WIRELESS NETWORK AND COMMUNICATION
Figure 1: Wireless Network Diagram
(Source: Microsoft Visio)
The wireless sensor network is an advanced technology in the wireless networking industry. A wireless network consists of several units of sensor nodes connected with proper direction. Each of the units is called a node which is nothing but small computer devices which are connected with each other to form a network of communication. This Network of communication performs the collecting of data, data processing and transferring the data to the appropriate destiny. Nodes are energy efficient multi-functional wireless devices in this Network. There are several hundreds, even thousands, of nodes that can be there.
Architecture of WSN
The architecture model is inspired by the OSI model, which is the most common in Wireless networks. There are five layers of architecture in WSN which are application layer, transport, data link, and the last one is the physical layer.
Characteristics of WSN
- Nodes are limited by the consumption of power.
- Easy to use
- Can able to scale large levels of distribution.
- It is able to manage if there is any failure in the node.
- Provide a secure environment of communication
Advantages of WSN
- This can avoid a huge number of wiring.
- Centralized monitoring can be possible.
- Accommodation of new devices can be made at any time.
- Not necessarily a need for immovable infrastructure to carry out the arrangement.
Applications of WSN
There are a huge number of applications of Wireless Sensor Network in health sectors, commercial, military, home, pollution monitoring, water treatments, fire detection, industrial monitoring and many other areas.
Wireless sensor network architecture based on IPv6
The wireless sensor network and its dramatic growth in communication technology lead to finding an incredible application range. In order to achieve point-to-point communication with the computer network, there is a need to introduce a Wireless communication network based on IPv6. The wireless sensor network based on IPv6 complies with 6LoWPAN “low power Wireless area Network” and it is the standard procedure for the implementation and designing perspective of the wireless communication network. With the IPv6 architected scheme of wireless communication the network provides abundant address resources and “steady” communication performance. There are lots of advantages of IPv6 based WSN over another traditional scheme.
There is a lot of important technical features that will introduce with the IPv6 wireless sensor networking as it provides consistency with the design and architecture. Although there are still some technical difficulties in the implantation of IPv6 autoconfiguration also there are advantages like control of massages, “stateless address configuration” required to operater “duplicate address detection”. There it can be found that it is essential to propose an IPv6 “auto-configuration algorithm” in every IP- wireless sensor network. IPv6 auto-configuration based “wireless sensor network” provides better performance than any traditional communication or sensor network.
In a computer networking system addressing mode is the process of hosting an address on a network. For example, IPv6 offers a variety of modes through which a host can be addressed multiple hosts can be addressed at once or the nearest host can be addressed.
Unicast mode of addressing
There is a unique way to identify the host in the unicast mode of addressing for an IPV6 interface. The source IP address and destination address both are consists of within the IPv6 Packet. A unique host is equipped in the network segment with the IP address. Whenever there is any network switch or router receives an Uncast IP Packet, specified for a host, it transmits one of its outgoing interfaces that connect to that specific host.
Figure2: Unicast Mode of addressing
Multicast mode of addressing
The multicast addressing mode of IPv6 is similar kind of as IPv4. The specified packet for multiple hosts is sent to a specific multicast address. All hosts interested in that multicast information need to join that multicast group at first. While all the interfaces that join the group accept the multicast packet and process it, many other hosts are not interested in the multicast packet and ignore the multicast information.
Figure2: Multicast mode of addressing
- Anycast mode of addressing
It is the new type of addressing mode that introducing IPv6. Here in this addressing mode “multiple hosts are assigned the same Anycast IP address”. If there is a situation that occurs that any host wants to communicate with “ a host equipped with an Anycast IP address” therefore it needs to send a unicast message.
