THEORY AND PRACTICE OF TESOL

Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
References

Section 1

According to the theory and practice of TESOL, the approach, method and techniques are applied, and rationale for each stage of learning are identified. TESOL refers to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. In general, it means English teaching to non-native people in the native country like America.

Plan of reading 

In the first stage, the students are provided with a short note that is needed to be explained in class. Marketing the students read of their own helps to enhance the ability to understand a topic in an efficient way. After that, the teacher asks the students to recall all the phrases that are referred to in the past. It is essential to make the students understand what they have learned in the short text. Hence the teacher gives an opportunity to the students for having a discussion in their small group of friends regarding the pattern that they underlined. Also, discussing among the group can clear several doughnuts and as well as it comes out with important questions and doughnuts that need to be clear, as commented by Rose (2019). Once the students are done with their discussion, the teacher calls them to come on board for further explanation of the topic that they have read in the short note and understood. It is found that the students were discussing their own childhood in the group as they were trying to relate their understanding of the short text with their childhood. Hence it is found that using real-life examples can be beneficial for a proper understanding of a topic.

How similar is this to the teaching of grammar in your own teaching context? 

Grammar is the process or a structure of a language, and it is also phonology and semantics. It helps in the better construction of sentences. It is identified that the theoretical subjects are not likely to be understood by the students in an easy way. The use of proper pictures and examples can help to understand subjects like grammar very fast, as commented by Farrell & Macapinlac (2021). Using examples can make the subject interesting as well.  In the process of grammar teaching, in the beginning, the teacher approaches the student about what they are going to learn about in the lesson, and it is going to help them to construct sentences. It makes students more enthusiastic, and it helps them to take part in the process of learning in an effective way. In the second stage, the teacher tries to summarise the chapter in a short brief, just like a movie trailer. Learning can be boring for several students at times but making it interesting is the job of a teacher. In the third stage, the teacher provokes the students to read a chapter or short, that they can understand the entire chapter. Once the student reads a few lines, the teacher helps them to understand the concept. They make the process of learning even more interesting by asking to use real examples. Here the students try to relate words and contents in regular sentences. In the next stage, teachers ask the students about their understanding of the short text in order to clarify doughnuts. 

Alternatives overall approach 

TEFL, TESL, CELTA, ESL, EFL, DELTA  are the alternative approaches of TESOL, but in the context of a better understanding of English, subject TESL can be applied. TESL refers to Teaching English as a Second Language. This approach can be used in many schools and educational organisations, as commented by Darvin & Norton (2018). Like any other approach such as TEFL, this TESL proves to make the teachers teach English to non-English language speakers. TESL can be used as an alternative method of teaching English as this helps to provide proper planning of teaching. Mostly this is used for helping the nonnative people that they do not feel hesitate to speak in English. In different words, this TESL can be used for teaching English from the primary level. TESL is useful for travellers as they have to face people from different language background in a country. It is known that keeping something from childhood helps enhance interest in learning. Hence, this approach can be applicable in English speaking institutes as the students know the basic concept of grammar, and they can enhance their learning by interest. 

On the other side, several schools use CELTA, which means Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults. This approach is used in many parts of the world. This involves a strategy of 4 weeks of learning, and this helps make the adults learn the English language. It is known that CELTA helps to get a job as the students get an interest to learn. Getting a job or placement can be a real-life example that is attractive for an individual. Also, this approach proves the opportunity of group discussion and such real-life acts to give practical examples. 

A brief outline of the factors that has been chosen between the alternatives

TESL and CELTA can be used as the alternative of TESOL. Both these methods can be applied to make the students learn and understand the language. These methods are applied by the public school in order to teach basic English. It is found that the adults feel uncomfortable communicating with the native English speakers in a different region. Hence both the alternative methods can be helpful for teaching English to adults, as commented by Flores & Aneja (2017). It provokes the learners to understand foreign language by real-life examples. In order to have a better understanding of English, both of the methods are applicable for using real-life experience. It is known that CELTA helps to crack interviews, and TESL helps the travellers to adjust to the natives. There is multiple evidence of both the methods that the community colleges use for learning purposes. In the context of TESOL, they provide basic education of the English language to the adults, and on the other side, the alternative does the same in an effective manner. 

Section 2

The issues 

My junior colleague is facing an issue to guide her student. It is identified that the students are not having any interest in studying. There is a question mark in the capability of a teacher, and on the other side, the students are feeling English is a dull subject. This issue can happen with any beginner in the reach field, as commented by Farrell (2017). Depending on the subjective matter, it is a subject of arts and also, there their only theory and no practical example as such. Hence, students get bored of studying English. In this matter, it is essential to guide a junior teacher to make the subject more interesting. The students are not interested in the class and talk among themselves about different matters rather than the subject. 

There are several students who are not from a native English background, and they feel the subject is complicated. Not understanding the subject in an efficient manner can be one of the reasons for demotivation in the class. On the other side, there are several efficient students who can show their capability of speaking in the class as the new learners get demotivated. It is the responsibility of each to make the students efficient in a particular subject and motivate them for the learning. My colleagues have enormous theoretical knowledge regarding this field, but she is facing tons of difficulty to guide the students and make them learn. 

