield (2009), the marketing segmentation of in the UK by the boutique hotelier is inclined to endorse quality service delivery and to develop competitive edge among other lodging service providers and other luxury hotels. The changing preferences of the guests are shifting from traditional lodging to boutique hotels to seek unique experiences from its customer focused services. The literature reveals demographic characteristic such as age to be a criterion to segment market. Accordingly, the target market segment for the boutique hotel falls in the age group of 20 to 50 years. On the other hand, the segmentation of boutique hotels in performed on the basis of lifestyle segmentation as cited by Rogerson and Kotze (2011). Similarly, Kosar (2014) state that lifestyle based segmentation for a major criterion in the design of hotel products and services in the boutique hotel concept. On the other side, Craggs and Schofield (2009) argue that both demographic characteristic and different psychographic characteristics such as lifestyle, social class and personality are the major segmentation criteria used by the hotelier to segment the markets. It can be noted that psychographic and demographic characteristics segmentation is used by hotelier to differentiate the customer needs and to understand the personalized service needs of the hotel guest in boutique hotels setting. It can be understood that it is essential to consider income status as a criteria of market segmentation as the boutique hotels in the UK have high room rates due to the its value oriented and customer oriented nature. Zhang et al. (2011) studied the boutique hotels in the UK target customers that belong to middle to upper income groups for its innovative and districts characteristics. O’Neill and Mattila (2010) assess the relevance of branding for boutique hotels. The author recognises that impression of guests in interactions with the staff members are influential factors in internal branding and positioning positive brand image in the minds of its guest customers. This indicates the relevance of competent and well-informed staff for high service commitment to deliver the brand expectations at customer contact points. However, few researchers have reported that boutique hotels positioning strategy from providing unique and innovative quality services have been linked to the concept of sustainable development. Benson (2014) states that boutiques hotelier through the re-structing and redesigning of existing city centres, structure, buildings and housing hotels have been engaged in transforming places into vibrant accommodation destination. This has positioned boutique hotels to be linked with the sustainable development. In addition to this, Chan (2014) states that the emotional and cultural appeal from the boutique hotel is also significant to understand the positioning of boutique hotels in the United Kingdom.
2.5 Interior Design & Art in Boutique Hotel
The architecture, interior design and the art in a boutique hotel are unique and upmarket with the combination of personalization and chic quality. The fashionable and modern or classical and homey lines designing are a good understanding of art shown in a boutique hotel. The style and decoration designing convey a growth of boutique hotel in the lodging industry. In boutique hotels, bedrooms are individually decorated in different types and use upscale and privileged amenities (TrvelMaestro, 2016). Many boutique hotels have their own theme for guest to have different experience instead of the traditional accommodation in order to attract customers who are searching for something special. Some words like “style”, “distinction”, “warmth” and “intimacy” are usually describing the interior design, art and architecture of boutique hotels (Lim and Endean, 2009).
According to the article written by Aggett (2007), the main factor that influences the growth of the boutique hotel industry is the increasing of art, culture and history. Mclntosh and Siggs (2005) has conducted the reasons why boutique hotel consumers in New Zealand choose to stay in these types of hotel instead of the traditional hotel accommodation. From their point of view, there are five key elements make the boutique hotel different from traditional hotel. These are the “unique character”, “personalized or personal touch”, “homely feel of the accommodation”, “high quality of standards offered” and the “value-added” features of its location and the culture atmosphere of the hosts (Mclntosh and Siggs, 2005).
There is a selection of articles, for examples, “Boutique Property Boasts Architects’ Unique Design”, “Surprise Guests With Great Design”, “Boutique Design About Creating an Experience”, “Boutique Boom Has Hotel Designers Talking at Show”, and “Chains Awake to Designer Trend: Boutique Hotels” clarity the associative relation of design and boutique hotel (Jones, Day and Quadri-Felitti, 2013). It is important to build up a relation between design and boutique hotels’ development and management. Furthermore, Lim and Endean also found that the interior design of boutique hotels was the vital concept of boutique hotels. The interest in fine art and culture are the two factors making a successful development of boutique hotel. Customers nowadays are starting to change their personal sight focusing on what experience they expect to gain, but not only a bed for one night (Lim and Endean, 2009).
From the study of Miwa andHanyu (2006), it can be evaluated that physical environment of the hotels causes a significant impact on the reputation of the hotel and influence the customer perception of the hotel image. It is required for the hotel firms to maintain the physical surroundings throughout the time and change or improve it as per the customers’ needs and requirements. In relation to this, the research of Orth et al. (2012) provides the explanation on the significance of interior designing in the demand of the boutique hotels. As per this study, atmosphere describing the design of space causes a specific effect on the behavior of the customers. It is necessary for the hotel firms to focus on interior design to create unique experience or emotion for the customers.
