Solar Photovoltaic

Assignment: Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Panels

Introduction

In the current environment, carbon emission has become the global environmental problem. It is because the negative effects of the carbon emission are continuously increasing and it also pollutes the environment. The increasing the pollution level of the environment has created an issue of the sustainable environment. Due to this, scientists are emerging in the seeking the new ways to minimize the hazard the carbon emission. In this, it is found that science has been successful to introduce the solar photovoltaic (PV) panels’ technology that can control the negative effect of the carbon energy on the world. It is a kind of low carbon energy supply technology that is used to the great extent in overall world. In this, it is identified that the USA is one of the most company that is greatly involved in the use of solar panel technology (Green, et. al. 2015). A solar photovoltaic (PV) panel is also one of the most affordable accessible and effective technologies of in the context of low and zero carbon energy technologies. In the USA, this technology has been developed to the great extent. At the same time, the cost of the solar technology has also declined at the 60% in the last decade. The use of the solar photovoltaic (PV) panel technology is increasing rapidly in the popular states of the USA such as California, Hawaii, Texas, and Minnesota (Aad, et. al. 2014). This industry also employs around 209000 peoples.

Discussion about the Solar Photovoltaic Panels

Solar photovoltaic panels consider as a solar power system which is designed with the aim to supply the usable solar power. The solar photovoltaic consists of various arrangements of the components like arranging the solar panels in order to absorb the sunlight and convert into the electricity. Likewise, solar inverters also convert the electric current from AC to DC (Parida et al., 2011). At the same time, solar photovoltaic panels also include the solar tracking system for improving the overall system performances. The photovoltaic panels also have ranged from small, rooftop-mounted or building integrated systems with having the capability of several tens of kilowatts. But, in the current scenario, most PV systems have connected grid system. Generally, grid connected system is required for the large portion of the market while off-grid system or stand-alone systems only useful for the small portion of the market.

Solar Photovoltaic

(Sources: NREL, 2017)

According to Guo et al., (2012), the main reasons of the country to emphasis more on the solar photovoltaic system because this system provides a number of benefits. The USP of this system is that it did not have any moving parts. Similarly, it also did not consist of any form of fluids and gases. At the same time, it also gives the full output instantly. Other than that, the solar photovoltaic system could also operate at the moderate temperature without producing any type of pollution. Moreover, this system also demands fewer maintenance cost of the company. Therefore this innovation is totally proven environmental- friendly technology which saves the energy by making conserves of efficiency in the form to convert the sunlight into the electricity (Hosenuzzaman et al., 2015). Such practices indicate that the solar photovoltaic is the innovation idea that helps to make the environmental pollutant free and contribute to the efficiency and effectiveness of the climate.

Current state of solar photovoltaic panels in the USA

In the current scenario, there is a country like USA that achieved high successes in this system among other countries due to the US have done many types of research on the solar photovoltaic panels. At the same time, US has used this technology in a very appropriate manner. With this innovation, the USA able to conserves their maximum energy and resources. In the current state, the US is considered as a top country which generated their maximum electricity with the help of sun only. It is also estimated that the US is also investing largely on the solar projects as compared to other countries (Mani et al., 2010).

In the recent times, the local citizens also start to use the solar panels system in their homes and restaurants, and this is done by the US government by initiating through developing various campaigns in order to make the people aware about this system. So such practices of the USA government prove to be beneficial for the country in the recent state (Rehman and Al-Hadhrami, 2010). Moreover, the people also taking interest in this system because of increasing the environmental issues. These issues raised the requirements of the eco-friendly system. So with the innovation of solar panel system, people of US get ready to accept it easily.

It is also determined that the people in the USA initially not accepting the solar panels system due to it has high costing that restricts the people to easily accept it. But with the contribution of the government of US, the cost for solar panels is failing rapidly. This allows the local people of USA to purchase largely the solar panels and now the current situation is that US citizens produce their electricity only with the help of the solar photovoltaic system (Fahrenbruch and Bube, 2012). This practice helps them to reduce the maximum waste and energy releasing in the environment.

Likely role within the energy system, and impact on other supply systems and carbon emission

The solar photovoltaic panel plays a significant role in the area of energy system like electricity. As if because today solar photovoltaic are capable enough to convert the one kilowatts of solar energy falling on one square meter into about one hundreds watts of electricity. Such one hundred watts people can use most of its household appliances. This indicates that the role of a solar photovoltaic panel is considering as the best sources to generate electricity as likely to compare from the thermal and nuclear power sources (Sambur et al., 2010). In a similar manner, the role of solar photovoltaic panels has more positive influences in comparison to other energy systems like the thermal power plant and nuclear plants. This is because the solar cells have more capability to absorb large energy from the sun and the photovoltaic system easily converting that energy into the electricity. On the other side, most of the energy system is not prove to be more capable enough in terms to convert the conserve energy into the electricity form. It is because another energy system is lost their effectiveness even before it converted into the electricity. So, it can be stated that solar photovoltaic are played an essential role in converting the energy into the electricity.

