CE7013 Assignment Sample: Estimating, Tendering and Procurement

Here is the sample for CE7013 Assignment Sample.

Introduction

A strategy and regulatory framework to encourage manual infill and intensification inside Kingston’s central building headquarter area. An issue that comes up frequently in meetings between municipalities is the increasing population pressures in linked regions of groupings, and it is critical to keep them in check. These kinds of projects are frequently done to achieve long-term, contextual growth while also helping the local populations involved in the project (Ibem,2021).

By maintaining what is valuable in Kingston’s headquarter building communities and identifying the most ideal sites and ways for allowing future expansion, the Strategy hopes to provide a long-term creative and prophetic vision for Kingston’s headquarter building throughout time.

Since they have been subjected to a significant degree of pressure from infill construction and urban growth, Kingston’s headquarter building project have shown to be particularly vulnerable over time. As a result of this shift in the economy, the manufacturing of additives, large-scale residential rebuilding, and the conversion of single-family houses into multi-family homes with or without extra apartments have all risen in prominence.

This has caused the general public’s attention to be peaked because of the events that have occurred (Newaz,2020). Many residential dwellings in the region have no longer been created to their greatest improvement potential, as determined by the zoning through regulation approval technique. This is due to the processes for zoning via regulation approval that have been implemented. As a result, they have lost their ability to improve to their fullest potential

Discussion

Business Development Analysis

Business development analysis is an expanded term applied to the most common way to strengthen relationships with existing customers as well as develop customers in different areas of the buyer’s market.

The classic brakes between transaction, development, customer tracking, operations, and frameworks are frequently overcome to enhance this expansion on multiple levels. This implies that an expert in the field must demonstrate a degree of competence in many areas in order to distinguish and benefit from useful learning experiences. The construction management plan should include the following elements:

Weighty Vehicles

Many development missions will have a heavy vehicle prerequisite. The uses of these vehicles can range from transporting emergency preparations to giant concrete mixers. These vehicles can present a real challenge for the population, especially when they are entering or leaving a site or are left in public spaces (Mussell,2021).

In addition to the signature screw that must be remembered for heavy vehicles, the development supervisor must know when these vehicles must report to the scene and clearly signal on  public roads that danger is imminent. Extra care should be taken that people can safely reach out to see  vehicles entering and leaving the site. Platform

  Platform

The foundation can represent a real bet for the happiness of the public. This is especially evident when the frame is developed on a public walkway or highway. The risk of dropping items is high and therefore regulatory measures need to be taken.  In general, this platform should be developed by an authorized company. This ensures that the design is safe and stable. By applying a grid to the platform, you can also limit the risk of trash falling into any space where the general population is involved.

 Entire Site Safety

Clearly, the most effective way to protect the general population from any development work is to make sure that any hazards are clear and to put barriers in place to prevent people in general from traveling to regions. risk. Typically, the development supervisor will involve transitional fencing to prevent access to the work site and will also use signs to indicate pre-existing hazards. In situations where development occurs or uses certain public highways, unique measures must be taken.

Budget estimation for the project:

Activities Construction Cost (Approximately)
Building Construction £400*10000=4000,000
Site work £ 5,000
Total Building Construction and Sites £ 4,005,000
Other Costs
Architect and Engineering Fees £1500000
Construction management £200000
Land Acquisition £4500
Furniture and Fixers 60,000
Telephone, Network, and Security System 25,000
Quality Control Testing 70,000
Value Engineering 30,000
Other Costs 70,000
Contingency 70,000
Total Other Costs £6,034,500

 

The Kingston’s headquarter building Authority should include the following in the agreement when developing a CMP (Construction Management Plan):

Well-defined project scope

A project extension is basically a business description that covers the general needs of a mission and the boundaries where your entire business exists. While the goals and objectives of a mission may seem obvious, those who have changed can have quite different ideas of what a “done” business might look like. Therefore, it is essential to consider the views of the key partners to ensure that you have their initial investment and that everyone buys in full. Kingstone City headquarter building Authorities can collaborate with local people to carry out the demolition work by minimizing the risk to the health and safety of private properties- legalized acquisition of the land and ransom strips (Newaz,2020)

  A Project Schedule

Once everyone is completely in agreement on the scope of the business, Kingstone City headquarter building Authorities can start working on the business plan. Even though business plans are often confused with business plans, this is just one of the many angles that your arrangement must incorporate.