On the basis of the study of Kleinman et al. (2012), it can be interpreted that the design in store can be effective to increase the purchase probability. Atmosphere of the place has a considerable effect on the senses including aural, olfactory, tactile and visual that can be measured in different aspects like scent, music, light, temperature, taste and color. Supporting to these findings, the research of Hinchman (2013) also reveals that the hotels today provide the best designed facilities because the hotel services are becoming fashionable and customers expect the attractive atmosphere when they visit hotels. Customers want to come back when they are served in the best way through interior design besides of food and service.
According to the article written by Piotrowski (2011), interior design of the hotels is one of the selling points. If the guests do not like the overall design of the inside or find it unpleasant, they would like to look for another hotel. Apart from this, Wardono et al. (2012) stated that it is better for the customers to make decisions regarding the hotel service just after getting the glimpse of the establishment without travelling to the said location. It means the focus on the interior design by the hotel firms helps the guests to save their time and resources in making decisions that also has a significant impact on the hotel demand.
This literature review has introduced the characteristics, features in the description of boutique hotels, the growth of boutique hotel, the information of UK’s boutique hotel sector and the interior design and art in a boutique hotel. This study will then focus on the role of interior design and art, which apply to the exploration of the boutique hotel sector in the UK.
This chapter provides the information related to the used research methods and techniques. It helps to develop understanding how the data is collected to conduct the study properly. It is useful to present the research philosophy, approach, data collection methods and design and sampling with their justified selection in the study.
The research philosophy provides fundamental principle for this research for collection of data requirement, its analysis and utilization to produce a reliable and consistent finding of the study. The research philosophy serves as a guide to the researcher for different consideration and form assumption to develop framework to understand the nature of research issue that forms the base of the research. According to Creswell (2013), research philosophy helps the researcher in the development of necessary contextual knowledge to gain an understanding of research nature. This study makes use of positivism philosophy to obtain actual facts that is easily measurable. This philosophy is dependent on the quantifiable studies (Collis and Hussey, 2013) that assist in statistical analysis of the data collected to determine the factual knowledge for the research questions to reach a valid inference. This philosophy is considered over other philosophy such as interpretivism and realism as it would provide apt structure to investigate the appeal of natural phenomenon like perception and views related to the role of interior design and art in UK boutiques hotels. Moon and Blackman (2014) states positivism philosophy is considered in research as it focuses on observations to attain realistic understanding which is critically examined and computable by means of statistical methods. Thus, this philosophy helped the researcher to determine the research issue through a suitable research structure. The philosophy is also used owing to the use of large sample used for this study and development of assumption for an effective research. This philosophy impacts on the research direction shaping consideration, assumptions, knowledge, beliefs and judgment of the researcher. Here, the researcher role is to analyses the findings from the questionnaire through appropriate data collection. This is followed by analysis of data collection through an objective approach using quantitative method. The positivism philosophical approach is used by the researcher to explain and find out the role of interior design and artwork in boutique hotels through structured methodology and emphasis on measurable questionnaire method of quantitative analysis to obtain primary data from the sample using objective (statistical) analysis approach to reach at valid results.
3.3 Research approach
The research approach in this study provides justification for the techniques and methods employed for data collection and analysis to collect appropriate data to reach desired outcomes. The researchers have identified two types of approaches for any research namely inductive and deductive. Inductive approach considers specific observation to reach broad generalization. It does not form hypothesis instead start with observation. This approach builds new theory through collection of appropriate data and is popular as building theory approach (O’Leary, 2013). On the other hand, Crowther and Lancaster (2009) describe deductive approach for general to specific observation. Crowther and Lancaster (2012) states deductive approach provides the researcher to develop hypothesis to produce systematic results. Under this approach, hypothesis is developed based on existing philosophy and assumptions.
For this study, the researcher considered the use of inductive approach over deductive. This approach is more suitable for this study the research objectives to generate new concept from the emerging data. This is not achievable with case of deductive approach as it tests theory while inductive determines the reasons. Thus, inductive approach is considered to be flexible and effective in reaching valid results for this study. At the same time, the flexibility in inductive approach was effective for the researcher to use the research questions to identify the role of interior design and art in boutique hotels through perception of the UK participants to produce evidence of the research questions and thus, narrow the scope of the study. Under this approach, the researchers started with observation through methodical data analysis for each research question and narrow the scope to form broad generalization (Yilmaz, 2013). Additionally, through inductive research, the researcher investigated different reasons to consider interior design and art in boutique hotels and understand its relevant role in the boutique hotel industry in the United Kingdom.
