apparel industry

Investigating the complementary role of the apparel industry on the competitiveness of Jewellery brands: A study of UK and India

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Background Information

The topic of this research is to Investigating the complementary role of the apparel industry on the competitiveness of Jewellery brands: A study of UK and India. In the current business environment, the competition is increasing day by day. At the same time, the demand and expectation of the customer are also changing rapidly. The apparel industry is one of the major industry in which completion is at the high level at the current time. Moreover, the demand and expectation in the apparel industry are also changing in rapidly. In this way, it is found that the global consumer spending on the fashion industry is $1.5 trillion during the financial year 2015. At the same time, there is also an expectation that the Indian Apparel industry will grow by $115 billion by the financial year 2026 (Forbes, 2018).

India and the UK are most of leading consumer of gold a number of jewellery brands are engaged in producing jewellery items. The demand for gold is high in the Indian market. In this, it is found that Tanishq, D’Dams, Nakshatra, Gili Jewellery and ThribhuvandasBhimjiZaveri are some popular brands in India. At the same time, in the UK, the demand for the jewellery is also high. The main popular brands in the UK are Lily Arkwright, Monica Vinader, Links of London, Alex Monroe and Boodles (Chi, 2011).

In the last 2-3 decades, it has been seen that completion has increased at a great extent. According to a report, the current jewellery industry is highly affected by the presented players in the market because these are fighting for gaining a competitive advantage. The completion in the market is also high because there are lots of small and local shopkeepers in the industry those affecting the sales of the major players.At the same time, innovation and demand in the apparel industry are also affecting the competitiveness of jewellery brands (Turker and Altuntas,  2014).

1.2 Research problem

The main research problem is increasing the competition among the jewellery brands due to the apparel industry. In the current business environment, it is difficult for companies to maintain sales and market share. It is because players in the apparel industry are providing lots of different products that complete the requirement of the jewellery. This research is significant for the reader to understand the complementary role of the apparel industry in affecting the jewellery brands. Mainly, this research report focuses on Indian and UK market and their players (Dai and Lee, 2012). The increasing completion is the biggest challenge for the major players in the jewellery industry. The increase in the completion does not only influence the current sales of the brands in the jewellery industry but also crease the challenge for future sustainability. Moreover, it is also analyzed that the most challenging aspect for the jewellery brands is a fast fashion in the Indian and UK market. The fast fashion indicates to those clothes in which the price of the clothes is very less but production happens at a large extent. It is one of the major elements that is putting pressure on the apparel industry. At the same time, it is also analyzed that the completion is also increasing the apparel industry due to this, players in the industry are entering in the jewellery industry. These players focus on providing similar designing jewellery to the customer according to its dress up during the special event (Moitra et al., 2013).

In the same concern of this, it is also identified that players in the apparel industry also focuses on bringing innovation and differentiation in the industry. In the current time, lots of complementary products are presented in the apparel industry those complete the requirements of jewellery. At the same time, the cost of these products is also low complete the jewellery. Due to this, customers like to invest in apparel industry products. Therefore, it can be said that due to a complementary feature of the apparel industry is losing (Gereffi and Fernandez-Stark, 2011).

1.3 Justification of the study

The complementary role of the apparel industry on the competitiveness of jewellery brands is the topic of the interest because of its significance in the academic career. The knowledge of the competition at the current time is vital to develop the thinking in the business environment. The complementary role of the apparel industry is vital because, at the current time, lots of the industries are affected by the growth of the apparel industry in which the jewellery industry is one of them. In additional of this, the research has the aim to make the career in the apparel industry and jewellery industry, so this research very significant for the researcher to develop their knowledge and understanding on the different elements. It will enhance the knowledge on the competition in the market (Howarton and Lee, 2010). It will also be helpful to develop the conceptual framework in the context of the complementary role of the apparel industry on the competitiveness of Jewellery brands. It will be really a great experience in academic career.

The research is also significant in order to improve the understanding of the complementary role of the apparel industry in India and the UK. In this, it determined how the apparel industry influence the sales of the jewellery industry. At the same time, this report is also important to identify the impact of the complementary role of the apparel industry on the competitiveness of Jewellery brands in the context of the UK and India. In addition, this research report is also helpful to present the comparison of the jewellery brands in the UK and India due to the complementary role of the apparel industry. Therefore, overall it can be said that this research paper has significant scope to develop the understanding and knowledge in the context complementary role of the apparel industry on the jewellery brands (Venkatesh et al., 2015).