A business plan is an estimate of the time required to complete each responsibility, the duration of the entire business, significant deadlines and accomplishments, and the needs of the errands must be complete. Remember to leave extra room for clutter. There are many things that can delay business tasks, and if they don’t address them, their entire business can come to a halt.

  Creating a route

One of the ways you can design your business plan is by using a guidebook. This is a great device to help them organize the many parts of the business. Essentially, a guide is a visual representation of the mission plan (much like a Gantt overview) that shows the different parts of your business coming together in an unfolding process.

CE7013 assignment sample: Estimating, Tendering and Procurement

 Team Member Responsibilities

Once Kingston’s headquarter building project know the specific work that needs to be done, they can begin to organize the people who will need to get the work done. Coordinating the obligations of all interested parties, including partners, will ensure that everyone is sure of what they need to do.

For example, an owner, specialist, model reviewer, or company support will likely approve change orders over the course of your career. Make sure you don’t miss these gatherings when you distribute assignments.

 Create a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

WBS is clearly helpful for visualizing project expectations and aligning tasks. The larger company is separated into smaller segments, making it easy to designate the right company for the ideal individual. The main benefit of these repositories is that they help project administrators ensure an even distribution of responsibilities.

CE7013: Estimating, Tendering and Procurement

 A communication plan

The next important element of a viable development board plan is a correspondence plan. This will determine how, when and how often will talk to the partners involved in the project. The correspondence plan should also indicate how and who to contact in the event of a problem. This will ensure that any problems or roadblocks are effectively handled to avoid project delays (Luo,2021).

Obviously, archiving channels of coordinated effort before the mission begins will ensure that no one misses out on important data.

  A risk management plan

The research project can deliver public dangers to the public and practical hazards for individuals of individuals near the more unusual parties of the task, for example, betting Risk cost for the business.

Although the opportunity indicates your bet points, the frame plan cannot happen, it is often better to be the most cautious possible. See in detail any opportunities your quest might present, how those dangers can be reduced, and a game plan for how your team will react if those opportunities do occur out in your adventure. The clearer your decisions, the better.

A powerful development that planning leaders should combine careful table segmentation betting with point-by-point data to set up the venture capital team for everything and boost the mission results (Lingard,2021).

 

Stakeholder identification for Kingstone building project:

Stakeholders Role
1.     Managing Project

2.     Managing Stakeholders

3.     Managing Progress of the project

4.     Managing resources

Project Manager
·       leading the project team

·       Leading project monitoring team

·       Project estimation and tracking

 

Project leader
·       Managing contracts

·       Managing procurements

·       Act as a middleman between project manager and Authority

Contractor
·       Planning project Schedule

·       Planning project design

·       Planning project Blueprint

Project Planner

 

Project agenda

Mission, vision, and values

As per the mission of the PM and Kingstone headquarter building project authority, they need to design a project and procurement that will be value for money.

Triggers

  • Easy availability of resources
  • Easy access to the communication system
  • Transportation
  • Availability of human resources

Constraints

  • Managing traffic and routes of that area
  • Managing basic amenities
  • Managing local governing bodies

Critical analysis of value and risk study for achieving project objectives

Value study

Value study is a collective action. A pile of lifetime benefits that customer seek out of effort at the right cost. The important qualities must be fulfilled at all levels, so sort out the organizational and configuration issues to get the best incentive for the money. It is most likely to be applied during the preparation and setup phase to get the best cash offer.

Value analysis is one of the key strategies and an innovative way to manage unnecessary spending. It provides core capabilities against a basic cost without sacrificing quality, consistency, workmanship, and appearance. Value analysis is related to post-housing assessment progress.

CE7013: Estimating, Tendering and Procurement

 

Value is emotional, willing to discernments and pre-imagined thoughts. However, for corporations’ assignment VM (Value Management) practices tremendous really well worth is expected and evaluated. The value study of the Kingston city headquarter building authority’s new-build local government administrative headquarters will enable the authority to understand the value generated through the ongoing partnership for the development of the project.

 Early trailblazers of VM diagnosed 3 variables impacting value:

 Utility

Most systems are constructed to oblige and uphold specific exercises. The shape might be exceeded judgment on a unhappiness at the off danger that it doesn`t try this really. Subsequently, amplifying the performance of what’s achieved is a crucial a part of the application really well worth in several systems (Samanta,2021).