In addition to this, it is also identified that solar photovoltaic system also considers as the best sources due to having the positive impact on the environment. The unique feature of the solar PV system is that it does not include emission of carbon dioxide as this is the main gas which increases the pollution in across the atmosphere (Branker et al., 2011). At the same time, PV does not associate with conventional generation technology as it not exhausts fumes or noise that other energy supply system used in converting into the electricity. Thus, this system contributes high on the protecting environment through does not support any emission of gases like carbon-dioxide. In a similar manner, US also contribute high in terms to save maximum energy and protect the environment. As in the US, there are several industries is working which all need high power in watts. So with the help of conventional energy system, the US could not be able to conserve more energy, and it also does not prove to be more effective. But with the innovation of solar photovoltaic system by the government of US, they become capable enough to generate the electricity kilowatts which support the large industries in the US market and contribute to the nation economic development. Now in the current situation in comparison to the previous ones, US developing 200-ton electric-arc steel furnace with demanding electricity worth 50,000 kilowatts and this is done through PV power supply. Thus, with the help of this innovative system, US become capable of developing more innovation in future (Peng et al., 2013).

Moreover, this system also proved to be eco-friendly mainly because of two reasons. First one is that it is pollution free system as it works only with sun rays. Secondly, it does not require emission carbon-dioxide in the environment as this technology does not support any fumes, exhaust any gases through burning something (Bazilian et al., 2013). Thus due to these causes, the solar photovoltaic system consider as the eco-friendly system that reduces the pollution.

Prospects for future technical development

In the last decade in the USA, it is indented that there has been remained significant growth in the solar photovoltaic (PV) panel technology. In this, engineers and companies reduced the cost of the solar panel to the great extent. They remained successful to reduce the cost of installation of the solar panel that motivated the customers to install solar plant according to their need. Even though, as concerning current aspect of the solar photovoltaic (PV) panel technology, some development can be made in the context of the cost and efficiency. Still now, the installation of the PV Panels is costly for the low-income level people. They get financial difficulty to install solar panel system at their resistance (Liang et al., 2010).

In the USA, there are many futures technical developments are under proceeding. In this, floating panels, floating solar farms is one of technology where solar panel installed in the flow. It is also known as the ecological alternative solutions that avoid the requirement of the large ground. At the same time, the technology of transmitting solar power wirelessly from space is also ongoing in the USA (Jeon, et al. 2015) The county has an aim to transmit energy from orbiting solar panels. Furthermore, it is also found that researchers and engineers are also emerging in the energy harvesting trees with the help of 3D printing technology.

Barriers and opportunities (including costs)

In the reference this technology, it is also found that the industry of solar panel is supportive by the government and economic condition of the USA. But still, there are some barriers that are affecting the growth of the solar photovoltaic (PV) panel technology. In this, the use of traditional way of the using of energy has the huge impact on this industry. In this, it is found that people are depended on the traditional ways of generating the energy. At the same time, it is also recognized that there is no plan from the side of government to provide subsidy on the installation solar photovoltaic (PV) panel technology system. At the time, it is effective in the bad weather condition, so people do not concern to install the solar system. The main barriers of this solar panels system are the high costing due to which the individual becomes incapable to use this system in their homes and their workplaces (Razykov et al., 2011). For instances, when solar photovoltaic panel technology system is innovated in the USA then the local people of USA feel hesitated to accept this innovative technology due to the high price of the solar system. But with the intervention of USA government and provide subsidiary to the solar industries makes the system price. Such contribution of government allows the people to easily buy the solar photovoltaic system. But at the same time, in many places like in developing countries like India till now the awareness of the solar power system is lacking, due to which people does not create their interest in terms buy such system. At the same time, the high price of the solar photovoltaic also becomes a barrier for the people to consider the solar system. Therefore, due to not getting awareness about the solar panels in various areas, the environmental issues get increasing day by day. Besides that, the PV panels also demand high maintenance and operating costs that are also creates the barriers for the people to make them ready to buy. At last, the solar panels system have relatively less efficiency around to 14%-25% as compare to the conventional energy system (Chu and Majumdar, 2012). Thus, these emerging factors become the barriers for the people to easily accept the solar photovoltaic system.

