Continuous Improvement

Facilitate Continuous Improvement

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Learning Activity: TQM- Compare Deming, Juran and Crosby

Focus Example Slogan or main identifying


Deming Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA) Cycle Employing personal review systems to evaluate performance, merit ratings, and annual reviews for employees. Follow new philosophy, Destroy barriers among the staff area.
Juran Process effecting the cultural change Building extensive training program Quality Planning, Quality Control, Quality Improvement.
Crosby Process of managing quality Vaccination is the medicine for organizations to prevent poor quality. cross-departmental quality teams, zero defect program

Learning activity: Lean Manufacturing and the Seven Wastes

Waste Example
Over-production Large batch size
Waiting Poor handling of resources
Transportation Poor layout, large distance between operations
Inventory Machine breakdown
Processing No standard tools and techniques
Motion Excessive movement of people and machine
Defects Delivery failures


Learning activity: Lean Manufacturing practices in the workplace

  1. The Five S’s the situation promotes includes Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu and Shitsuke. These Japanese’s words are explained as tidiness, orderliness, cleanliness, standardization and disciple respectively.
  2. In addition, Japanese’s words are translated into English as Sort, Set in order, Shine, Standardize and Sustain.
  3. i. workplace that has good housekeeping
  4. a safe workplace

iii. a workplace that is guaranteed to produce excellent quality

  1. 4. Doing the job on the machine in the same sequence every time.
  2. 5. Maintaining/sustaining standards over time.

Learning Activity: Six-Sigma

  1. The six-sigma company maintains quality in various products and services for building customers satisfaction by reducing the overall cost of production. The companies define, measure, analyze, improve and control there managerial activities for attaining quick organizational goals.
  2. The winning game helps in maximizing the profit of each participate, who all are playing the game. The game helps in creating win-win strategy for each candidate by resolving the conflicts among the participants.
  3. The internal focus on processes helps in making the business activities successful in the market for attracting more customers by satisfying there adverse needs and requirements. The internal focus helps in maintaining quality standards by making effective utilization of available resources for reducing the operational cost and time.
  4. The organization to sustain in the market for a longer duration focuses on the needs of the customers for making them loyal towards the company. Focusing on the needs of the customers is done by the companies by building strong relationship with the help of effective after sales services. In addition, manufacturing customer oriented products helps in seeking attention of the target audience in the competitive business environment.
  5. The Six-Sigma is an effective management tool, which assist in abolishing errors and faults from the manufacturing process. This approach helps in introducing continuous improvement in the managerial process by executing standardizes policies. In addition, six- sigma facilitates in providing various benefits such as increase in the productivity, quality as well as supports in making the operational functions smoother. At the same time, there is a reduction in overall operating cost of the company by effectively utilizing the available resources.

Learning activity: Benchmarking

Obstacles Possible solutions
·         Inflexible schedule for women’s

·         Lack of opportunity to speak

·         Unfavorable working environment

·         Providing paternal leave

·         Motivating and inspiring the employees to bring innovative ideas

·         Providing favorable environment with basic facilities

Learning activity: Further continuous improvement methodologies

Methodology Possible application
Total Quality Control (TQC) Total participation of employees are required
Quality Functional Deployment (QFD) Defining the Process Elements based on the needs of customer
Concept Management (CM) Making small changes rather than the radical changes, which might arise from Research and Development method
Breakthrough Thinking Brining creative and innovative ideas
Theory Of Constraints (TOC) Increases profit by reducing the lead times
Process Re-engineering (PR) Integrate information processing work into the real work that produces the information
ISO standards By improving the employee engagement

Learning Activity: Reflect on facilitating effective participation in CI

  1. Active listening is deployed by doing effective communication by maintaining proper eye contact with the speaker. In addition, attentive response during the conversion helps in accomplishing quick goals. Active listening is done without interrupting the speaker in between by asking frequent questions.
  2. The participation and building ownership in the process is done by motivating, inspiring and supporting the employees during the process. The process helps in brining creative ideas and concept, within the managerial framework.
  3. The trust is developed by doing effective research study about the process and continuing it with the help of honesty. The person by making fair and transparent decision through demonstrating consistent behaviour helps in developing trust in the process.
  4. The continuous improvement, within the organization is done by following six sigma and total quality management in the company. In addition, it can be done by implementing standardized tools and techniques during the production process. The manager by changing existing technology due to changes in the market trends for producing the goods and services can facilitate in continuous improvement.

Learning Activity: Linear to Closed Loop

The product in a fashion industry such as fabric are used and disposed of in a loop. The raw material of one product is used as a finished good for producing other fresh product.

Closing the loop is a green strategy, which has been followed by various fashion companies such as Marks and Spencer and H&M. The process of close loop is sustainable in the society and sustain for a longer period for attracting more customers.