A comparative concept applies to not unusual place structures like streets and scaffolds. Assuming that any other electricity station is fabricated, it need to create electricity dependably. For this situation, the application of the object is of crucial importance, just like its ability to achieve this dependably. Accordingly, there can also additionally likewise be different auxiliary components of tremendous really well worth.

Estimation of Value

To fully utilize the VM cycle, an interaction must be configured so that values ​​can be evaluated and estimated. It is best to keep these actions unbiased and clear. Either way, there may be circumstances where subjectivity cannot be avoided. In such cases, the VM team has to lean back to build an agreement, for example by evolving the perceptions of different partners or by trying to make amends.

During development, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are commonly used. These KPIs incorporate components such as customer satisfaction, number of acquisitions, cost consistency, time consistency, and security. Much of the emphasis of these KPIs is on the most common way to communicate growth. Paradoxically, the VM focuses on the outcome of the project, rather than the project execution cycle. Thus, the VM cycle uses an assessment tool to gauge and measure the respect a company conveys (Okafor,2021).

 Value Drivers, Value Profiles, and Value Profiles

The value driver is an important useful trait in fully communicating the common interests of a company. In general, it is an essential competency, i.e., one that is directly linked to the company’s goals. Once the key capabilities (e.g., value drivers) have been distinguished, it is beneficial to make meaningful ordering between the underlying value drivers, thus establishing the value profile of mission.

Risk Study

The risk analysis determines the recurrence and potential impact of the risks on the company’s mission, local area, affiliate partners, affiliate platform and climate. Chronic events, changing conditions, external influences and comparative events occurring elsewhere are examined during bet analysis. Because the main project of Kingston city headquarters building authority’s new-build local government administrative headquarters is enormous in scale, it is expected to have a high number of risk factors associated with its effective implementation.

Risk identification

Identified Risk Root Impact
Risk due to lack of tine Project plan Delay in project
Risk in Managing contracts Project contractor Failure of project
Risk in Managing Procurement Project Manager Failure of procurement
Risk in Project plan Implementation Project Manager Project failure

 

Risk assessment is conveyed to discern evidence of potentially hazardous adverse events, investigating the risk of this adverse event, which may occur, and generally assessing the extent to which, extent and likelihood of adverse effects. It is widely recognized throughout the industry that different risk assessment methods contribute greatly to improving the well-being of intelligent operations and devices.

The purpose of this is to identify and analyze hazards, hazard arrangements, and bets associated with risk situations. Various procedures ranging from simple subjective strategies to high-level quantitative techniques are available to help differentiate and check for risk. The use of different hazard investigation strategies is suggested as each has its own motives, strengths, and weaknesses.

Risk Assessment Matrix

Risk Impact Intensity Measures
Risk due to lack of tine High   A risk analysis was performed for the development exercises and hazards were recorded and a risk review was completed
Risk in Managing contracts High   The different exercise sections are isolated according to their outcomes and probabilities. High-risk exercises that are reserved for red tones are not recognized and should be reduced.
Risk in Managing Procurement Average   The dangers posed in yellow are trivial, but efforts should be made to minimize the risks without striking a balance between use and benefits
Risk in Project plan Implementation Low   The hazards placed in green have such low stakes that it is not expected to take long to decrease in magnitude further.

 

 

..

Risk Identification

Risk identification in the work environment can be identified in a variety of ways. Evaluations provide a process for identifying unsafe situations so that conditions can be corrected. Information gathered during the assessment will be used to distinguish hazards and limitations of safe and defensive work from the environment so that they can be addressed, for example, by technical change or purchase different PPE. The information will also be tracked as a defense against OK HSE behavior on the site. Safety work awareness reports and data will be shared with representatives at tool bay health meetings (Altink,2021).

CE7013: Estimating, Tendering and Procurement

Risk Assessment

Once risks have been identified, it is important to investigate the risk they pose to representatives in the work environment. In this way, we can determine a stake and determine their need for recovery operations. The betting evaluation phase is part of a cycle that checks the likelihood (probability) and outcome (severity) of the risk has been ruled out.

Whenever we have assessed the likelihood and distribution of each hazard, we can designate it as requiring corrective action. Essentially, a risk assessment is assessing: what is the likelihood (probability) of an accident, and assuming it works, what is the chance of someone getting hurt? How much physical or natural harm will be, and how terrible (severe) will it be? The degree of opportunity depends on the degree of openness to risk and the likelihood and outcome of an opportunity (Ibem,2018).