Opportunities

On the other hand, there are various opportunities that enhance the growth/ development of solar photovoltaic systems. The first cause that helps the solar photovoltaic to get the high recognition in the market is its eco-friendly nature that helps in reducing the pollution and protecting the environment. At the same time, there are various opportunities that this innovative technology provides to the USA (Singh, 2013). Likewise, USA considers as developed country because it consists of all type of industries whether it is retail or IT. Then in such case, to perform effectively by the industries, there is a high requirement of the electricity. So with the innovation of solar PV technology system, the industries get the high opportunity to explore innovation in their products and services. Moreover, the increasing environmental issues also bring the opportunity for the PV system as it is an environmentally friendly system that does not support any kind of emission of carbon or other gases. PV system installation also helps the operator to use this system to many years with making a little maintenance. At the same time, this system is also replaceable, and it is easy to fit on the roof that reduces the operator cost of installation or cost of maintenance (Hernandez et al., 2014). Therefore, such benefits of the solar PV technology indicate the opportunities that would arise in the future. It can be less carbon pollution, fewer health diseases, etc.

Personal view on the technology, based on the evidence

In the regard of solar photovoltaic (PV) panel technology, it can be seen that engineers and researchers are continuously involved in the improving the performance of the solar photovoltaic (PV) panels. As concerning of the increasing the issue of the sustainable development, the role of the solar photovoltaic (PV) panels is very important. In the past years, the researcher and engineer introduced the significant technology in this sector. At the same time, it is also found that in the cost of solar panels, significant customer favorable improvement has been done. This technology is also important and beneficial for the life of human being because increasing carbon emission is harmful to human beings. This technology is helpful to reduce the carbon emission in the environment. Additionally, there is also some other benefit of this technology such as preservation of non-renewable sources, climate changes and low carbon pollution (Zhou, et. al. 2014). But, at the same time, it is also found that there this technology is ineffective in the bad weather condition due to this, it is unpopular some areas.

Recommendations

In the context of the solar photovoltaic (PV) panel technology, it can be recommended that the researchers and engineer should use the new material that can increase the performance of the solar panel. Along with this, they should try with some kind of material that can reduce the cost of installation of the solar panels. In the context of the USA’s government, it can be recommended that it should introduce the effective polices that can help the companies to grow in the industry (Christians, et al. 2013). In the same concern of this, there are several ways that can be focused by the government and industry to promote the use of solar panel technology. For this, the government can provide the subsidiary to the customer during the installation of the solar panel. In order to increase the awareness of the use of the solar panels, the government can play an effective role. At the same time, the USA’s government should also concern on increasing the budget for the research and development on the solar panels in the financial budget (Aad, et. al. 2015) in regard of this, the government can spend money where development is more required. It will help to increase the use of the low and zero carbon energy technology and minimize the negative effect of the carbon emission.

Lastly, it is also recommended that the US should include the stronger national policies to shift from the use of fossils fuels energy system to the solar system. This is because, US is still behind the other nations as it is considered as a fourth largest market for PV installation system after the countries like Germany, Japan, and Spain.

In order to increase the efficiency of the PV system, it is recommended to the solar industry to bring more improvements in the materials of the solar system so that more efficiently sunlight could be converted and supply the electricity (Blankenship et al., 2011). Likewise, they need to use the solar cells which are made up of from either crystalline silicon or thin-film semiconductor material. This material is low in weight and high power of absorption. So, there is a high need to bring improvement in the materials quality of the solar PV technology systems.

Conclusion

From the above discussion, it can be concluded that solar PV technology system plays a significant role in the reduction of pollution and protecting the environment through does not support the emission of carbon gases. It is an eco-friendly system that increases the efficiency level of the company, countries as well as it contributes towards the economic development. In addition to this, it is found that the solar PV system has a positive impact on the environment as it contributes high on the conservation of energy and saves more power. At the same time, PV system also considers as the best sources comparatively to other energy supply sources like thermal, nuclear energy plants. Besides that, the study also gives the brief about the barriers that restrict the solar PV system. Likewise, the lack of promotion or fewer government policies are the causes that make the people aware about the solar systems. Similarly, the high price of solar system makes the people conscious to install the solar PV system. But at the same time, solar PV system proves to be the best source of the electricity-energy supply system among the other energy systems.

References

Aad, G., Abajyan, T., Abbott, B., Abdallah, J., Khalek, S.A., Abdinov, O., Aben, R., Abi, B., Abolins, M., AbouZeid, O.S. and Abramowicz, H., Jet energy measurement and its systematic uncertainty in proton–proton collisions at\sqrt {s}= 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector. The European Physical Journal C, Vol75 (1), pp.17, 2015.