From my personal experience, it is identified that the literature part of English can be interesting to several students, but the grammatical part is not at all interesting to most of the students. It is found from the feedback of students that some of the students feel shy to speak in English and learn about it. Hence all this matter needs to be resolved. There are several ideas that can make learning interesting. In the beginning, it is essential to identify the weakness of a student in order to develop their standards. On the other side, some students have wrong concepts regarding a particular topic. Hence, in the beginning, it is essential to find what the fact that bothers a student from learning is.  

English can be practical in a creative manner, and this could help the students to understand the subject eventually. In the beginning, a teacher needs to make students understand the importance of this subject and how the subject is going to help them in future, as commented by Darvin & Norton (2018). There are some common mistakes that people make when speaking in English, and the facts must be explained to the students in an effective manner. The learners look for fast results in studying or learning a subject. Here, it is imported to show the students how they are improving on a regular basis. There are multiple examples of successful teachers, and there is proper evidence. Also, it is essential to give freedom to the students that they do not feel hesitate to explain their problem to the teacher. 

The advice to guide the  colleague 

With proper evidence, I can give several ideas to my friend in order to resolve the issues that she is facing. 

Use video and audio- It is identified that the students do not enjoy theoretical class, but they pass their time by watching English motives and English songs. Hence, in order to motivate the students, my cloggeguous can find students’ interest in movies and music and play that in the class. As in evidence, it is found that students mostly talk about their interest among the group of friends, as commented by Liontas (2018). Hence, in order to enhance interest towers the subject, the teacher can also talk about a similar topic that a student is interested in. Talking about similar interests with the students can enhance attachment with the teacher, and students will feel comfortable explaining their problem. Also, watching motives and listening to the English song can be helpful to understand their listening and understanding power. 

Using English improving applications- My colleague can suggest some English learning applications to her students that can notice their regular improvement and track the record. There are several spoken English applications that connect with random speakers, and that speaks in English. As evidence, there are several students who feel shy to talk in the class and can not improve their speaking skills. Hence they can use such technology to improve the speaking skill by talking to native English speakers. The students can feel comfortable over the one as they do not have to face any other students. Once the students get comfortable with the factors, they can start to communicate in the class. The students will gradually enhance their interest in speaking in English and learning about it but get to know the language in practice.

Use of different word games for vocabulary- My colleague can play several word games in the class that the students get attracted towards learning. It can be said that games have a positive impact on life and using this strategy in the classroom can motivate the students and as well as this can influence the learner to learn more, as commented by Flores & Aneja (2017). As evidence, it is identified that students can enhance their stock of work by playing word games in the class. Also, it will enhance competition among the students to learn in a more effective way.  

Think in English- It is identified that people often think about something in their mind. Also, they often think of several matters in their native language. Most students use those languages that they are comfortable with. Hence it is essential to make the students comfortable about speaking in English. Sometimes people are less confident and do not feel comfortable to make mistakes. My colleague must provide opportunities for the students for making mistakes. As evidence it is found people often speak what they think of. My friend can suggest the students to think in English. Thinking in English can enhance their understanding of the subject and enhance interest.  

Section 3 

Briefly outline the practice 

Conversation on a regular basis regarding different topics can be a good practice that my friend can use in her teaching. It is known that communication is the key that can make the students feel comfortable with the teachers. As an experimental strategy, conventions regarding different topics can be useful to know the students more. Here a teacher can ask the students about their regular activity in the class and what are the interesting factors that they have done on weekends or something like this. The students will feel comfortable to talk about something they are familiar with and also they will enhance the attachment among a teacher and a student. On another aspect, it can be said that several students do not feel comfortable to talk about their personal life, as commented by Rose (2019). In this case, a teacher can provide a subjective topic or some interesting topic that is on-trend, to talk about. These familiar topics will gradually engage their general knowledge as well. Applying too much vocal conversation and activity can increase the internet of students towards the class. 

Explain the rationale behind the practice 

It is important to make the students notice that they are improving on a regular basis. There may not any noticeable improvement in the the student at the beginning. Gradually they will identify that they are not fumbling or hesitant while speaking in English. Also, it is essential to start with something easy in the class that students can boost their confidence. There should be enrichment that they can do, and also they need to get out of their comfort zone. Telling stories of own experience can boost the confidence of students, and they may try to do something of their own. 

Fake stokeris can also work well to boost the confidence of the students. It will be exciting to challenge the students to take part in such creative strategies. A teacher can ask the students to make stories tell that of their own. This also enhances thor thinking power by the time. Behind the practice of this regular conversation will be effective to engage their stock of words. There will be different students telling and explaining different stories. The entire mass may come up with few interesting synonyms. The students can learn to implement  new words in their daily conversation. This will gradually impact on their learning and motivational factors.  

