Assignment: Labelling


In today’s scenarios, consumers are becoming more attentive towards the product offering as people are focusing additionally on collecting the information about the product before they are using that product so that they can determine whether the product is suitable for them or not.

This situation mainly occurs in the case of the skin care products like sunscreens, lotions, etc. In such case, labeling is playing a significant role in terms to educating or influencing the consumer behavior towards the product buying decisions.

Labeling is the current necessity of the consumers as it describes the consumer about the product benefits and loss. At the same time, labeling also guides the individual regarding their contextual links, give awareness about the brand to which product is referring and provide the ingredients that have used to make the product and on that basis, the consumer takes their buying decision.

Likewise, in this study, there are four articles will be discussed in which different researchers arguments, sources and their findings will be present in the annotated bibliography. On that basis, it is identifying that how labeling could be improved to assist consumer education when purchasing sunscreens.

Main Body

Article 1

Wang, S. Q., and Lim, H. W. (2011) Current status of the sunscreen regulation in the United States: 2011 Food and Drug Administration’s final rule on labeling and effectiveness testing. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 65(4), pp. 863-869.

Arguments: This article presents the findings of the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) on the labeling and testing of sunscreens. From this article, it is finding that FDA enforced the ruling that US skin care companies should need to give the visual presentation of the degree of the UVA protection in the products.

But, they have not provided the proper guidance of testing and labeling of UVA protection in US sunscreens. Due to this, many products in the US offers inadequate UVA protection that results in not fully resolved all the issues related to labeling of sunscreens. This influences the customers buying decision.

Sources: This article is useful sources for the testing of the sunscreens in the country US. It is appropriate for the analyzing of the consumer decision-making on the purchasing of sunscreen. But, it fails to give the answer regarding bringing improvement in the labeling of the sunscreens.

So in that case, it is difficult to completely rely on the article as it does give the complete answer to the question. The objectivity of this article is not clearing define about the necessity of labeling in terms to educate the consumers.

Reflection: This article does not completely relate to the answer as the article did not describe directly that how sunscreens labeling educated the consumer while they are buying. But, the article explains that the association of FDA does not strictly enforce the rules on the sunscreens companies regarding clear label and test the details of SPF in the UVA protection under the sunscreens.

This result in failing towards the influencing customers on the sunscreens brands as US customers did not buy the sunscreens without getting the knowledge about the particular brand. Thus, this indicates that article does not provide the exact answer to the given question.

Article 2

Wahie, S., Lloyd, J. J., and Farr, P. M. (2007) Sunscreen ingredients and labeling: a survey of products available in the UK. Clinical and experimental dermatology, 32(4), pp. 359-364.

Arguments: This article describes the findings that the UK dermatologist achieved results after conducting the research in the seven retail stores. From this study, it is concluded that different UV-absorbing ingredient are found in the sunscreens, and at the same time it is also found that UV –absorbing chemicals are not present in the patch testing of the adult sunscreens which is provided by the commercial suppliers.

So this survey indicates that current sunscreens contents and labelling are the standards from which future standards of sunscreens are developed. Moreover, from the testing, it is finding that UV absorbing chemicals are only found in the babies’ product, not in the adult’s sunscreens, and it is also not mention in the labels of the sunscreens.

So this study guides the customers regarding that in adult sunscreens, the company did not use a large amount of UV absorbing chemicals as compared to the children’s sunscreens. This affects the buying behaviour decision of the individual.

Sources: The article consider as useful sources for studying the influences of labeling on the consumer decision-making process. Besides that, the article is creditable for the study of sunscreens labeling on the consumer decision-making. The objectivity is also clear, and there is no biases exists in the research study of this article.

Reflection: The article is quite related to the answer as article gives clear understanding that UV absorption chemicals contents are less in the adult sunscreens comparatively to children’s sunscreens. This variation is also not mention on the label, and it will affect the consumer buying behavior decision as they are not educating about the product fairly.

