In the industry of automobiles, the manufacturing of cars is augmented in several forms of developing storage, sensing, computation, and communication resources. A developing vehicle is considered the computer-on-wheel. The several resources availability is said to be the significance of the efficient and effective utilization of the resources. The vision of car manufacturing in cloud computing is seen as the greatest development in the automobile industry. In this study, we offer a detailed survey of the manufacturing of cars in the existing vehicular development in the research of cloud computing and various key problems of the manufacturing of cars in the vehicular cloud-like the applications which are potential, cloud architecture, manufacturing features, taxonomy applications. A user or the customer can get the services of the cloud from the data centre of the first-tier or in the second-tiercloudlet. Compared to existing Internet cloud computing, the manufacturing of the vehicular cloud when compared to the internet of the cloud platform has various distinguishing characteristics(N. Liu, 2017).
With the vehicular development of the car manufacturing communication-based technologies, the industry of automotive is mainly facing a great revolutionary change. In the present day, several smart cars are developed for car drivers for regular use. A typical technology of the smart car is enhanced in several forms of the smart devices like the storage device of large space, computer onboard, a global positioning system device, a transceiver of radio, a radar device of short-range in the rear collision, several devices for sensing the ability of the sensing the environment and the road conditions to guarantee of the safety of driving. Hence, the vehicle is said to be the “computer on-wheels” technology. The cloud computing is the most attractive technology for individual customers and companies or organizations in order to move the services and data resources from remote to local servers of the cloud. Many organizations like, Microsoft, Google, Amazon, Google, and Dropbox can be able to release the services of the infrastructure of the cloud which attracts a billion users in the cloud platform. It is proved that the cloud trend is becoming a pervasive and promising service that replaces the systems of the traditional type(Olariu, 2016).
The project of car manufacturing is planned to be performed on a weekly schedule, but the planning is done daily. The detailed project planning is divided into a 4-week plan. The planning is done manually but without the standards and methods. Some of the steps to be followed in the planning process are,
- Importing inventory, sales and data of production from the ERP
- MPS file should be updated in MS excel
- MPS executed manually
- MPS uploaded back to the ERP
- Execution of required material planning
- Execution of detailed plan daily.
The lifecycle of the project development is scheduled as follows
|Requirement Gathering||8 days|
|Software Testing||4 days|
|Project Implementation||5 days|
|System Maintenance (if necessary)||2 days|
The working session of the overall project will be 28 days that is 4 weeks from the initial point of the project. The implementation phase will be take up to 5 days and if needed maintenance is done for 2 days.
In the pivotal phase of the project a discussion is to be conducted to explain clearly what the requirements are gathered that is necessary for the project, and the implementation. The requirements that are gathered for the car manufacturer system includes the following(S.Arif, 2015).
The functional requirements of the car manufacturing application is that which defines the basic functionalities of the system and is defined as follows.
In this basic functionality, the user or the manufacturer will have his own roles and responsibilities.
The system approver of the project will view the required details and the workers of the particular car company.
In this functional requirement, the manufacture of the car uses his own identification and password to log in to the system. He can have access to viewing the details about all the vehicles.
The Non-functional requirements of the car manufacturer proposed project are as follows.
In this functionality, the user interface will be user friendly, and the user or the manufacturer will be very familiar with the system and it will be easy to use.
The system of the car manufacturer project should be able to offer the services needed at the exact time interval.
This functionality helps to meet the specific and required objectives and also the customer’s expectations.
Security is the important functionality, in which the user offers information and it should be authentic and the proposed system should be secured from external attacks.
Some of the common issues that arise in car manufacturing are listed below and the loud solution to resolve the problem is also explained.
Data breaches and its solutions
Data is the primary target for any of the cyber-based attacks the primary target is data, which defines the data loss impact and the business value of the organizations. The data protection aspects will have the techniques for encryption and accessibility which can be used for the data protection. Cloud service providers give a robust and well-tested incident-based response plan which can be considered as the privacy of the data laws in order to resolve the issue of data breaches.
Inadequate change and cloud configuration
The cloud-based resources configuration is said to be the challenging one because of the dynamic nature and the high complexity. Companies and organizations can now change from the traditional technology controls and also the management can be changed from the automation and the several methods is provided by the vendors of the cloud by the frequent scanning of the resources.
Security lack in cloud architecture and solution
The cloud security architecture should be developed in which it should be well aligned with the business goals and objectives. Organizations should be mainly focused on implementing and developing the framework of security architecture. The vendors of the cloud help us to achieve frequent visibility ensures the threat model update.
After the completion of the overall analysis of the system, it is necessary to choose the required cloud platform based on the following services.