Reason of experiment 

There are thousands of students who do not feel courageous in their day life. There are a number of issues regarding depression. By seeing other people are doing well in life , several students can feel demotivated in the classroom. Sometimes several students do not feel confident during giving exams or interviews. On the other hand there are a number of students who come abroad to study different subjects and languages. It is obvious that they have to stay away from their family for a long time. Hence, it becomes important to adjust in a new environment abroad. In order to communicate in local or regional language, the student may feel a lot of complications. Hence, using and knowing a universal language like English can boost their confidence. 

In this context, it can be identified that an experiment can come up with a new strategy of learning, as commented by Yang (2018). On the other hand, learning makes life easy. A student can boost confidence by learning, knowing and explaining. Also, people learn English to crack interviews, and it is essential to know the actual process of it. 

Regular conversation does not only work well for educational improvement but also provides solutions to several problems. Also, regular conversation can be effective for the psychological matter. There are several students who may suffer from demotiation and depression. Hence using this strategy can get them out of a sick condition. It will build manpower and a comfort zone among the friends of students in class. There can be identified strategic improvement using these experimental factors.  Regular conversation will give control into the hand of the students to sense their improvement. This will provide a proper learning objective and aim to the student to achieve success in future. The students will focus on long term goals rather than short term goals. There will be no threat for the student that challenges students regarding their efficiency.  The scenery will improve towards study and learning. On the other hand, they will have a lot of theoretical experience to deal with difficult situations on a regular basis. There will be effective positive competition among the other students, and in the long run, they will reward. It also enhances responsibility towers career. 

Evaluation of the success of the experiment 

It is important to implement new experimental strategies, but along with that, it is essential to identify how this is working towards progress. 

Weekly Assessment- The student will give a weekly assessment in order to notice their progress in a faster way. Taking assessment every week will enhance their hunger for learning. Along with the results, the students can find instant results of their progress. There will be objective questions in the assessment that the students can find their progress in small steps. For example there will be synonyms and antonyms to check their vocabulary. Also, there will be multiple choice questions of grammar that show how the students are progressing. 

Monthly Assessment 

Monthly sessions will be something like demo interviews and  face to face conversation with the outsiders. Monthly assessment of something fun like word games or debated. O Organising debated will be great to identify the progress of the stunt. At the end of the assessment, they will be rewarded for winning. As a result, students would not feel nervous while giving assessment and the result will be. At the end, a good result will influence students to learn more and also this will reduce demotivation. 

Darvin, R., & Norton, B. (2018). Identity, investment, and TESOL. The TESOL encyclopedia of English language teaching, 1-7. Retrieved from:  https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0802

Farrell, T. S., & Macapinlac, M. (2021). Professional development through reflective practice: A framework for TESOL teachers. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics/Revue canadienne de linguistique appliquée, 24(1), 1-25. Retrieved from:https://www.erudit.org/en/journals/cjal/1900-v1-n1-cjal05857/1075521ar/abstract/

Farrell, T.S., (2017). Research on reflective practice in TESOL. Routledge. Retrieved from:https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=35Y6DwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT6&dq=TESOL+&ots=G6mr7S7kGo&sig=elNmyoKkalqjru3uOABPzeWPWHM

Flores, N., & Aneja, G. (2017). ” Why Needs Hiding?” Translingual (Re) Orientations in TESOL Teacher Education. Research in the Teaching of English, 441-463. Retrieved from:https://www.jstor.org/stable/44821275

Liontas, J. I., & TESOL International Association. (2018). The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching, 8 Volume Set. John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved from:https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=pppFDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP3&dq=TESOL+&ots=yJkLLl5eQI&sig=iwYlDtJj7aitX8vK0MukifjsALk

Mckinley, J., (2019). Evolving the TESOL teaching-research nexus. Tesol Quarterly, 53(3), pp.875-884. Retrieved from:https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jim_Mckinley/publication/332552141_Evolving_the_TESOL_Teaching-Research_Nexus/links/5cbed728a6fdcc1d49a87b40/Evolving-the-TESOL-Teaching-Research-Nexus.pdf

Raza, K., & Coombe, C. (2021). What Makes an Effective TESOL Teacher in the Gulf? An Empirical Exploration of Faculty-Student Perceptions for Context-Specific Teacher Preparation. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 8(1), 143-162. Retrieved from:https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0022057420904381

Rose, H. (2019). Dismantling the ivory tower in TESOL: A renewed call for teaching-informed research. Tesol Quarterly, 53(3). Retrieved from:  https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:0f590a81-c0dc-4c7c-bcbe-59498f465554/download_file?file_format=pdf&safe_filename=2019%2BTESOL%2BQuarterly%2Bauthor%2Bversion.pdf&type_of_work=Journal+article

Sharma, B. K. (2021). Retelling Stories of Desire in TESOL: English, Imagination, and Encounters in Tourism. TESOL Quarterly, 55(1), 80-104. Retrieved from:https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/tesq.574

Yang, P. (2018). Developing TESOL teacher intercultural identity: An intercultural communication competence approach. TESOL journal, 9(3), 525-541. Retrieved from:https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/tesj.356



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