BMG871 International Business Research Skills Assignment Sample

 

Coursework 2 (BMG871 International Business Research Skills)

Mind Map 1: Gender Equality in Work place

BMG871 International Business Research Skills Assignment Sample 1

Mind Map 2: Gambling Behaviour

BMG871 International Business Research Skills Assignment Sample 2

Coursework 3

Option 1

Introduction

Data collection and analysis is considered to be one of the most vital segments of a study. This study is going to be foregrounding qualitative interview method as a part of primary research and it is allowing this study to delve deep into mental state of individuals in terms of coming up with effective answers. Present study has its foundation on two interview samples and a comparative overview would be drawn out of that. This comparative analysis of two interviews would help to point out appropriate approaches and essentials which are required to be maintained during interview session. Participant observation would also unfold different nooks and crannies of an interview procedure.

A. Qualitative Interview

Introduction of Interview

Interview is a process of structured conversation that allows a participant to answer questions, asked by a panel or a single individual. Usually, interviews are classified into different types like “face to face interview”, “sequential and panel interview”, “group interview”, “situational interview” and “phone or video call interview”. At organisational level, interviews are mainly undertaken with intent of testifying knowledge, skills, behaviours and attitudes of interviewees. Potter (2018, p.172) claimed that interview is a systematic process of data collection and it leaves further scope for analysis of relevant data items. This author further illustrated that in case of formal interviews different variables like dress code, body language and dates are given much priority. Showkat and Parveen (2017) outlined that formal interviews usually have some specific purposes and along with that questions are framed in accordance with actual contexts. Besides that, main focus of an interview remains on extraction of important information.

Analysing above purposes and factors, a comparative analysis is going to be conducted between sample interviews 1 and 2 to come to a final conclusion. It is to be deduced that comparative analysis of two interviews would indicate ideal structure and format of an interview. Introducing self is a major and one of the most challenging tasks for the interviewees. For instance, in sample interview 1, it is seen that a striking introduction is missing which might have added value to the entire conversation. On contrary, sample interview 2 has combined a perfect introductory session in short that enabled participant and interviewer to indulge in more thought-provoking and clear conversation.

Approach of interview

Approach appears to be one of the most important elements that beef up whole process of this qualitative data collection method. Sample interview 1 has opened eyes of interviewers and interviewees both as a completely unprofessional and amateur attitude is displayed from the end of both interviewers and interviewees (YOUTUBE.COM, 2021). In this context, it is to be mentioned professionalism in interviews is detrimental to one’s professional and personal growth. Copes et al. (2018, p.475) pointed out that bragging and over usage of key terms makes whole process more vague and superficial and it might curb chances of making a quick improvement on pain points. From sample interview 1, it is to be mentioned that engrossment of interviewer completely to cell phone and habit of interviewer to get easily distracted from actual topic are seeming extremely annoying. It is to be pointed out that such behaviours of interviewers can also diminish degree of confidence that an interviewee has possessed.

Sample interview 2 is a complete foil to previous one that smoothly has proceeded to its fulfilment as it has maintained a structured and gradual process of advancement. Interview 2 is set in a calm and composed approach of both interviewer and interviewees and both have coordinated brilliantly to mitigate actual purpose behind interview (YOUTUBE.COM, 2021). Instead of asking questions in a hasty manner, interviewer has chosen to embrace a polite and steady manner that facilitates better coordination. Ranging from tonal quality to body language and eye contact all are appropriately maintained, while sample 1 eye contact is hardly given priority. As per view of Duris(2021), behavioural pattern of interviewees is required to be observed carefully by interviewer for making better judgement and getting a glimpse of their response to outer world stimulus. In this context, second sample interview is more apt and expertise of interviewer is proved by her ability to continually keep focus on body language and other behavioural factors, while interviewee is replying.

Unlike first one, interviewer has not allowed interviewee to nod her head or to give a reply in just one or two words. Ahmetoglu et al. (2021) opined that during interview, planning is a major component that offers a systematic structure to the entire process. In sample one interview, interviewer, due to lack of planning, becomes distracted and creates a sense of confusion even in mind of interviewee. In this context, it is worth to be noted that preplanning and maintaining a proper format can obviate unfortunate and embarrassing consequences. Owing to this reason, first interview has turned into a complete mess, while second one has achieved the desired outcome through preplanning, detailing and reliance on a rigid format. Comparison of two sample interviews not only intended to depict format of an ideal interview, but also the pitfalls that might meddle up entire effort and time of both interviewer and interviewee.