3.4Research Design and Methodology
The research methodology covers the theoretical assumptions to determine the design of the research and method for data gathering, analysis and interpretation (Cortina et al., 2017). These methodologies serve as a guidance for the researcher to fulfil the research objectives in a systematic manner. Here, the research methodology is systematic examination of the factors that determine the role of interior designs and art in UK boutique hotel. This will reflect on the role interior designs and art in hotel business. Thus, this directs the research in the direction of quantitative nature of research to address the research questions. The research design of quantitative nature focuses on the evaluation of the relationship among the different variables (O’Leary, 2013).
In this study, quantitative research design is preferred to determine the role of interior designs and art. The research is restricted for the boutique hotel in the United Kingdom. In addition to this, the nature research is descriptive as data and information is collected for a specific situation for interior designs and art which is analyzed through use of quantitative techniques to presents the data and findings in the statistical form. The quantitative data helped the researcher to gain a thorough knowledge for UK boutique hotel business in the UK through addressing the research questions. The researcher employed questionnaire method to collect and present quantitative data distribution in form of tables, graphs and charts using data management and statistical tools.
3.5Data collection methods
According to Pluye et al. (2009), the method of data collection helps the researcher to specify the nature of study. The data collection methods for research falls under two broad categories as primary and secondary methods. This research makes use of both these data collection methods to collect primary and secondary data. Under the primary research, the first hand or new data is collected by the researcher through method of questionnaire. The researcher collected primary data from boutique hotel guests in the service sector of boutique hotel industry in the United Kingdom. The questionnaire is distributed among 180 participants from the UK to get responses and most questionnaires filled as higher samples provides an effective investigation of research questions to achieve conclusive results. The data obtained through questionnaire method provided quantitative data for this study. The researcher prepared research questions comprising of 15-20 close ended questions with limited set of answers to recognize the role of interior design and art in boutique hotels. The questions arise from the study of existing literature and were also self-developed based on researcher thinking on the research topic. The close ended questions were designed to get data relatively quickly by getting short answer and also this question design would allow the participants to select answer from fixed number of responses to get desired outcomes thus, will keep the focus for each question. This is also suitable for questionnaire based survey to get higher response rates as it only requires short answers to be selected from set of possible answers (Nielsen Norman Group, 2016).
However, Choy (2014) reminds that the suitability of the questionnaire method for collection of research data relies on the readiness and inclination of the participants to fill correct response for the research questions. Apart from this, the researcher employed secondary data collection methods such as literature review from eBooks, journals and online available published articles to recognize scope of the research questions (Yilmaz, 2013). The secondary research provided support to the primary research by providing justification from the literature to the study observation and findings to fulfil the research knowledge gap with respect to research questions.
Sampling procedure determination is crucial for to get a representative sample from population to gain wide generalization for the overall population. Here, for this quantitative research, the method of probability sampling is used. This method is preferred as it provides equal chances of population member getting selected (Yeager et al., 2011). Another reason to prefer this method over non-probability sampling is that it provided the researcher to choose participants to get effective results and avoid the issue of bias. Moreover, the questionnaire method is well suited with random sampling method of probability sampling.
Population Sample: The sample for this research comprises of guests from the United Kingdom service sector of boutique hotel to get relevant primary research data. This population sample is chosen by the researcher as guests are easily accessible from physical meeting to approaching them through online platform (email) to get higher response for the questionnaires.
Sample Size: Here, the sample size presents the number of participants selected by the researcher for filling up the questionnaire form from personal distribution and through email to get maximum response. The sample size decided for the research study is 180 participants to collect evidence for the research questions as to get wide generalization (Francis et al., 2010), these responses are required to reach valid conclusion for understanding the role of interior designs and art in the UK boutique hotel.
After the collection of primary data, the research data is analyzed using MS Excel, an effective tool for data management tool. The MS excel was chosen as the researcher has some experience in using it and it is easier to use for data distribution in tabular form in an understandable way that was helpful to analyze meaningful information to achieve reliable outcome for this research (Collis and Hussey, 2013). The use of different features and function of MS excel was also useful to presents the responses for each question and its findings in table and graph or charts form narrow the focus of the observation to generate and identify specific observations (Pfister et al., 2013).