Risk assessment will help managers distinguish between high, medium and general safety.

Risk assessments will be used for betting needs and will provide data on the likelihood of harm and severity of harm by understanding the risk, underpinning assessments of risk. Likelihood and severity to make a risk assessment and will be used to assess opportunity as a guide for direction. In this sense, mine owners and administrators will really want a security upgrade. Different types of approaches to mine happiness, different tools and adaptive steps need to be adopted to improve the mining work environment and make it safer (Welde,2021).

Explanation of how the studies (Value study and Risk Study) benefit the client and project

Benefits of value study

The value analysis and creation of an effective strategy to value management are critical for the successful and efficient completion of the Kingston city headquarter building authority’s new-build project, as well as for the respective authority’s ability to obtain the highest potential value for the project (Yet et al, 2016). The main benefits of value study practice are:

  • A reasonable meaning of the owner and the last customer listen to the appreciation, in this way, giving a precise premise to solve Options throughout the adventure.
  • A tool to promote harmony between partners and contrast assumptions.

 

  • One reason to create an undeniable mission memory reflects the needs and assumptions of company supporters, conveying according to value and capacity. This continues to develop a correspondence between each partner so that people can understand and review restrictions, hypotheses, and essential needs of differences.

 

  • One reason to ensure the task is the best approach to transmit business benefits and meet business needs (Eichorn,2021).

 

  • A practical reason for fishing and refining of business profit analysis, tends to the benefits of money and non-financials.

 

  • One useful reason for the process of planning and executives, through higher exchanges, sharing learning and cooperative cooperatives is improved and invited to better specialized agreements with work Perform better and better quality, regularly according to the imagination arrangement.

 

  • A utility component to quantify the appreciation, considering financial and non-profitable benefits and in this direction exposes a incentive for cash. Believing the board can be an extremely minimal cost, High benefit grows. When it is integrated into the task in the task, the committee’s procedure is to escape the bat in the risk lifecycle, spending can be almost unimportant because the need to decrease with the following surveys and these Excellent open doors for underestimating normal low-cost frames. Quality assessment and evaluation are important all the time.

The advantages of administrative audits are worthy of the name frequently recognized for the quality of work and the reduction of costs. Either way, the “undetectable” benefits may be similar or greater. A mutual understanding and agreement between partners, clear goals, less risk of scope change, and more development fit will help ensure a commitment to meeting customer goals and being carried out in a timely manner. scope of application.

Benefits of Risk Study

For undertaking threat the board is a middle a part of venture control. Fundamental to undertaking threat the board is its extensive cycle steps: Identification; Assessment; Control; and Monitoring. This cycle will start out throughout introductory venture arranging and now and again rehash intermittently during the task.

The new-build project for Kingston city headquarter building authority is rather significant for the client, requiring a budget of £25 million and the organisation of 2500m2 of space in the city centre. Aside from that, the project is ambitious in terms of reorganizing the local government administration to meet city standards, as well as improving the efficiency of public administration and operations. PMs concerned about threat the board can be in a strong function comparative with their buddies who aren’t as they may foster a extra profound comprehension in their task and the scene whereupon it’s far executed.

 Identification of Risk in Kingstone Headquarter building Projects

Risk the executives makes it extra honest to apprehend disturbed projects. As referenced throughout the presentation, unmarried gamble activities can be recognized, evaluated and reactions organized. These activities overall right into a preferred venture threat score.

From introductory preparation, warnings can be raised with the aid of using prudence of excessive likelihood/excessive impact gambles with activities. Also, the route of the real venture may be surveyed with the aid of using ethicalness of its gamble route. Assuming venture motion brings approximately an aggregation of danger – manifestly that is an dissatisfied exertion and there won`t be any replacement for definitive activity.

Fewer Project Surprises

Obviously, there’ll continuously be shocks that emerge irrespective of chance the board – the meant difficult to understand questions. Be that because it may, there does not want to be as several and that they do not want to be as agonizing. Risk the executive’s powers the project institution to keep up a correspondence with its event skylines – and geared up to control threat activities as they happen.

 Better Quality Data for Decision Making

Basically, higher high-satisfactory facts intend that to carry out undertaking threat the board appropriately, you will assume facts to interrupt down your circumstance. On the off danger that you may examine plan gambles, you need to have reserving information. Subsequently, you really need the potential installation that lets in stated assessment. Assuming you may survey innovation gambles, you need to have specialized information accessible.