Interview Questions

Interview questions are of pivotal importance to both parties who are appearing in an interview and contributing to the process of data collection and analysis either for an organisation or for research studies. Sample interview 1 has covered a fusion of different categories of questions like open indeed, close ended and double barrelled (YOUTUBE.COM, 2021). Instead of focusing on core questions, interviewer keeps asking same questions several times. For instance, an interviewee has been asked multiple times about training experience and whether she has liked this training session or not. Instead of active listening, it is seen that interviewees are interrupting between questions. Even the interviewer’s unprofessionalism is reflected in her attitude of allowing that participant to answer in yes or no or to just nod her head as a reply to questions. Besides her own fault and unprofessional attitude, interviewer deliberately has regarded an answer of interviewee as contradictory and even her reluctance to ask questions is also evident in her way of communication.

Sample interview 2 has been presented as an attempt of portraying ideal interview styles and ways of exchanging thoughts during interview sessions. Prior to coming to core topic of discussion, interviewer adeptly has given a short yet neat introduction of her and has insisted that participants do the same. Sample interview 2 is characterised by active listening, polite behaviour and mutual efforts from both the sides (YOUTUBE.COM, 2021). In this context, it is worth mentioning that an assertive method of communication is taken by interviewer and interviewee to make a harmony between questions and answers session. Therefore, to conduct an interview, openness and integrity should be carefully mitigated to transform a formal conversation into a more comfortable and systematic one.

Conclusion of Interview

As an introduction, a conclusion is also an indispensable part of an interview that marks wrapping up of an entire discussion in a structured and comprehensive manner. Sample interview 1, has ended abruptly without making attempts to ask for approval from interviewee. Addiction to cell phone of interviewer has spoiled the entire session and even she is reluctant to stretch the conversation to an extent for closing it properly. On contrary, sample interview 2 has a proper ending, facilitated by mutual effort of both parties, especially interviewer. Prior to wrapping up, interviewer heartily thanked interviewee for her valuable time and participation. Both the interviews are about specific training and response of participants. Throughout Sample interview 2, interviewer has asked different relevant questions to participants related to this training and during closure, she has stressed three areas. Three areas include recommendations regarding training practises, further feedback and types of training practise participants would like to attend next time. Therefore, it is to be opined that second sample of interview is more structured and it has left room for improvement of training practices in future.

Findings from interview

Comparative analysis of two samples of interviews has enlightened numerous factors which are to be given much importance while communicating or taking part in an interview for either formal or informal causes.  Moreover, first sample of interview sounds vague and has spoiled actual purpose. For instance, training practices have remained at the centre of discussion and due to inconsistency and lack of clarity, audiences and even interviewers have failed to identify changes that might upgrade overall training experiences. Law et al. (2020) pointed out that interview biases generally stem from different variables like inconsistency in thought and absence of clarity and it generally plagues the overall judgement of interviewer. It is to be assumed that first interview sample was also affected due to biased knowledge and thoughts of interview and it overwhelmed her entire judgement capability. In addition to that, a natural consistency is deftly maintained throughout whole process of the second sample of interview.

It is to be suggested that in case of first sample, interviewer should have given a closer look at body language. Using her cell phone for recording of responses might have assisted better to notice minute details that interviewee was narrating. Korstjens, I. and Moser, A., (2018, p. 120) recommended that a grasp on emotional and personal feelings of an individual is of utmost importance during an interview as it reveals better the mental state of participant and his behavioural factors. Sample two has remained true to principles of interview and carefully listened to every detail, mentioned by interviewee.

B. Participant Observation

Fundamentals of participant observation

Participant observation is a vital component of qualitative research that renders a higher level of credence to a participant’s interpretation. Jerolmack and Khan (2018) stated participant observation is conducive for delivering greater accuracy through underpinning each detail. This author added that participant observation is more flexible in nature in comparison to other prominent methods. In context of two samples of interview, participant observation has helped to develop a proper approach though the first one seemed to be abounded by ambiguities.

Difference between Overt and Covert Observation

Being a highly reliable yet flexible method of qualitative research, participant observation is classified into two different segments like overt and covert observation. As per view of El-Saed et al. (2018, p. 931), in overt observation, participants are informed that they are observed. On contrary, in case of covert observation, participants remained unaware about the fact that they are observed for a specific purpose of data collection. Overt observation is acclaimed as one of the most ethical methods of observation where entire process is undertaken with consent of participants and chances of deception are averted at the same time. Cover research at the same time is instrumental for generating more authentic results as in this case unawareness of participants can reveal many details that they consciously conceal from others. Besides, all these researchers might get entangled in legal complications for their deceptive intention of testing participants’ responses.