Thus, this data management tool was utilized for making charts and graphs to determine the study findings. This study also makes use of excel tool where the data is presented in tabular form and graphical style for each research question. The researcher preferred this method as it is useful in interpreting the questionnaire results to emphasize on relevant information to fulfill the research objective.
The consideration of the ethical issue is quite important for the researcher in its business because it helps for the researcher to generate the valid research outcomes. In this, the ethical issue of data are the copyright, plagiarism, etc. So, these issues are addressed by the researcher by giving the proper bibliography of the sources in the text. At the same time, all information related to research is written in the own language of the researcher without doing the copying from anywhere. In like manner, the ethical issues of the primary data are not disclosing the private information of the participants for anyone because it can affect the personal and the professional life of the participants (Yilmaz, 2013). The consideration of these ethical issues helped for the researcher to generate the valid outcomes of the research and increase its reliability.
Chapter 4: Data Analysis
This section of the researchers focuses on analysis of primary data collected from questionnaire method to understand the role of interior design and art in the boutique hotels in the United Kingdom. The questionnaire is designed to examine the view of respondents for each research objective.
For this research, 300 questionnaires were distributed through email and physical visit among different participants like most of guest customers and few interior designers, boutique hotel staff and owners in the UK. Out of 300 questionnaires distributed, only 180 were received that were filled completely. Therefore, 180 respondents are considered by the researcher for questionnaire analysis to get conclusive results. Moreover, the findings from the analysis of primary data collected are studied to determine any correlation with the findings of the secondary data. This is done to support the study findings with secondary findings to arrive at valid conclusion and to increase the validity and reliability of the findings. The data management tool, MS Excel is used to for distribution of data in table and chart and for its analysis. This section analysis the responses received for the different questions in the questionnaire form.
|Gender||Response||Analysis – Percentage (%)|
This figure represents the analysis of gender, a demographic characteristic for this study. It can be analyzed that majority of the respondents for this questionnaire were male and less female participants responded to the questionnaire. The percentage of male respondents was 67 percent and female respondents were only 33 percent.
Age Group Analysis
|Options||Response||Analysis – Percentage (%)|
|Less than 25 years||18||10|
|26 – 35||60||34|
|36 – 45||45||25|
|46 – 55||33||18|
|56 years and above||24||13|
Table 2:Age group
From the above table and figure, it can be analyzed that most of the respondents fall in the age group of 26 – 35 years and least respondents were of less than 25 years. It was calculated that 34 percent respondent belong to 26 – 35 years age group followed by 25 percent respondents in 36 – 45 age group. Moreover, 18 percent were in age group of 46 – 55 years and 13 percent were above 56 years and 10 percent were in age category of below 25 years. Thus, from this age analysis it can be identified that the study received responses from all the age groups and this has helped the researcher to gain understanding of the research from different viewpoints.
Type of accommodation
|Choices||Response||Analysis – Percentage (%)|
Table 3:Type of accommodation
From the above table and figure, it is analyzed that higher percentage of respondents prefer boutique hotels for the stay during vacation or as an independent traveler. Here, in the opinion of 37 percent respondents show preference of staying in boutique hotel in comparison to other accommodation types. It is also analyzed that 32 percent respondents were having second preference for traditional hotel. The percentage of these respondents for home stay and holiday apartment were 14 and 17 percent respectively.
Rate of stay in Boutique hotel
|Choices||Response||Analysis – Percentage (%)|
|Once in a year||89||49|
|Twice in a year||65||36|
|3 – 5 times||18||10|
|More than 5 times||8||5|
Table 4:Rate of stay in Boutique hotel
The above table and figure highlight that the rate of stay of the respondents in boutique hotel was higher in once or twice in a year. It can be identified that most of the respondents (49 percent) stay in boutique hotel once in a year. It is also analyzed that a good percentage of respondents (36 percent) stay in this kind of accommodation twice in a year. However, only 15 percent (10+5) respondents stay in hotel for more than 3 times. This analysis also provides an insight to hotelier to give additional focus on this little percentage of respondents as these indicate a higher preference and loyalty to stay in boutique themed hotels.
Boutique hotels Vs. traditional and other lodging hotels
|Choices||Response||Analysis – Percentage (%)|
|Art and cultural component||35||19|
|Overall service quality||23||13|
|Value for money||10||6|
Table 5:Boutique hotels Vs. traditional and other lodging hotels
From the above figure, it is determined that design oriented characteristics receive a positive response from 25 percent respondents. 19 percent responses were received for each of art and cultural component and personalized services who considers these reasons to pick boutique hotels over traditional hotels. It is also observed that 13 percent respondents feel overalls service quality dimension and 12 percent choose location as a deciding factor for boutique hotels over other lodging services. However, only 6 percent of respondents shown in the above data have considered for value for money and high-tech facilities.