Figure2: Anycast mode of addressing
- Appraise the technologies that are used to develop wireless based networks. 500
The term internet of things begins with connections, but the internet of things is a hugely diverse and multi oriented space where it helps to be fit in the communication system. This solution has its own strength and weakness in various wireless network criteria, and it is perfect; ly suited for the internet of things users. Lower Power Wide Area Network is the new occurrence in the internet of things which provide a long range of Network using small batteries that will last for several years. This kind of technology is generally supported by a huge margin of the internet of things network. This technology is mostly applied in various industries and commercial organizations. This can be connected with several types of networks and used by asset monitoring, environmental and ecological tracking, management of facilities etc. this is operated by small blocks of data allowing it to travel at low rates which need high bandwidth and moreover it is not time-sensitive. Both types of networks are created in LPWAN like non-IoT and LTE-M are licensed and MY THINGS, Lora and Sigfox which are not licensed. There are a few problems in licensed LPWAN like it consumes a high amount of batteries in cellular adaptations. In non-licensed technologies, the concern only occurs where quality services are offered that can ensure security and interoperability in longer usage of the technology. Cellular technology has brief history chapters like 3G, 4G and 5G. This is well established on the market where cellular networks are designed to offer reliable communication via voice connecting and video streaming options. The demerits of the system are that it mostly has huge installation costs as well as operational costs. Huge amounts of power consumption are needed to make in operations. Cellular operations are executed by battery oriented sensor networks. This is applied in connected cards or floor management and logistics. The next generation of cellular technology is 5G which supports high speed of mobility and low latency. This is specially designed to connect with automatic vehicles and visual reality prospects. This has the usage of real-time video surveillance for population safety measures, medical data analysis for better health care systems, industrial automation. Another technology that is used in today’s technology is Zhen and other Mesh Protocols. This is a shorter range, lower power consumption wireless technology commonly used in mesh to increase the technology by using sensitive data on sensor nodes. Zigbee is able to provide a higher data rate as well as power efficiency with respect to LPWAN. Generally, it has a range of fewer than 100 m and it allows the use of similar mesh protocols like Z Wave Thread. This is termed as a medium-ranged internet of things application which enables even source distribution with close proximity. Zigbee is used as a complement device like Wi-Fi for purposes of home automation like using smart automation. Until the usage of LPWAN meshed technology has several brief industrial applications on this like monitoring censoring data but due to demographic dispersion and complex setup, this becomes obsolete.
- Evaluate and compare the various mechanisms that are used to ensure effective communication between mobile devices and the real world. 500
Meeting overall interface criteria will help to get the required advances in technical areas. Some of the involvement of technology are in basic display visualization and interphone oriented technologies. Like high-resolution displays, 3D displays, original voice recognition, tactile displays etc. this kind of displays has the orientation to connect the mobile fidelity with the real world by applying sensory and motor nerves and cognitive abilities to be matched on different environment handling and carrying out various tasks simultaneously (Ali et al. 2018). To react to the vision the interfaces might have the ability to provide assistance in bringing the collaboration with the user to accomplish the task. This type of technology is used to make the design as best as possible by evolving the human and mobile communication technologies to veneer the interphone like system intelligence and partner shipping the activities (Kuo et al. 2018). This answer does real-time analysis of the advanced technologies that are related to system software to the system. The decision includes speech input and output technologies and natural language processing, gesture recognition audio and machine vision etc. The citizen interphone has challenges in evolving the information structure where it works as a standalone chapter to get interfaces in larger-scale networks.
3.1 Demonstrate a comprehensive and critical understanding of the security risks that are associated with a range of mobile devices and formulate suitable strategies for the protection of the data held by them.
The advancement of technology and increase in the usage of mobile devices leads to an increase in mobile security risks (Cui et al. 2018). The security risk for mobile devices can be several types such as physical threats, networking threats, application-related risks, a web-based security risks.
When someone lost his/her mobile device or if the mobile device is stolen by theft this could be very dangerous for that person as the data or information’s stored in that device is also lost or maybe reach to the wrong hand and sue to this any personal or organizational information leaks and any third party can miss-use those data against that person or organization.
While using an unsecured wireless network there could be a possibility of stolen data by hackers or cyber criminals and they can easily access that information and if Data is not encrypted.
This kind of risk is basically when people visit unauthorized or malicious sites and sometimes some malicious content automatically downloads on that device which might be risky for the security of that device.
Application related Threats:
Sometimes people download apps that are spyware or malware and can steal all the important information from that device on which it is installed even without realizing the people about this activity.
There are a few risks that are based on the above threats individually or combined.
Harmful mobile applications
People often download or install apps from app stores such as the play store or any other source. Every Time asks for some permission before allowing downloading the apps. This permission basically wants the access of some files or folders on that device, and most of the Time people grant the permissions without reviewing those in detail (Deng et al. 2018). This can be dangerous as if it is a malicious app and can steal sensitive information and be directed to a third party.