Importance of participant observation

Participant observation is discovered as one of the most natural cost effective mediums of obtaining qualitative data and analysing them in this process. This method naturally connects researchers with that of raw and genuine human experiences by immersing in behaviour of humans.  Across the study of social sciences, samples of participant observation are collected in different forms like recording voices, taking notes and taking images (Hockey and Forsey, 2020, p.86). Ranging from social settings to complex interactions all are embedded within-participant observation. Besides that this particular method of qualitative study demands adequate spending of time for interacting with a group of participants and to derive acceptance from them.

Pros and Cons of participant observation

Like all other methods and elements of qualitative research, participant observation also has a specific set of pros and cons. Hockey and Forsey, 2020, p.81) identified validity as one of the major advantages of participant observation and along with some other theoretical advantages are also there. For instance, participant observation takes place in natural settings and helps to gain in-depth insight, accompanied by different means of enquiry. New ideas are also generated through this strategy of qualitative research and flexibility level is mitigated through a ceaseless encounter with new circumstances. On the other hand, without informed consent, respondents might feel deceived by interviewer and hence can lodge legal complaints. Such chances are high in context of covert observation and interpersonal skills required to be consolidated enough to start conversation in a proper and formal manner.

Relevant instances of participant observation

Participant observations are currently leveraged in practical circumstances to strengthen degree of validity and flexibility in research work. Reid et al. (2021, p.10) stated that in an organisational framework, a supervisor is secretly appointed for secretly noticing activities of employees and it gives rise to employee satisfaction levels. Besides that, for overt observation, in hospitals individual responses are collected from patients that allow that hospital to become more improved in terms of services and patient care.

Conclusion

Interview is undoubtedly one of the major methods of qualitative research which also has some regulations. This study has attempted to dig deeper into interview sessions by comparing and contrasting two given samples of interview. Approach to communication, introduction and conclusion procedures are analysed in detail, while findings are mentioned in context of secondary evidence. Participant observation is conducive for conducting qualitative study and owing to that pros and cons of it are clarified. In addition to that, importance of participant observation is also discussed along with classifications of PO. Overt and covert observations are both beneficial, still legal complications are there that might sabotage reputation of researcher. Practical instances of PO are also elucidated for understanding purposes and circumstances of it.

References

Ahmetoglu, Y., Brumby, D.P. and Cox, A.L., (2021). Disengaged From Planning During the Lockdown? An Interview Study in an Academic Setting. IEEE Pervasive Computing.

Batz-Barbarich, C., Tay, L., Kuykendall, L. and Cheung, H.K., (2018). A meta-analysis of gender differences in subjective well-being: estimating effect sizes and associations with gender inequality. Psychological science, 29(9), pp.1491-1503.

Conolly, A., Davies, B., Fuller, E., Heinze, N. and Wardel, H., (2018). Gambling behaviour in Great Britain in 2016. Evidence from England, Scotland and Wales. London: NatCen Social Research.

Copes, H., Tchoula, W., Brookman, F. and Ragland, J., (2018). Photo-elicitation interviews with vulnerable populations: Practical and ethical considerations. Deviant Behavior, 39(4), pp.475-494.

Duris, J., (2021). A behavioural marker system for mindful care.

El-Saed, A., Noushad, S., Tannous, E., Abdirizak, F., Arabi, Y., Al Azzam, S., Albanyan, E., Al Jahdalil, H., Al Sudairy, R. and Balkhy, H.H., (2018). Quantifying the Hawthorne effect using overt and covert observation of hand hygiene at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. American journal of infection control, 46(8), pp.930-935.

Hockey, J. and Forsey, M., (2020). Ethnography is not participant observation: Reflections on the interview as participatory qualitative research. In The Interview (pp. 69-87). Routledge.

Jerolmack, C. and Khan, S.R. eds., (2018). Approaches to ethnography: analysis and representation in participant observation. Oxford University Press.

Korstjens, I. and Moser, A., (2018). Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research. Part 4: Trustworthiness and publishing. European Journal of General Practice, 24(1), pp.120-124.

Law, P.M., Malik, S., Du, F. and Sinha, M., (2020). Designing Tools for Semi-Automated Detection of Machine Learning Biases: An Interview Study. arXiv preprint arXiv:2003.07680.

Potter, A., (2018). Managing productive academia/industry relations: the interview as research method. Media Practice and Education, 19(2), pp.159-172.

Reid, D.H., Parsons, M.B. and Green, C.W., (2021). The supervisor’s guidebook: Evidence-based strategies for promoting work quality and enjoyment among human service staff. Charles C Thomas Publisher.

Showkat, N. and Parveen, H., (2017). In-depth interview. Quadrant-I (e-Text).

Youtube.com (2021). Demo qualitative interview with mistakes. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U4UKwd0KExc. [Accessed on: 28 November 2021]

Youtube.com (2021). Demonstration Qualitative Interview – how it should be done. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eNMTJTnrTQQ. [Accessed on: 2

 

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