Characteristics of boutique hotel
|Choices||Response||Analysis – Percentage (%)|
|Stylish and unique design and art décor||49||27|
|High level of personalized services||40||22|
|Modern amenities and high-tech facilities||21||12|
|Good service quality||26||14|
Table 6:Characteristics of boutique hotel
In context of this question, it is found that 27 percent of the respondents reflects stylish and unique design and art décor as a significant characteristics of boutique hotel that have influences on the customer decisions to choose this kind of accommodation in recent times. A slight less percent of respondents was of opinion that high level of personalized services (22 percent) and convenient locations (20 percent) for influence the booking decisions. However, the findings also reveal that good service quality, modern amenities and high-tech facilities and compact size new are also considered by few respondents. These characteristics are represented by 14 percent, 12 percent and 5 percent respondentsrespectively.
|Choices||Response||Analysis – Percentage (%)|
|All the time||69||38|
|Most of the time||85||47|
Table 7: Observation of Interior decoration
The above data indicates 47 percent respondents observe interior decoration of a hotel most of the time while 39 percent respondent observe the interior design and art components all the time during stay or visit in a boutique hotel. It is also found that 12 percent respondents have noticed the interior decorations occasionally. Only 3 percent respondents agree that they rarely observe interior design components in boutique hotels. It is also indicated that there was no respondent that have not observed interiors.
Role of interior designs and art in attracting more guest customers
|Choices||Response||Analysis – Percentage (%)|
Table 8:Role of interior designs and art in attracting more guest customers
From the above primary data and figure, it can be detected that most of the respondents which were 89 percent (32+57) are found to be in agreement with the question statement while only 4 percent respondent show disagreement towards interior designs role to attract customers. It can be said that the majority respondents have awareness about the interior designs in a boutique hotel and has identified role of interior design for boutique hotels business. For this question, 7 percent respondent were neutral in response.
Various components of interior designs
|Choices||Response||Analysis – Percentage (%)|
|Furniture and its arrangement (sofa sets, chair, tables, etc.)||57||32|
|Flooring, carpets, curtains||19||10|
|Work on ceilings||27||15|
|Wall painting/ hangings||21||12|
|Statues and vases||21||12|
Table 9:Various components of interior designs
The above primary data indicate the responses for the various components of interior designs that plays a significant role in boutique hotel industry. The above figure show that highest number of respondent (32 percent) viewed furniture (seating arrangement and furniture placement) as the most dominating component of interior design for the boutique hotel in the UK. While 19 percent consider lightening system to be highlight significant for the boutique hotels.However, 15 percent respondents agreed on ceiling work and 10 percent on flooring, carpets, curtains as important components. Moreover, on components such as wall painting, wall hangings and statues and vases the similar percentage of responses were received which belong to 12 % respondents.
Influence of interior design and art on guest experience
|Options||Response||Analysis – Percentage (%)|
Table 10:Influence of interior design and art on guest experience
In context of influence of interior design on the hotel guest overall experience, it is analyzed that more than half of the respondents (96 percent) reflects the influence on interior design forboutique hotel industry. On the other hand, only a less percentage (7 percent) are of opinion that guest experience is not impacted by interior design. From the above data findings, it is observed that majority of respondent provided a positive response for the effect of interior design and art which can be used by hotelier as an imperative approach to enhance the guest experience in boutique hotels.
Role of interior designing components and impression of high service quality
|Choices||Response||Analysis – Percentage (%)|
Table 11:Role of interior designing components and impression of high service quality
The analysis of primary data in the above table and figure reveal that majority of the respondents take into consideration role of different components of interior designs to create an impression of high quality and services in the minds of customers. This is indicated by 65 percent (23+42) respondents. While 20 percent (16+4) respondent have not found that interior designs have not influenced the thinking for high service quality as first impression. It can be said that these 20 percent respondents were not influence d by the interior designing components of a boutique hotels. it is also found that 15 percent responded remained neutral in the response in context of this question.