Spyware or malware
Even apple or IOS devices can easily be targets for threats regarding leaking some private or corporate data (Elhoseny et al. 2017). Apple devices are open for spyware attacks as the company realizes that they had three zero-day vulnerability risks. Recently software named Pegasus was discovered to hack any apple device third party use. In the case of android devices, Google play protect was developed for preventing cyber-attack or data stools by any spyware or fake apps.
Unsecured wireless Network (public Wi-Fi)
Nowadays there are lots of places having wide availability of Wi-Fi networks such as coffee shops, public transport, parlours, stadiums and many others, however, it can be unsecured. And there may be fake Wi-Fi also as it is not that hard to make a fake Wi-Fi and sometimes this asks the user to create an account using a username and password in order to access the Wi-Fi network (Lombardo et al.2017). And this can lead to hacking the device and stolen t\sensitive information.
un encryption of Data
Stolen data can be easily accessed by the hacker or any other third party if the Data is not end-to-end encrypted (Mahmoudzadeh et al. 2018). But an encrypted data can is accessible easily by the hacker, or no other third party can miss using the Data which can be recovered from a lost device or a stolen.
Often there are certain apps that are removed by Google or Apple app stores they find that those apps can cause any security threats or privacy breaches.
Lack of password protection
It has been found that around 32 to 345 people don’t use any password protection on their devices and many other uses don’t give that much effort while creating a password and ends with a very simple pin, pattern or key as a password which can easily be cracked by thieves or hackers if the device will steal or lost.
Phishing attacks are most likely encountered by the mobile devices as this kind of activities can occur through emailing and in this cashew mobile phones are more vulnerable as the user check notification or mails often, and due to the small screen size this display only the sender name unless expanding the notification bar and without informing about it is genuine or not user might some times click on the link of that emails, and this will be the reasons behind the mobile device threat.
Therefore this cannot be difficult for any professional hacker to gain access to the information by performing modification in the encryption algorithm.
Lost device or device is stolen.
When the device is lost unfortunately or stolen by theft and if it reaches the wrong hand like a hacker or cyber criminals they can gain access to that device with their techniques (Minakov et al. 2016). Hackers can access the data such as what are the sites the user often visits, their contact details, sensitive emails and information, apps linked with corporate information.
Sometimes malware is downloaded from some malicious sites user visits and if the device is not protected with antivirus or other security software’s (Henriques and Malekian 2016). Through the malware, hackers can gain access to the devices (Moh’d Alia and Al-Ajouri 2016). The bonnet is basically a network of all these affected devices which allows the hacker to spread spam emails and fraud campaigns.
- For the protection from malicious apps, it is important to check in detail all the permission that is to be allowed before installing any apps (Mohamed et al. 2018). And skip the download if there found any sensitive risk.
- For spyware protection, a user needs to install security apps that restrict malware activities and regularly update software.
- Avoid unnecessary access to unsecured public Wi-Fi.
- Must use communication apps that provide encryption of data.
- People should be aware that if any apps are pre-installed in their devices and which are removed from the Google play store or any other official app store due to any malicious activities (Nayak and Vathasavai 2017). Immediately remove from the device.
- Always use strong password protection with the device, such as two-factor authentication.
4.0 Research, assess and evaluate the complex relationships which exist between these technologies in real-world mobile devices.
Modern smartphones are not built for only voice calls or text messaging as the earlier generation of mobile (Khasawneh et al. 2018). Modern-day technology brings revolutionary changes in smartphones such as including high-end processors, high-speed connectivity, and wireless connectivity.
The enhanced performance and better user experience can be achieved with these devices by using wireless technology (Kiani and Seyyedabbasi 2018). This makes the device a future gadget and makes this technology the primary source of communication in the modern era (Hammoudeh et al. 2017). The technology associated with wireless technology in mobile devices is.
5.0 Integrate and synthesize diverse knowledge, evidence concepts, theory and practice in wireless communications, to solve problems.
Wireless communication is the process of transferring information from one place (sender) to the other place (receiver or destination) without using any wired connection or cable (Nguyen et al. 2019). The distance between the senders to the receiver may be short or long in the wireless communication system. Wireless communication is considered as the branch of telecommunication systems. There are several advantages of a wireless communication system over wired communication. In wired communication systems, there are some issues such as propagation and transmission improvements in wireless communication.
Most common examples of wireless communication can be found in mobile networking, GPS systems, television, radio, broadcasting, gaming, modernizing the communication industry.
Wireless communication is carried out through radio singles, electromagnetic waves, infrared single or microwave.
- This enables making a backup of the communication link in case of failure in a regular network.