Learning Activity: Training and Development Six Sigma, DMAIC, TQM

The training section is important for generating the interest in DMAIC process, TQM, CI methodology and other process, within the organization. It is necessary for building awareness and knowledge among employees with the help of establishing different on the job as well as off the job training programs.

Seminars, workshop, lecture, case studies etc facilitates in developing the individual as well as employees efficiency. At the same time, continuous improvement system with the help of voluntary participation in the crucial decision making assist in achieving the goals on time, without wasting available resources.

Learning Activity: Reflect on Training, Mentoring and Coaching

  1. The organization by recruiting the right person at right place at right time helps in improving the performance of the company in the dynamic environment. The effective performance management system helps in determining the roles and responsibility of each individual in the strategic process for underlining continuous improvement. In addition, significant training, mentoring and coaching facilities to the employees helps in motivating them to develop their career with the specific company. Regular feedback and supervising the performance of the employees and staff members assist in rectifying the errors and frauds, within the management. 2. The coaching of team member is done by involving, explaining, appreciating, asking and supervising the employees in the direct direction. In addition, feedback is provided to the employees in a positive and negative manner. It is suggested that the feedback must be constructive in nature, which helps in improving the performance of the employees for achieving higher results. On the other hand, coaching model which will be used in the organization for coaching the team is GROW Model. It is because the model is goal oriented and based on current realities. At the same time, model provides options and will for making the process effective in future by evaluating the environment.
Type of


Example of use/management Tool/technology

if applicable

Hard Specific in nature and can be easily transferable to other Knowledge Bases
Soft Interact effectively with other employees at the workplace Knowledge Map

Learning Activity: Research or Develop KPI’s

  1. The Key Performance Indicators applicable in the organization are related with financial metrics, customer metrics, process metrics and people metrics.
  2. The Key Performance Indicators in the organization is set up by the perspective of employees as well as customers. It is because employees are the assets of the organization and the managers by satisfying the needs of the customers helps in maximizing the profit margin as well as customer base for a longer period.
  3. The Key Performance Indicators which are relevant to the organization as well as to the staff must be SMART. It is because SMART KPI’s are specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and time bound for the employees and organization.
  4. The set KPI’s can be ensured with the help of regularly monitoring the performance by arranging meetings and conferences. The organization by encouraging the underperforming employees and staff members is able to drive success in the coming scenario. The Key Performance Indicators facilities the managers to evaluate the performance of employees with the set standards and taking corrective steps in case of any deviation. It helps in maximizing the profit margin for the companies to attain competitive edge over the competitors.

Learning activity: Force field analysis

The force field analysis assists in evaluating the pressure arising for the changes, within the organization. The changes in the organization are done by increasing the forces, which push towards the change. The changes are good for the management as it helps in increasing the profit margin of the company and helps to sustain in the market for a longer period of time. The changes are done in the managerial concept, technology, organizational framework etc. to meet the desires of the customers on time, with effective utilization of available resources.

Learning activity: Tools and techniques part 1

Need Most useful tool and your rationale
You need to identify major themes from a large number of ideas SWOT analysis because it helps in analyzing a business process by Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats.
You need to generate a large volume of ideas for improving a broken process. Cellular work design because it helps in eliminating unnecessary and inefficient movement.
You need to develop a complete and clear

picture of what customers (internal and external) expect to receive when they acquire products and services.

SIPOC or COPIS because it facilitates in analysis of a process on the basis of looking at key nodes in the production process: Supplier, Inputs, Processes, Outputs and Customer.
You need to understand what happens in a given process from start to finish. Cellular work design because it facilities in showing how work flows through functional

areas and departments with the aim of improving the flow

You need to identify root causes of a performance issue Ladder of inference because it is a method of problem-solving aimed at forcing teams to

undertake a number of consecutive steps, including collecting all available data before drawing conclusions and determining a course of action.

You need to identify parts of a process that the customer is not willing to pay for. SIPOC or COPIS because it helps in analysis of a process on the basis of looking at key nodes in the production process.
You need to identify and clarify relationships between ideas, concepts, issues or actions. Swim lane chart because it is a process of map, or flow chart, depicting the flow of information but also showing the interactions between different functional areas (lanes).
You need to thoroughly understand a customer’s needs. Spaghetti chart because it is a floor plan of a workspace showing how people must move to complete a process. Shows the sometimes unanticipated consequences of work design and wastage due to unnecessary movement.
You need to understand why employees are not implementing a great idea to improve inventory management. Ladder of inference because it is a method of problem-solving aimed at forcing teams to undertake a number of consecutive steps, including collecting all available data before drawing conclusions and determining a course of action.