Aad, G., Abbott, B., Abdallah, J., Khalek, S.A., Abdinov, O., Aben, R., Abi, B., Abolins, M., AbouZeid, O.S., Abramowicz, H. and Abreu, H., Electron and photon energy calibration with the ATLAS detector using LHC Run 1 data. The European Physical Journal C, Vol 74 (10), pp.3071, 2014.

Bazilian, M., Onyeji, I., Liebreich, M., MacGill, I., Chase, J., Shah, J., … and Zhengrong, S., Re-considering the economics of photovoltaic power. Renewable Energy, Vol 53, pp. 329-338, 2013.

Blankenship, R. E., Tiede, D. M., Barber, J., Brudvig, G. W., Fleming, G., Ghirardi, M., … and Moore, T. A., Comparing photosynthetic and photovoltaic efficiencies and recognizing the potential for improvement. science, Vol 332(6031), pp. 805-809, 2011.

Branker, K., Pathak, M. J. M., and Pearce, J. M., A review of solar photovoltaic levelized cost of electricity. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol 15(9), pp. 4470-4482, 2011.

Christians, J.A., Fung, R.C. and Kamat, P.V., An inorganic hole conductor for organo-lead halide perovskite solar cells. Improved hole conductivity with copper iodide. Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol 136(2), pp.758-764, 2013.

Chu, S., and Majumdar, A., Opportunities and challenges for a sustainable energy future. nature, Vol 488(7411), pp. 294, 2012.

Fahrenbruch, A., and Bube.,  Fundamentals of solar cells: photovoltaic solar energy conversion. Elsevier, 2012.

Green, M.A., Emery, K., Hishikawa, Y., Warta, W. and Dunlop, E.D., Solar cell efficiency tables (Version 45). Progress in photovoltaics: research and applications, Vol 23 (1), pp.1-9, 2015.

Guo, X., Zhang, M., Tan, J., Zhang, S., Huo, L., Hu, W., … and Hou, J., Influence of D/A ratio on photovoltaic performance of a highly efficient polymer solar cell system. Advanced Materials, Vol 24(48), pp. 6536-6541, 2012.

Hernandez, R. R., Easter, S. B., Murphy-Mariscal, M. L., Maestre, F. T., Tavassoli, M., Allen, E. B., … and Allen, M. F., Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol 29, pp. 766-779, 2014.

Hosenuzzaman, M., Rahim, N. A., Selvaraj, J., Hasanuzzaman, M., Malek, A. B. M. A., and Nahar, A., Global prospects, progress, policies, and environmental impact of solar photovoltaic power generation. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol  41, pp. 284-297, 2015.

Jeon, N.J., Noh, J.H., Yang, W.S., Kim, Y.C., Ryu, S., Seo, J. and Seok, S.I., Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells. Nature, Vol 517(7535), pp.476, 2015.

Liang, Y., Xu, Z., Xia, J., Tsai, S. T., Wu, Y., Li, G., … and Yu, L., For the bright future—bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%. Advanced Materials, Vol 22(20), 2010.

Mani, M., and Pillai, R., Impact of dust on solar photovoltaic (PV) performance: Research status, challenges and recommendations. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol 14(9), pp. 3124-3131, 2010.

Parida, B., Iniyan, S., and Goic, R.,  A review of solar photovoltaic technologies. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, Vol 15(3), pp. 1625-1636, 2011.

Peng, J., Lu, L., and Yang, H., Review on life cycle assessment of energy payback and greenhouse gas emission of solar photovoltaic systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol 19, pp. 255-274, 2013.

Razykov, T. M., Ferekides, C. S., Morel, D., Stefanakos, E., Ullal, H. S., and Upadhyaya, H. M,. Solar photovoltaic electricity: Current status and future prospects. Solar Energy, Vol 85(8), pp. 1580-1608, 2011.

Rehman, S., and Al-Hadhrami, L. M., Study of a solar PV–diesel–battery hybrid power system for a remotely located population near Rafha, Saudi Arabia. Energy, Vol 35(12), pp. 4986-4995, 2010.

Sambur, J. B., Novet, T., and Parkinson, B. A., Multiple exciton collection in a sensitized photovoltaic system. Science, Vol 330(6000), pp. 63-66, 2010.

Singh, G. K., Solar power generation by PV (photovoltaic) technology: A review. Energy, Vol 53, pp.1-13, 2013.

Zhou, H., Chen, Q., Li, G., Luo, S., Song, T.B., Duan, H.S., Hong, Z., You, J., Liu, Y. and Yang, Y., Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells. Science, Vol 345(6196), pp.542-546, 2014.

Leave a Comment