Overall impression of the boutique hotel
|Choices||Response||Analysis – Percentage (%)|
|Overall physical condition of hotel||30||16|
|Appearance of hotel exterior||39||22|
|Appearance of hotel interior||41||23|
|Overall service received during stay||41||23|
|Condition of reception area and hotel lobby||29||16|
Table 12:Overall impression of the boutique hotel
From the primary data findings, it is indicated that appearance of hotel interior and overall service received during stay are considered to be significant factors that creates an inclusive impression of the boutique hotel in the minds of the customers. Each of these factors received responses from 23 percent respondents. 22 percent respondents show agreement towards the appearance of hotel exterior to play a major role in forming overall impression while 16 percent respondents hold relevance to overall physical condition of hotel and condition of reception area and lobby of the boutique hotel. It is clear the both hotel interior and exterior and service offered are crucial to form an everlasting impression of the boutique hotel and its brand in the customer minds.
Factors responsible for the development and growth of the UK boutique hotels
|Choices||Response||Analysis – Percentage (%)|
|Changing customers preference||29||16|
|Growth in lifestyle and income||34||19|
|Growing interest in art and cultural component||41||23|
|Design and art orientation of boutique hotel||39||22|
|Need for quality service delivery and personalized experience||37||20|
Table 13:Factors responsible for the development and growth of the UK boutique hotels
From the above responses, the main factors responsible for the development and growth of the boutique hotels in the UK is identified to bethegrowing interest of people in the art and cultural componentwhich is represented by 23 percent respondents. The findings also point to the design and art orientation of boutique hotel for which 22 percent respondents support and 20 percent respondents feel that need for quality service delivery and personalized experience from accommodation services are driving force for growth of this kind of accommodations. While only less respondents (19 percent) are of opinion that growth in lifestyle and income and (16 percent) changing customers preference for accommodation services are responsible factors.
Interior design and art and demand for boutique hotels
|Options||Response||Analysis – Percentage (%)|
Table 14:Interior design and art and demand for boutique hotel
From the above table and figure, it is indicated that most of the respondents (60 percent) show an agreement to the question statements. Moreover, 23 percent also show disagreement with the statement while 17 percent respondents have shown a neutral response towards the improvement of boutique hotel demands through focus on interior design and art in boutique hotel.
Role of interior designs and art in branding
|Choices||Response||Analysis – Percentage (%)|
Table 15:Role of interior designs and art in branding
From the above facts and figure, it is indicated that 71 percent (20+51) of respondents show agreement towards the role of interior designs and art in branding of the boutique hotel. However, 17 percent (12 +5) do not approve its role in UK boutique hotel branding and 12 percent respondents remained neutral in answering this question. The finding reveals that majority of the UK respondents hold relevance to interior design and art in the hotel business and in marketing of its hotel brand.
This section of the research examines the primary research finding to find the fulfillment of the research objectives and to link the research finding with the secondary findings. This enhances the reliability of the overall research finding and assist the researcher to arrive at valid research outcome. From the research findings of the demographic analysis, it can be discussed that the researchers have taken into account the views and perceptions of both male and females belonging to different age groups. This was useful in analyzing the responses received from different demographic aspects and improve the reliability of the study findings for the boutique hotels in the United Kingdom.
The primary research findings recognize that the UK consumers and other participating members are well aware of the concept of the boutique hotels. The boutique hotels concept has been an innovation in the hotel industry in the UK. It is also indicated that the UK consumers have a higher preference for boutique hotels kind of accommodations over traditional hotels, holiday apartments and homestays. However, it is also essential to note that traditional hotels are also seen as second preference for accommodation type for the UK consumers in present scenario for when on vacation or as solo travelers. It can be said that the UK consumers preference for boutique hotels indicates that these consumers seek an enriching experience, associate with history, art and culture thus, to create a memorable experience of the stay.Thus, it is noted that hotelier can target the UK consumers who are seeking to maximize the stay experience to create a memory of the overall travel experience.
Moreover, UK consumers are found to make stay arrangements in boutique hotels once or twice in a year. This indicates that the hotelier to focus on respondents to keep preference for boutique hotel as preferred kind of accommodation and concentrate the efforts to develop loyalty of those consumers who stay more than three times in boutique themed hotels. It can be analyzed that the UK consumers have chosen boutique hotel to stay more than thrice so consumers have developed inclination for this type of accommodations.