Article 3

Hojerová, J., Medovcíková, A., and Mikula, M. (2011) Photoprotective efficacy and photostability of fifteen sunscreen products having the same label SPF subjected to natural sunlight. International journal of pharmaceutics, 408(1), pp. 27-38.

Arguments: From this article, it is finding that the mention level of SFA on the labeling of sunscreens was not correctly represented by most of the companies and this result in creating misunderstanding.

The study of photo stability defines that out of fifteen sunscreens, eight sunscreens appeared to be appropriate in all UV regions investigation study. But all the other remaining sunscreens products photo-instability in the case of UV range.

Therefore, these variations create the difficulties for the consumers to choose the correct products that are according to the labeling. This means that products contain the particular level of UV absorption that is mention on the label of the sunscreens.

Otherwise, the false label is not able to influences the customer as well as it does not provide the relevant education to the consumers while purchasing the sunscreens.

Sources: The source of this article is valid for giving the answer to the given question. It is because it gives the brief understanding about the labeling pattern on the sunscreens. The article is also proving to be credible in references to study the buying behavior of the sunscreens, and the objectivity of the article is also clear and well defines the answer to the given question.

Reflection: This article reflects the answer to the given question as this article explains that most of the sunscreens products use photo-instability in the case of UV range. Therefore, these variations in labeling create the difficulties for the consumers to choose the right sunscreen product and this affects the consumer buying behavior towards the sunscreens products. Thus, this article relates to the question, and it also helps in providing the answers.

Article 4

Hexsel, C. L., Bangert, S. D., Hebert, A. A., and Lim, H. W. (2008) Current sunscreen issues: 2007 Food and Drug Administration sunscreen labeling recommendations and combination sunscreen/insect repellent products. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 59(2), pp. 316-323.

Arguments: It indicates that due to the increasing issues in the sunscreens, this article describes the new development of sunscreens that is available in the United States. There is the introduction of the new sunscreen products with the insect of repellent products to provide both safety and efficiency to the consumers.

So, such practices able to influences the people of the US and their purchasing decision. But at the same time, the most critical issue is the labeling of the product. It is because the newly developed combination products offer the UV rays protection sunscreens, but with this, there is also the high risk of toxicity.

So this could affect the buying behavior of the products. In that case, it is recommended that companies should need to make the consumer educate about the combination of sunscreen and repellent products so that they can able to take the relevant decisions. This can be done with the developing appropriate labeling.

Sources: The sources of this article are useful to find out the consumer purchasing decision while purchasing the sunscreens products. At the same time, this article is also creditable enough in references to suggest the improvements in the labeling for assisting the consumer of the purchasing of sunscreens. The objectivity of the article is also clear as no biases is reflected in this article.

Reflections: The article gives the clear answer of the given question as it explains the development in the sunscreens in the country USA. It provides that companies use the combination of sunscreens and insect of repellent for absorption of high UV rays so that skin can be protected.

Such practices would raise the demand of the sunscreen, and at the same time, the article suggests that through labeling, there is need to educate the consumer about the ingredients of the new product offering so that maximum consumer buying decision could influence. Thus, these recommendations give the relevant answers of the given question and define the importance of the labeling in the skin brand products.


From the above study, it is concluded that all the above articles address the issues related to the labeling on the sunscreens product. From the surveys and testing, it is identified that some of the brands presents the false UV absorption level. So, this misleads the consumer regarding select the relevant product.

Thus, all the above three articles address the issues regarding the false practices in the labeling of sunscreens while the fourth article suggests the new development in product and suggest the requirement to effectively design the labeling.

This will result in providing protection to the consumer and efficiency. Hence, the main purpose of this study is to reflect the importance of the labeling in the case of sunscreens product to make the consumer aware about the contents of the product. On that basis, the consumer can able to take correct decision while purchasing the sunscreen products.

Leave a Comment