Culture and Management in Human Services Organizations


The main purpose of this report is to critically analyze that the management approaches are being used in the focus group as well as the social work setting, drawing links between theory and practices.

In addition to the above, this report also includes a detailed description of the benefits and challenges related to these management approaches which are linking the theories to the different practices. In this concern, management approaches are essential for task-centered leadership in concern of the social workers.

Due to these, welfare organization can turn into a big happy family in which it is possible to find the solutions as per the satisfaction of all the organizational members as well as all the social workers (Van Bruggen et al., 2016).

In this manner, this report is also helpful to deeply discuss the management approaches and its several benefits as well as challenges in concern of contemporary human service settings under the NGOs and welfare organizations.

Main Body

While concerns about the management approach, it is determined that these are important for an NGOs and welfare organizations in order to achieve the organizational goals in an effective manner so that organizational growth, can be maintained (Shamim et al., (2016).

In addition, with the help of management approaches, it is quite easy to arrange all the operations in an effective manner. Moreover, the management within all the business areas as well as human organizational actions is defined as the procedure of keeping the people together for accomplishing desired objectives and goals.

Under the NGOs and welfare organizations, there are four major management approaches such as classical approach, quantitative approach, behavioral approach, and contemporary approach (Dziedzic et al., 2015).

These management approaches may be used in various organizational perspectives like mechanistic organization, cultural perspective, organic organizations, and the political perspective.

Identify and describe two management approaches used by focus group and drawing links between theory and practices

In respect of two major management approaches, the behavioral approach and the contingency approach under the contemporary approach are being selected to accomplish the research study in an efficient manner. These two approaches used by focus group are defined below with providing links between the theories and practices.

Behavioral Approach

In this concern, the criticism of the scientific management by Taylor and the administrative management which has been promoted by Fayol developed the behavioral management approach (Dietz et al., 2015).

At the same time, it is also found that the most significant contribution in concern of human relations school of thoughts was done by Elton Mayo as well as his colleagues with the help of their famous Hawthorne study.

In concern of the behavioral approach, it is determined that this approach is often called by the human relations movement because it provides solutions for the human dimension of work.

Several authors related to the behavioral approach believe that a critical understanding about the human behavior in concern of the work like motivation, group dynamics, conflicts, and expectations, etc. improved the productivity of the social workers in NGOs and welfare organizations.

In addition to this, the behavioral approach for the management particularly focuses on human relations and the well-being of society instead of simply maintaining the operations of welfare which they are accomplished (Midega et al., 2015).

In concern of behavioral approach, there are several practices of the manger that can be performed by him/her for its employees in which daycare, setting an employee suggestion box, flex-timing scheduling, and the positive reinforcement are specifically involved in this approach.

With these practices, it is quite beneficial for the manager to show that the behavioral approach is applied under the organization efficiently (Stingl & Geraldi, 2017).

Contingency Approach of Contemporary Approach

According to Beckham et al. (2018), contingency approach is worked on the basis of a concept and as per this concept, “there is no best way” within the management of NGOs and welfare organizations.

In this manner, there is a specific set of circumstances for every situation in which it is found that how a situation can be dealt with. Due to its nature, this contingency approach is often called by the name of ‘Situational Approach’.

As per its given name, under this approach, all the things are about dealing with a situation by focusing on it alone and at the same time, not creating any comparison with any other.

In other words, the contingency approach is identified as the management approach that reflects that every NGOs or welfare organization is different and faces different situation and in this manner, they requires different ways for managing the identified different situations for its social workers under the welfare organizations (Otley, 2016).

In addition to this, it is defined that each and every situation is different by its nature and one situation is not like another one and due to this, each situation requires a different way of dealing with it for its social workers.

In addition to this, Formentini & Taticchi (2016) defines that as per the current business environment, it can be mentioned that contingency approach is more suitable and most commonly used for the social workers because of the very dynamic environment NGOs and welfare organizations face within their welfare activities done by social workers.

Moreover, an NGOs and welfare organizations can be a leader within the sociaty and the very next level, a specific technology comes out along with the disruptive innovation and then the NGOs and welfare organizations goes completely bankrupt.

In this situation, social workers require being capable to quickly shift as well as adjust their respective goals and consider very flexible plans (Sayegh et al., 2017).

For instance: if an NGOs and welfare organization’s outcomes are quite effective but at the same time, the general public are not satisfied with it, then the social worker should adopt the contingency approach for maintaining the situation as pert the best manner.

In regards to the contingency approach, it is essential for the social workers to perform several practices which are effective to successfully adopt this approach.  Under this, personal evaluation, one on one meetings, developing rapport with the team, going for meetings, team building exercises, conduct the conferences and so on (Ahimbisibwe et al., 2015).

These practices can be beneficial for the organizations to implement the contingency approach so that the situation can be handled in the best manner by the social workers while performing the works in concern of the welfare of society.

Critically analyze the several benefits and challenges of these management approaches which are linking the theory to the practices

After discussing all the two management approaches above, there is need to discuss various benefits and challenges of both the approaches so that it can be determined that when the social workers should adopt different approaches as per the need of their practices.  In this manner, these benefits and challenges are as follows:

Benefits and challenges of the Behavioral Approach

In respect of the behavioral approach, Noe et al., (2017) defines that this approach is beneficial for the social workers to motivate the people towards the changes in short-term and long-term. In a similar manner to above, the behavioral approach is beneficial for the social workers to develop the conditions which make the people more satisfied as well as motivated.

Moreover, the social factors and psychological motivations obtain more significance in comparison to the financial incentives. As per this behavioral approach, it is supposed that the social workers wish to work if the organizational manager takes his/her responsibility to provide the right environment as well as productivity.  At the same time, Kerzner & Kerzner (2017)

reflects that the key challenges in this approach are the learning in different manners and due to this, it is quite complex for the social workers than their imagination.

Similarly, there is also the challenge of the cognitive abilities that are required not only for accomplishing the activities but also for understanding as well as interpret those activities.

Apart from this, Binder (2016) also depicts that it is also helpful to increase the self-beliefs and build confidence which is essential while accomplishing any kind of activity under the welfare organization.

Under this approach, it tries to make adjustment in the behavior of the people by helping them in thinking differently which increases the self-belief and the confidence too of the social workers.

Benefits and Challenges of Contingency Approach

In respect of this, Islam & Repella (2015) defines that it focuses on the variable nature of the NGOs and welfare organizations. Under this, social workers select the framework to find the solution for a problem instead of sticking to a specific strategy to resolve the problem.

At the same time, the contingency approach is based on the complexity of the particular problem and it is adoptive by its nature that clearly defines that management performs as circumstantial. Besides this, Chih & Zwikael (2015) depicts that it is quite a critical approach as the suggestions look simple but while implementing them practically, it becomes more complex.

Moreover, Schaubroeck & Yu (2017) elaborates that it is dynamic by nature and help the social workers to enhance the leadership as well as decision-making skills of them.

In addition, it also provides the options towards the social workers which are essential to help them in growing as well as share their ideas. But in oppose to this, Shen et al. (2015) mentioned that it has reactive nature due to which handling the situation sometimes is more difficult for these social workers.


On the basis of all the relevant facts mentioned above, it can be concluded that the management approaches are more essential for the NGOs and welfare organizations in order to keep the organizational social workers with each other so that the desired goals, as well as objectives, can be achieved effectively.

In the same concern, it is also mentioned that above defined both the management approaches such as behavioral approach and the contingency approach are important as per their nature as behavioral approach focuses on the human relations but at the same time, contingency approach works as per the situation that is being faced by the NGOs and welfare organizations nowadays.


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