- Reliability of system
- Cost estimation
- Implementation of low cost
Based on the above services the implementation is decided to be done with the Microsoft Azure cloud services.
Some of the technologies that are being used in the manufacturing of cars using cloud technology are as follows.
The industry of automobiles will produce several car manufacturers which may have various communication and computing hardware. In order to enable the vehicular cloud, we need to compulsorily abstract the hardware into a format in which they are transparent for the developers of the application. The technology of Virtualization can be able to abstract the resources of the heterogeneous type into uniform like the virtual machine, and then it can be used freely and also without the concern of the hardware details.
The technology of hybrid access includes communications based on the V2V, 4G and Wi-Fi, offering the diversity of the access methods in the vehicular cloud with several capabilities of communication. The study based on the vehicular networks offers solid technical reserves and experience. The standard IEEE 802.11p is an accepted amendment over the IEEE standard of 802.11 in vehicular environments. It in detail defines the development and advantages of the standard 802.11 based on the products that are marketed as the standard Wi-Fi that is needed to support the system of intelligent transportation and its applications.
CHOICE OF DATA CENTER
The datacenter is mainly used for the project implementation of car manufacturers to know who has full access to the manufactured cars, and the developed hardware. Also, the users should know whether the selected services are suitable for the implementation and to work with complex problems.
In the vehicular platform of cloud, the manufacturer of cars can be a service provider for the enrichment of the services of cloud by offering several manufacturing information like engine information, fuel efficiency, power of the particular car manufacturing in which the served customers will enjoy the internet which is centralized in the services of the internet of cloud. Based on the scenario, the communication of the vehicles with the available data centres in which the required services of the cloud can be easily located. This system of
Cloud and its technology allow for the car- to-car communication. The below architecture diagram shows the car manufacturing architecture in the cloud.
Fig 2: Vehicular Two-tier Cloud architecture(Lin Gu, 2016).
The first tier in the architecture is the cloud computing internet platform that is the data centre and the second tier comprises the cloudlet of the vehicle. A user or the customer can get the services of the cloud from the data centre of the first-tier or in the second-tiercloudlet. Compared to existing Internet cloud computing, the manufacturing of the vehicular cloud when compared to the internet of the cloud platform has various distinguishing characteristics.
Using the Microsoft Azure cloud service, the car manufacturer system is implemented as follows:
ANALYSIS AND REFLECTION
The cost estimation of each of the car companies and the profit they attain are listed below.
|Material cost||$ 34.05||$ 38.90||$56.09||$48.67||$38.90|
|Labour burden||$ 23.50||$27.09||$67.09||$23.00||$16.90|
|Cost of consumer||$120.41||67.90||$13.09||$15.17||$14.78|
|Cost of variable||$67.90||$89.18||$83.09||$95.17||$64.78|
|Manufacturing variable cost||$77.98||$89.18||$89.09||$75.17||$54.78|
|Cost of tier 1||1.90||1.89||2.0||1.9||2.4|
|Cost of Markup manufacturing||1.89||1.89||1.89||1.85||1.90|
The proposed project car manufacture system is implemented in the cloud platform. The cloud offers numerous services in which each of the services offers great functionalities to the system. The functional and non-functional requirements are gathered in order to the successful execution of the project. Also, the risk factors and the cloud solutions are offered. The project is implemented with the Microsoft Azure cloud services for better efficient results.
In recent years the automobile development became faster and it brings up the vehicular cloud computing vision and is expected in order to introduce large benefit to the country. In this research, we were given an introduction to car manufacturing in the cloud with the two-tier architecture. Based on the resources which have been used in several services, we can also divide them into four types. The key technologies that are enabled are also discussed. Finally, the potential and applications of the vehicular cloud are discussed and we classified them as several taxonomies. It is expected that the vehicular cloud will become the most dominant model in the applications of mobile devices and it can also become a necessity of the human livesinthefuture.
- D. Eckhoff, C. Sommer, R. German, and F. Dressler,2016. “Cooperative Awareness At Low Vehicle Densities: How Parked Cars Can Help See-through Buildings,” in Proceedings of the 2011 Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), IEEEpp.1–6.
- Lin Gu, D. Z. a. S. G., 2016. Vehicular Cloud Computing: A Survey. Journal of Computer science and Engineering, pp. 1-6.
- N. Liu, M. L. G. C., 2017. PVA in VANETs: Stopped cars are not silent. 30th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications, pp. 431-435.
- Olariu, M. A. a. S., 2016. Taking Vanetto the clouds. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced in Mobile computing and Multimedia, pp. 6-13.
- S.Arif, J. W. G. Y., 2015. Data centre at the airport. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and distributed systems, pp. 2067-2080.
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