Furthermore, from the research findings, it can be studied that the reasons for the UK consumers to pick boutique hotels over traditional hotels and other lodging services are the design orientation of the boutique hotels. This indicates that the design orientation is an important characteristic of boutique hotels that differentiate it from the rest lodging services. The primary research findings can be related to the secondary research findings drawn from Jones et al. (2009) that states interior design and other design aspects of art and cultural component form a differentiating factor of boutique hotels from other lodging services. It can be noted that focus of the boutique hotel management in consideration of architectural details in designs have got favored in selection of these kind of accommodation by the UK consumers. However, it is can also be discussed that the UK consumers have also shown a differing response towards the reasons behind choosing boutique hotels over other hotel types. The other reasons according to respondents were for personalized services and overalls service quality dimension to pick boutique hotels over traditional hotels. This is also in agreement with findings of Konard and Bongkochmas (2011) that boutique hotels differ from traditional hotels in terms of high service quality and personal experience. It can be interpreted personal experiences of consumer during stay at boutique and other hotels play a role in choosing reasons by consumers.
From the questionnaire method, the findings also revealed the influence of each characteristics of boutique hotel in choosing this accommodation type. It can be evaluated that stylish and unique design and art décor forms key influential characteristic of these kinds of themed hotel to impact customer decisions in making choices for accommodations. In support of this, the study by Lwin et al. (2014) revealed modern theme design as one of the attractive attributes of boutique hotels.Similarly, the findings can also be related to interpretation of Whitemyer (2010) that interior design has an influencing role in building a positive image of the hotel services and amenities to attract customers to choose the design oriented boutique hotels. Apart from stylish and unique design and art décor, the opinion of the other respondents was also found in high favor of high level of personalized services and convenient locations as significant characteristics of boutique hotels influencing the consumer decisions about boutique hotels. These findings were also in agreement with the Lwin et al. (2014) which also points to the hotel location and service uniqueness in boutique hotels to differentiate the services of these hotel types with the rest.
In the context of observation of the UK consumers for interior decoration of hotel establishment, it is identified that these consumers notice interior decoration and art forms most of the time during the stay in hotel as most of the respondents have shown agreement. It can be said that furniture, wall painting, lights, vases and different forms of art forms an integral part in interior decorations. It can be interpreted that the UK consumers are have developed interest in interior designs and art and have become sensitive towards interior decoration of these hotels. In relation to this, the findings of Smith (2010) mention that interior designs provide a classy and high rated look to make these interior designs make the look appealing and noticeable to its customers to make it work as a selling point.
From the results findings, it can also be studied that that the researcher considers the role of interior designs and art in attracting customers to gain an understanding of its significance for boutique hotels. This is well supported from the viewpoint of different respondents which points that the UK consumers identify the role art and interior design in hotel business. This result has shown similarity with the study findings of Orth et al. (2012) that discuss the interior design significance on demands of this kind of hotel through influence on customer emotion and cultural appeal. It can be said that hotel management in the UK is taking necessary steps in enhancing the interior decoration and showcasing art forms and culture to make the establishment look appealing for customers perspective as customers are becoming selective in making accommodation decisions. It is essential to note that customers that are not attracted by the overall design of hotel interior or exterior might create a probability that customer will search for another kind of accommodation to stay.
The research findings here, indicates that the consumers consider furniture as the most dominating component of interior designs in the boutique hotels in the UK. An appropriate arrangement of furniture enhances the value of the hotel interior and highlights the hotel features in a unique and stylish manner. Another factor identified to receive good percentage of responses by most of respondent apart from furniture was lightening system. This result has shown resemblance with the outcome of Simpeh et al. (2011) that identifies the role of lightening system in interior designs in making the space look bigger and enhancing the technological appeal for the providing a superior stay experience to its guest customers. It can be understood that an effective hotel interior design requires the physical elements such as furniture and lights are essential to create a satisfying ambience for the guest customers in the boutique hotels. However, the study highlights furniture to play a bigger role in interior designs. The findings have shown similarity with the research outcome of Norbäck and Cai (2011) that describes furniture as a central element in the hotel interior designs. It is states that seating arrangements, sofa sets, choice of beds, table and chair impact a unique style to give unique ambience to the guest and other hotel visitors.
The research findings for the influence of interior design and art on guest experience during stay in boutique hotel presented a positive agreement from the different respondents. It can be discussed that the UK consumers feel the influence of interior design and art components to impact the guest stay experience. The boutique hotels have been utilizing the interior design and art components to enhance the guest experience by incorporating the designs components in the customer areas such as bedroom, restroom, corridors, lobby and in internal and external walkways.
The researcher determined that most of respondents consider interior designs components to high quality service impression from boutique hotels. This finding agrees with the views ofLwin et al. (2014) that glimpse of hotel interior and exterior forms hopes for high quality services. In addition to this, it was analyzed that the overall impression of the boutique hotels is created through appearance of hotel interior and overall service experienced during stay at boutique hotel according to majority of the respondents. Thus, it can be understood that it is essential for these hotels to emphasis on interior design to create an everlasting impression.