1.4 Research Aim and Purpose

The main purpose/ aim of this research is to Investigating the complementary role of the apparel industry on the competitiveness of Jewellery brands: A study of UK and India. In order to meet with this aim, the following objectives are accomplished in the research:

1.4.1 Research Objective

  • To determine the complementary role of the apparel industry in India and the UK
  • To identify the impact of the complementary role of the apparel industry on the competitiveness of Jewellery brands: UK and India
  • To compare the competitiveness of Jewellery brands in UK and India due to the complementary role of the apparel industry

1.4.2 Research Question

In order to complete this research study, following researcher questions will be answered:

  • What is the complementary role of the apparel industry in the current business environment? 100
  • How does apparel industry affect competitiveness of Jewellery brands? 200
  • What are well known Jewellery brands in India and UK? 100
  • What is market size of the apparel industry in UK and India? 100
  • What is the difference between UK’s and India’s competitiveness of Jewellery brands due to the apparel industry? 100-200

1.5 Research structure

In order to complete this research, a particular research structure will be followed that will be helpful for the researcher to summarize the research in an effective manner.

Introduction-it is the first chapter of this research that provides a critical understanding of the research areas and elements of the research topic. It helps to understand the research topic and purpose of conducting the research. Introduction chapter includes some subheading that are research background, research problem, research justification and research aim and objective and question.

Literature Review– It is a main research chapter that represents the summary of the various previous researchers on the topic. In this, the researcher develops a critical argument on the research topic and its key terminologies. This chapter in the research is vital to develop an understanding on the research topic. Moreover, in order to complete this chapter, the researcher uses the second method to collect the information that includes journals, scholars and articles.

Research Methodology– In order to present the research in the valid, accurate and effective manner, the role of this research chapter is very significant because it enables the researcher to use the various aspect of the research methodologies such as research philosophy, research approach, research design, data collection techniques, sampling and data analysis methods. It enhances the understanding of the justification of the research methodology.

Data Analysis & Discussion– This chapter allows the researcher to analyze the collected data and information with the valid data analyze method under the research methodology. In this chapter, the researcher uses the different tools and techniques that help the researcher to presents the findings in the graphical and tabulation manner.

Conclusion and Recommendation–It is the final or last chapter of this research paper that presents the overall research findings and limitation. It also provides a recommendation for further researcher in the same research area.

Chapter 2:  Literature review

2.1 Complementary role of the apparel industry in India and the UK

Kozlowski et al., (2015) refer the apparel industry is also known with various names such as the fashion industry, garment industry and clothing industry. This industry includes the various major business activities that are designing, wholesaling, manufacturing, and retailing of the clothes, fashionable products and footwear. In the current time, products of apparel industry have become the need people. The apparel industry also includes some sub-industry such as photography, modelling, fashion, hair styling, and makeup artistry etc. At the same time, Brown and Rice (2014) define in the current business environment, the major role of the apparel industry is in the growth and development strategies of developing countries worldwide. The apparel industry plays an important role in terms of economic and society, in the short term by offering jobs, incomes, mainly for women, and receipts of foreign currency and in the long term by offering nations the opportunity for sustained development of economy in those nations with adequate institutions and policies to increase the dynamic impact of apparel industry. In present business trade, the customers want various types of clothes and they want new design clothes, so it is necessary for the Apparel industry to provide these types of clothes to their customers and fulfill their demand and needs in the market (Chi, 2011).

According to Jafri (2012) Apparel industry is one of the biggest industry producing products as per the consumer demand. Complementary role for particular industry is depends on the customer demand, interests, preferences and buying behaviour. In respect of complementary role of the apparel industry in India is very high as people dressing and clothing preferences influenced by various factors like, cinema, fashion trend and latest western trends. Therefore, customer behaviour and demand plays important role in this industry On the other hand, in the words of Gbadamosi (2012), India is one of the most diverse cultural country, wherein, people of different culture, customs, beliefs and tradition resides. It is also one of the significant factor of being the complementary role of the apparel Industry in India. At the same time, people like to carry traditional as well as western wear according to particular event, festival and occasion.  This is the main reason to have the huge apparel industry and high demand and also supply.

Tokatli (2012) illustrated that in India, there is massive market of apparels including local supplier, manufactures, wholesales and dealers. At the same time, there is huge demand of western clothing, leading the mal culture in trend wherein, most famous, economic and fashionable clothing brands are available. In this way, Indian apparel industry connects with UK Clothing line and brands like Mufti, Allen solly, Levi’s, Pape Jeans and Wrangler and people get impacted by fashion, trends and pattern of U.K. Similarly, Indian apparels is also popular in UK such as Cotton silk and khadi etc. On the other hand, Khaire (2012) analysed that Indian textile and apparel industry is one of the biggest manufacturing and production company and significantly contributes to economy growth.