More Accurate Budgets

Better facts high-satisfactory is for certain a key a part of some gamble the executives’ benefits. When threat information is free – it’s going to emphatically influence spending plan precision.

Further, it’s going to allow a opportunity monetary plan to truly be determined, or if not anything else subjectively confirmed up at, rather than basically allotting a widespread opportunity ‘charge.’

 Clear Expectations

Everyone wishes their innovation project to be successful as imagined. What’s extra, all and sundry is basically annoyed all the time. On the off danger that the companions absolutely realize undertaking chances, initiation of danger possibilities, however troublesome, are basically considered as wise and organized if now no longer charming.

 Team Focus

The venture arranging procedure usual and the gamble the executive’s cycle particularly will attract and middle colleagues out of doors in their separate strengths. I will say that during view of my experience, not anything connects with man or woman colleagues like being doled out duty for danger and responsibility concerning its checking.

An evaluation of the pre-workshop activity required in the preparation of the studies

Activities need to be done:

1 Data is collected during the preparation and sustainability process, as well as exploration and investigating exercises to decide the appropriate activities to selection.

2 Attempt to schedule a meeting with the project’s key stakeholders, such as the Kingstone municipal authority’s new-build project’s responsible persons, suppliers, and others.

3 Use your participation into strategies and equipment to evaluate the audit time and direction of ideas.

4 Use other studio meetings to assess the total time needed.

5 Develop plans to reflect the appropriate harmony between “cycle” used and “content” ideal.

6 Building plans that can really modify; That is, you work in the time needed to express the problems, capture plans and a building.

7 Data types and data surveys, use both consecutive and equal exercises (absolute and sub-groups).

8 Light 30 minutes a day to rest quickly (for example, at the beginning of the day, some wet breaks).

9 It will be expected for lunch in case already and serve as a self-selected style; However, the time for business and opening must also be thoughtful (for example, allows members of  the ability to return calls, see the message, “take the outside air, during lunch or towards The appearance of  standard working days).

  1. Allow an additional time for an action booting intermittent conversation.

11 Limit the conversation into something like 15 minutes and distribute them to break the whole, forming a relationship, empowering or persuading.

12 Use the way you can explain the hierarchical culture to adjust the plan to reflect the measurement of adjusting the audit and conclusions of the studio.

Identification of the stakeholders to be invited to the project activities

The specific set of development partners and their inclinations may vary for some companies. However, Leung and Olomolaiye, (2020) considered development project partners in five basic groups and interests as follows:

  1. Customers: Including public and private customers. Public customer interests include ensuring that the mission will maintain technical alignment; Secure binding and currency use of assets; provide monetary support; and to ensure that the growth factor is efficiently and effectively captured. The client’s interests include: ensuring that public property is properly used; nominate assets for the task; serve public premiums consistent with the association’s goals; ensure that it tends to be funded and will profit from speculation; and make sure that the development item is really safe.
  2. Advisors (project specialists): Can be internal or external and includes: architects, quantity reviewers, engineers, development administrators and various experts applying used for the task prerequisites. Their essential concern is fulfilling their unique capacity obligations to their managers.
  3. Project workers: these usually include main and sub-project workers and their representatives; and suppliers. The essential concern of the basic project officer is to complete the work efficiently as planned and to fulfill other legally binding obligations assigned to him in the agreements. Sub-project workers perform work assigned by main project workers or possibly customers based on contractual agreements.

Like subcontractors for hire, it is essential for suppliers to deliver and present all materials and equipment as expected. Ultimately, a project employee’s primary concern is taking care of the business, getting paid, and moving on to the next job

Architectures

This partner refers to the demonstration, who will be responsible for the task development, however, the fact that they do their advanced jobs on the prerequisites of the customer.

In this way, in origin or engineer, in any development project used to contain a moderate impact on joint ventures. For Kingstone City headquarter building Authority Project, the initiator or planner will be responsible for planning the structural diagram along with coated aircraft and fixed aircraft. They will also be responsible for verifying and planning the confidentiality of the structure into an important level.

Contractors

The first hired worker is responsible for the organization and conduct of the business and for each activity involved in its completion. The hired worker is therefore responsible for the company’s results and further for any disappointment.