In context of growth and development of boutique hotel sector, the researcher analyzed the different factor where majority of respondents stated increasing interest of the consumers in the art and cultural component which is represented design oriented and themed kind of accommodations. In support of this, Aggett (2007) viewed the interest in art, culture and history are growth factors for boutique hotels. It can also be discussed that respondents agree that hotel management orientation towards design and art can increase the demands for boutique hotels. Furthermore, the role of interior design and art is identified for boutique hotel branding by the researcher. It can be said from the research findings that most of the respondents hold relevance to interior design and art in the branding of hotels. Thus, it is required by the hotelier to continue give relevance to interior design and art forms in boutique hotels to develop a positive brand image and reputation and to deliver unique experience to its guest customers.
From the above analysis and discussion, it can be summarized that the boutique hotel sector in the United Kingdom has given relevance to the interior design and art as its key influencing features. The interior design and art forms orientation along with personalized services and high service quality in these hotels have differentiated itself from the traditional hotels. The rise in interest of the consumers towards art, history, culture and inclination towards designs forms a contributing factor for the growth of boutique hotels sector in the United Kingdom. The standardization of traditional hotel services had also motivated the consumers to seek boutique hotel accommodation that provide unique and innovative services and personalized services. It was determined that the interior design and art play a significant role in enhancing the guest experience, creating a unique ambience to satisfy customers and to attract more customers to make a memorable stay in boutique hotels.
It is recommended to the boutique hotel firms to consider the interior designing and art to influence the buying behavior. Apart from this, they need to focus on local cultural aspects to redesign their hotel interior to change the customers’ perceptions and influence their buying behavior. The time factor and the unwillingness of the participants to provide correct response to the questionnaire responses are the limitation for this research. The time constraint and the lack of interest among the participants can bear a negative impact on the study findings and affect the overall results. In future studies, the consideration of large sample can be effective to generate more valid and reliable research outcomes. Apart from this, future researchers and scholars can focus on different countries to make a comparative study and provide generalized outcomes.
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- You belong to which Age group?
- Less than 25
- 25 – 35
- 36 – 45
- 46 – 55
- 56 and above
- What type of accommodation do you prefer when on vacation and as a traveler?
- Traditional Hotels
- Boutique Hotels
- Home stays
- Holiday apartments
- How often you stay in a boutique hotel?
- Once in a year
- Twice in a year
- 3 – 5 times
- More than 5 times
- According to your views, what is the major reason to choose boutique hotels over traditional hotels or other lodging services?
- Design oriented
- Art and cultural component
- High-tech facilities
- Personalized services
- Overall service quality
- Value for money
- According to you, which of the following boutique hotel characteristics greatly influences the decisions to choose this kind of accommodation in present scenario?
- Convenient location
- Compact size
- Stylish and unique design and art décor
- High level of personalized services
- Modern amenities and high-tech facilities
- Good service quality
- Do you notice interior decorations such as furniture, painting, lightening, vases and forms of art during your stay in boutique hotel?
- All the time
- Most of the time
- Occasionally observed
- Rarely observed
- Not observed
- Do you agree that interior designs and art play a vital role in attracting customers towards the concept of boutique hotels in the UK?
- Strongly agree
- Strongly disagree
- According to you, which component of interior design plays a dominating role in boutique hotel in the UK?
- Furniture and its arrangement (sofa sets, chair, tables, etc.)
- Lightening system
- Flooring, carpets, curtains
- Work on ceilings
- Wall painting/ hangings
- Statues and vases
- Do you feel that interior design and art of boutique hotel has influenced your (guest) experience during stay?
- Do you agree that role of interior designing components, culture and art in boutique hotels creates impression of high services and quality in the minds of customers?
- Strongly agree
- Strongly disagree
- In your opinion, what forms the overall impression of the boutique hotel in the UK?
- Overall physical condition of hotel
- Appearance of hotel exterior
- Appearance of hotel interior
- Overall service received during stay
- Condition of reception area and hotel lobby
- What factors do you consider are responsible for the development and growth of boutique hotels in the UK?
- Changing customers preference
- Growth in lifestyle and income
- Growing interest in art and cultural component
- Design and art orientation of boutique hotel
- Need for quality service delivery and personalized experience
- Will the hotelier focus on interior design and art for boutique hotel accelerate demand for boutique hotels?
- Can’t say
- Do you approve that interior designs and art play a role in branding of the boutique hotel?
- Strongly agree
- Strongly disagree
Academic Research Writing Arm of Global Research Services.