Apart from that, UK apparel and clothing sector is continuously increasing expected to grow by 285 Billion in 2025. It is continuously increasing in retail, wholesale and online market, As UK holds the diverse and global public this is the reason here clothing lines and appeals are quite experimental based on latest fashion. Although, in this country people carry different apparels than India but hold verities in this segment of business to. On the other hand, Morris, and Staritz, (2014) analysed that customer like to buy quality cloths on economical prices. This is the reason most of the UK clothing brands are cutting down their priced with the inducement of advice technology in order to improve quality.

In regards to this, Venkatesh et al (2015) most of the clothing production is based on polyester and natural fibre and mainly is clothing is focused on the export to US by Italy as its Italian clothing line is worldwide famous. In U.K. are fashion conscious and buy the cloths form high street stores and famous brand like Zara, Topman , Gucci, Armani, Victoria’ secret etc. This is one of the reason behind the complementary apparel sector as customer demand is in centre in this industry.

2.2 Impact of the complementary role of the apparel industry

It has been found in the study of Brun and Moretto(2012), that Jewelry experts are expected to grow this industry however it continuous on the similar track. Currently it has moderate rate of growth in all over the world. At the same time, Ten top most brand holds the 12 % of global market. There is only two Cartier and Tiffany & Co are top international brands in the list of global brands. On the other hand, Moraes et al (2017) elaborated that apparel industry is about ten times the size of the jeweller industry as measured in annual sales. Similarly, growth rate is quite satisfying in both the industries 9 % and 5 % in jewellery and apparel industry respectively per annum.

In this way, Reyneke et al (2012) stated Jewelry and clothing fashion influences each other as people uses suitable Jewelry according to changing apparel fashion. In the time of recession, when gold and other jewellery items are get costly and sold on higher prices, then artificial and ethnic jewellery was on boom. This affects the demand and supply of gold market in directly and global jewellery market start seeing bright business opportunities in artificial jewellery market encouraged by customer. As to why, people want to have fashionable and economic jewelry to fulfil their requirement. On the other hand, De Marchi et al (2014) discussed that as per global research on jewelry industry in which jewelry executives interviewed and it has been anticipated that branded jewelry brand can be reach higher share of market by 2020. However, there is contrast on the time frame in which the movement likely to take place. Majorly, it is expected that branded segment accounts for 30% to 40 % in jewelry market in 2020.

In the views of Turker and Altuntas (2014), in the present business environment, both the apparel industry and jewellery industries are known in trends. It is because most of the women wear matching jewellery and apparel in their daily life and it is very trendy looks. Apparel industries are a very popular industry in the world because it affects all types of age groups and people who love to wear traditional and modern dresses in their daily life. The apparel industry creates big competition for other industries such as jewellery brands and etc. It is because most of the apparel industries provide the different types of heavy dresses to customers that after wearing that dress they do not use the jewellery and it will be effective for the jewellery industry. In support of this, Gereffi and Fernandez-Stark (2011) state that different types of apparel are provided in the market and they are very heavy in looks and most of the apparel industries also provide the jewellery work dresses that the customers attract to those types of dress and they avoid to wearing jewellery. These types of apparel industries increase the competition in the market and most of the customers avoid wearing expensive jewellery. The apparel industries are very strong competitors to the other competitor’s industries in the market and they attract different types of consumers.

However, Brun and Moretto, (2012) posits that in India, there are various types of Jewellery brands and followings are the top 10 brands of Jewellery brands in India i.e. Amrapali, Senco, Josco Group, Kalyan Jewelers, Tribhuvandas Bhimji Zaveri, PC Chandra, Bhima Jewelers, Malabar Jewels, P C Jewelers, and Tanishq Jewelery.  As well as in the UK there are various types of Jewellery brands and the top 10 brands of Jewellery brands are such as Chopard, Mikimoto, Bvlgari, Piaget, Graff, Tiffany & Co., Buccellati, Van Cleef & Arpels, Cartier, and Harry Winston (Carrigan et al., 2017).

On the other hand, Pinto and Souza, (2013) in the UK, in the last three year, the apparel industry has contributed £ 32.3 Billion to UK gross domestic product, a 5.4 percent enhanced in 2016. The growth is higher than the figure for the UK economy as a whole. Apparel industry remains an important role in UK employers with 890,000 jobs support across the apparel industry, it is almost as a big opportunity as the financial industry. In India, the market size of the apparel industry is around 87,500 Crore (USD 16 billion) in the last five years. The menswear is the largest segment in India’s apparel industry, accounting for 42% of the overall market (Valaei and Nikhashemi, 2017).