This group therefore has a huge stake in the business because of their immediate connection to the mission and the efficiency they will seek in the event of victory or disappointment. The hired worker is an active partner because he has the ability to positively influence business results and the mission cannot go on without him. Due to the immediate connection and hard work of the group of partners, they have an extremely high level of interest in the business and overall influence over it, although not as high as the customers.

 Suppliers

Suppliers in a development project are active partners because their presence influences the mission well and they are likely to benefit from the outcome of a business, be it a industry has been refurbished.  Suppliers are another direct partner when they are connected in business exercises.

Unions

Unions are a tortuous partner in development projects because they are not directly involved in the quest, just as they are very interested in individual businesses unless they are motivated. All other things being equal, they are concerned about projects that might violate provisions on workers’ privilege and would therefore include themselves only to protect those liberties. They can therefore be extremely powerful for a mandate if it is desired that it does not work under the law and can interfere with the operation of a company until the freedom of workers is guaranteed.

Conclusions

The communities identified as a part of the Best Practices Review have all addressed at least some of the issues plaguing Central Kingston, such as neighborhood character, property maintenance, housing provision, and a mix of housing types, among other things, in some way. Even though such municipalities can also plan under unusual legal frameworks, a variety of solutions have demonstrated success in resolving those issues. Although this review includes regulatory alternatives outside of planning-associated matters that are outside the scope and jurisdiction of CKGS (for example, property requirements through using-laws), such measures are crucial in ensuring efficacy of the process.

Reference

 

Altink, H., 2022. The Politics of Infrastructure in Inner-City Communities in Kingston, Jamaica, From 1962 to 2020. Journal of Urban History, p.00961442211068031.

Dameri, R., Manes-Rossi, F. and Moggi, S., 2021. Toward Resilient Smart Cities: The Experience of Genoa. In Intellectual Capital, Smart Technologies and Digitalization (pp. 201-212). Springer, Cham.

Eichorn, D.M., 2022. Marc Eichorn Brock and Kingston Holdings Inc.

Fogarty, J., van Bueren, M. and Iftekhar, M.S., 2021. Making waves: Creating water sensitive cities in Australia. Water Research202, p.117456.

Harris, F., McCaffer, R., Baldwin, A. and Edum-Fotwe, F., 2021. Modern construction management. John Wiley & Sons.

Ibem, E.O., Aduwo, B.E., Ayo-Vaughan, E.A. and Tunji-Olayeni, P.F., 2018. A survey of digital technologies used in the procurement of building projects: empirical evidence from Nigeria. Asian Journal of Scientific Research.

Ibrahim, A.H. and Elshwadfy, L.M., 2021. Factors Affecting the Accuracy of Construction Project Cost Estimation in Egypt. Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering15(3).

Im, H., Ha, M., Kim, D. and Choi, J., 2021. Development of an Ontological Cost Estimating Knowledge Framework for EPC Projects. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering25(5), pp.1578-1591.

Klassen, L., 2021. A letter to Agnes McCausland Richardson Etherington (1880-1854). Public32(64), pp.138-145.

Lingard, H. and Wakefield, R., 2019. Integrating work health and safety into construction project management. John Wiley & Sons.

Luo, C., 2021, December. Analysis of the Potential Risks of Winning the Bid at a Low Price in Construction Project Management. In 2021 3rd International Conference on Economic Management and Cultural Industry (ICEMCI 2021) (pp. 1597-1602). Atlantis Press.

Mussell, L., Walby, K. and Piche, J., 2022. Carceral-capital-charitable politics in Kingston, Ontario: analyzing relationships of embeddedness and indebtedness. Crime, Law and Social Change77(1), pp.47-68.

Newaz, M.T., Davis, P., Sher, W. and Simon, L., 2020. Factors affecting construction waste management streams in Australia. International Journal of Construction Management, pp.1-9.

Okafor, C.C., Aigbavboa, C. and Thwala, W.D., 2022. A bibliometric evaluation and critical review of the smart city concept–making a case for social equity. Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management.

Samanta, P.K., 2021. Infrastructure Development and Construction Management. ASBM Journal of Management14(1/2), pp.111-114.

Urquhart, S. and Whyte, A., 2018. Rethinking the tendering frameworks of construction contractors in the context of a soft systems methodology approach. Frontiers of Engineering Management, 5(3), pp.369-380.

Welde, M. and Dahl, R.E., 2021. Cost Escalation in Road Construction Contracts. Transportation Research Record2675(9), pp.1006-1015.

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