- Cables are not used, and hence the cost of cable is saved, and this can be much more expensive for a long-distance communication channel in wired communication.
- This helps to establish a connection in workstations.
- This builds connections remotely in order to connect mobile users or networks.
- If there are collisions in the channels, then there’s a chance of losing the data.
- One of the main disadvantages of wireless communication is the capturing effect.
- Inter and Intracell interference is the biggest issue in wireless communication.
The rapid growth in wireless technology influences business activities and helps to expand the business and is easy to operate. This technology impacts the customer, client and employee of the business sector. With the help of wireless communication, remote monitoring becomes possible by connecting computers using new applications. Although there are a number of advantages of wireless communication in business, there are few disadvantages such as overusing technology leads to overload in communication information may lose as there is a lot of communication.
The network technology adopted by mobile devices can be wired or wireless network technology as per their capability of adopting.
- Network technologies offered by mobile networks such as a global system for mobile communication, GPRS general packet radio services, second-generation or 2G network, third-generation or 3G Network and fourth generations or 4G network.
- Wired network technology using cable connections such as Local Area Network or LANs the most commonly used LAN technology is Ethernet.
- WLAN or wireless LAN or Wireless Local Area Network in public sectors, offices, institutions, Hotspot and Wi-Fi technology. The most popular WLAN technology is Wireless fidelity or in short Wi-Fi.
- Network technology such as Bluetooth and infrared connectivity with nearby devices.
In Smartphone or mobile device network connectivity is important to access the website and web applications, files downloading or uploading of files. File sharing, news updates, communication and many others.
- In business, making presentations, gathering information, idea sharing, product information, and plan schedules.
- One of the biggest applications of networking technology is to communication; this makes one to one interaction simpler than ever before. This gives the opportunity to build personality, doubt clearing, and question answering customer interaction. Relationship building. Learning, exploring and many more there are limitless advantages in networking technology.
- This technology makes it possible to interact with people even if they are not physically present in front of others. This technology makes easier long-distance communication.
- Development in the business by promotions and customer care, people awareness, are benefited more by this networking technology.
There can be a problem in maintaining the safety and security in the devices and the data stored in them as this information can be stolen and accessed by third parties easily through hacking skills.
As infrared light is not able to pass through obstacles, connectivity hampers and also in the case of Bluetooth networking it cannot use effectively after a certain distance and loses the connection with the paired device after a certain distance and this leads to the communication be interrupted.
There is also increased cyber security risk with the developing network technologies. Using these technology hackers can access sensitive information of any user even without realizing them. This is the biggest disadvantage of networking technology.
7.1 Demonstrate a comprehensive knowledge of the hardware technologies that are currently used by mobile devices. 600
According to information communication technology, mobile technologies are nothing but the computing of smartphones gadgets and other electronic devices such as laptops, tablets etc. These are powerful tools in the communication technology world.
There is much similarity in the hardware technology in small devices such as mobile phones and smartphones with the hardware technology of desktop computers (Kocakulak and Butun 2017). However, there are some factors for the comparison of the components of both smartphones and desktop computers.
The on-screen keyboard of a Smartphone is much smaller in size than a regular keyboard of a computer. A smartphone screen is a touch screen feature and small in size as compared to the desktop screen.
Although standard computers give much better performance in terms of serious commuting tests, they are fast and effective (Kumar and Ilango 2018). But smartphones and tablets are best suited for location-based computing tasks and portability. These are the technologies that provide improved services with network connectivity and GPS support.
Hardwires are the main components in the build of electronic devices. There are various hardwires and implementing technologies for mobile devices such as input devices, output devices, storage devices, processing devices and many other types of hardware.
- Input devices are responsible for making the interaction possible to the user with the smart devices. Most commonly used input devices are touch-sensitive screens, microphones, card readers, keyboards etc.
- Output devices are used for providing the response of smart devices to the user and make the response understandable by the user. The response of the Smartphone or mobile devices is many in the form of images, documents, sounds, lights etc. the most commonly used output devices are displayed, speakers etc.
- Storage devices are used to store data. Depending upon the processing speed, capacity and portability there are different types of storage devices used. SD/memory card, pen drives used in mobile technology to store data, RAM and ROM are other types of storage elements in smartphones.
- Processing devices are such as processors or graphics processing units used for performing the task and operations in the smart devices.
- Power supply elements such as batteries with different capacities are used to run the smart devices and mobiles.
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