Learning activity: A guide to Control Charts

  1. The purpose of control chart is to evaluate the impact of changes in the organization on its performance and efficiency. It helps in controlling the new concept and monitoring the ability of the management for attaining the objective on time.
  2. The four process states are new state, running state, ready state and terminated state.
  3. The elements of control chart are title, legend, data collection section, plotting areas, upper and lower graph, vertical and horizontal axis, control limits and centerline.
  4. The controlled variation is predictable in nature and is majorly used for recommending the inputs as well as different parameters followed for identifying the process by the management.
  5. The uncontrollable variations are not controlled and the process average and process variation keeps on changing in the management. In addition, the uncontrollable variations are unpredictable in nature as it does not outline the consistent pattern. The control charts can be used for identifying the uncontrollable variation for bringing it under the control. It is because control charts is used for controlling the process and implement six-sigma approach, within the management.

Learning activity: Tools and techniques part 2

Need Tool/rationale
You need to determine if a frequency distribution is normal. Quantitative Tool because it assist in doing effective calculation.
You need to determine why customer traffic is down this Christmas Quantitative Tool because it assist in measuring effects results.
You need to understand whether customers will pay more for a higher quality product Qualitative tool because it assist in identifying the behavior of the customers.
You need to determine if employee satisfaction is related to lost time injuries Qualitative tool because it assist in recognizing the behavior and attitude of the employees.
After noticing one or two near-defects, you need to determine if a manufacturing process is veering out of control Both Qualitative and Quantitative tool because it assist in measuring as well as evaluating the management perspective.

Learning activity: Communicating at SPH

  1. Greg thinks Simon should release some of his control over the business and let the people in his business have more input into the decision-making and planning of the business for the future.

He also believes there should be more communication in the business.

  1. i. an internal newsletter
  2. a one-way channel
  3. i. employee family information is included without invading privacy
  4. academic/sporting triumphs, interesting history

iii. graphics are used to entice readership or amuse

  1. i. policy documents
  2. standards of performance

iii. work instructions

  1. meetings.
  2. A culture that says we are here to provide customer service and everyone knows what we’re about and where we’re going.
  3. i. By getting his staff involved in developing a plan to get consistency of delivery and stop staff turnover.
  4. By making sure that every courier that works for SPH has the same standard, is a salesperson for the organization and is supported by the team in the office.

Learning activity: Levels of resistance

Stakeholder/ team member Anticipated level of resistance/strategy to overcome resistance
Customers By providing quality services at affordable price
Employees By providing favorable working condition

Learning activity: Manage change successfully

  1. i. looking for key people to step up
  2. delegating and empowering managers
  3. i. giving a career path
  4. offering opportunities such as ownership of franchises.

Learning activity: Manage Knowledge

  1. KM stands for Knowledge Management is a concept that helps in handling the information as well as available resources for the organization in an effective manner. It is a process, which assist in capturing and distributing the knowledge in a significant manner for maximizing the profit margin.
  2. The various forms of Knowledge Management are Explicit, Implicit and Tacit Knowledge, within the working environment. The Explicit Knowledge is easily transferred to other employees for increasing the awareness such as textbook. The tacit knowledge is hard to convey to other is the organization with the help of writing or verbal communication. The implicit knowledge is not set out in tangible form but can be made explicit knowledge.
  3. Soft and hard forms of knowledge is important for the manager to mange it properly, within the management. The soft skills are the personal characteristics that help the individual to interact effectively with the other employees at the workplace. At the same time, hard skills are specific in nature and can be easily transferable to other, within the management.
  4. The Knowledge Management is beneficial for the organization to stay within the management for increasing the profit margin. The KM helps in attaining competitive advantage over the competitors by implementing new and creative ideas.

Communities of Practice

  1. Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and who interacts regularly to learn how to do it better.
  2. Communities among practitioners create a direct link between learning and performance because the same people participate in communities of practice and in teams and business units.
  3. Today’s economy runs on knowledge, and most companies work assiduously to capitalize on that fact. They use cross-functional teams, customer- or product-focused business units, and work groups—to name just a few organizational forms—to capture and spread ideas and know-how. In many cases, these ways of organizing are very effective, and no one would argue for their demise. But a new organizational form is emerging that promises to complement existing structures and radically galvanize knowledge sharing, learning, and changes. It’s called the community of practice.

Learning activity: Dashboard reporting




The phrase bells and whistles refer to features of an object which are not essential to it, but which make it attractive or special. Its origin is unclear, but it is a relatively recent idiom. It is used nowadays mostly in connection with computers, tablets, cell phones, and other electronic devices because these are typical examples of things that can have many additional features not included in more rudimentary models.

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