2.3 Comparison the competitiveness of jewelry brands in UK and India

Besides from this, in the views of De Marchi et al., (2014), the competitiveness of jewellery brands between UK’s and India due to the apparel industry has some differences. It is also depicted that UK apparel industry has contributed more Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as compared with the apparel industry of India. In both countries, the apparel industry is growing but the UK’s apparel industry has contributed more as compared to the apparel industry in India. There is more competitiveness of jewellery brands in the UK as compared to India’s. It is also estimated that the retail spending of consumers is increasing to achieve €975 billion by the last of 20122 and one of the most exciting and promising markets of the world for upcoming years.

In the words of De Marchi et al (2014), the clothing and jewellery industry is complementary to each other and essential requirement in life of people. At the same time, clothing is considered as primary and basic requirement for human however, jewellery is considered as luxury. In regards to this, marketers expect to grow the jewellery industry similar to clothing industry however, cost matters in this comparison in terms of taxes, making charges, labour cost and most importantly the raw material.  Such expense makes Jewellery costly. On the other hand, Tombacco (2016) explained that dressing and styling is incomplete without jewellery especially in India. People like to jewellery as per attire dressed. In India, people use traditional as well as westerns light jewellery. However, the preference is having gold jewellery and most famous and big brand in India are Amrapali, Senco, KalyanJwellers and TBZ etc.

Furthermore, Indian traditional jewellery is world famous specially Rajasthan; uncut diamond and emerald drops. Hashmi (2012) identifies that jewellery market in India is valued as 3.4 Billion INR and jewellery industry hold important position in Indian economy and makes it leading foreign exchange of earner.  Apart from that India is one of the first countries who makes jewellery from Stones minerals and metals and most interesting fact is that most of the jewellery produced is hand-made. On the other hand, Chattopadhyay and Banerjee (2013) determined that Indian people like to wear gold jewellery and invest in gold for saving purpose. Also, gold consist 80 % of Indian Jewellery and ranks first in diamond cutting and polishing country.

In context of UK, people mostly like light and sober ornaments having diamond and other precious stones. According to Wu et al (2015) in UK has less demand of gold than India. The famous brands in UK is Lily Arkwright, Boodles, Tatty, Links of London etc. it has been identified that the trend of Jewellery and watches is quite robust and sales reaches to 2.4 % percent in 2017. Apart from that UK citizens are more likely to have precious metal and custom jewellery. There are some brands that are facilitates the clothing and Jewellery items as apparels and Jewellery is complementary to each other.

Cooper (2015) analyzed that the main base and structure of is different from each other. However, there is the arise of such jewellery brand and clothing lines that either they collaborate with each other or facilitate both products to the customer and promote their products in various events. At the same time, they endorse famous celebrities to advertise the brands so that public get to about both jewellery products as well as clothing line. Therefore, it can be stated that complementary role of apparel industry impacts on the competitiveness of jewellery industry in Indian and UK. Additionally, these two industries have interconnecting relationship as boom in one industry lead to boom in another industry.

2.4 Research Gap

On the basis of literature findings, it is found that continuously growing appeal industry leads to high competition in jewelry industry. At the same time, these two industries are interlinked to each other and driven by customer demands and differences. It has also indentified that complementary role of the apparel industry impacts the competitiveness of Jewelry industry and its business due to changing pattern, trends and fashions. However, it is not clearly evident that complementary role of apparel industry impacted the jewelry industry and its competitiveness. Three is lack of relevant justification in respect to complementary role of apparel industry in jewelry industry.
Similarly, above mentioned literature reviews discuss the comparison of competitiveness of UK and Indian Jewelry brand due to complementary role of apparel industry, However, Indian and UK is altogether different origins and having people of different tastes, preference and fashion sense.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

 3.1 Introduction

The chapter played an essential part to introduce the tools, techniques and instruments for research that were selected to source, collect, analyze and interpret the research data. This part also justifies the reason for selected research methods. The section includes the research philosophy, research approach, research design, data collection and sampling method, method for data analysis which were helpful to address and accomplish the aim and objectives of the research.

3.2 Research philosophy

The research philosophies are concerned with development of knowledge to initiate the research process with a system of assumptions and beliefs. The major research philosophies are positivism, pragmatism interpretivism, and realism. Among these, the researcher has preferred to adopt positivism research philosophy.  The positivism philosophical values provided guidance to the researcher assumption to understand the nature of the research and for the selection of research tools and techniques to source, collect and analyze data to seek answer the research questions in an effective and efficient manner (Taylor and Medina, 2011). The selection of positivism philosophy was apt as it allowed the researcher to carry out investigation under a scientific approach by considering existing theory to make prediction and use of measurable data to create facts (Bahari, 2010). It allowed the researcher to study the cause and effect relationship among apparel industry role and jewellery brands competitiveness. The positivism research philosophy has given flexibility to address research issue and fulfil data requirement for factual knowledge development with measurable observations using statistical approach to investigate the modern-day function of apparel industry in competitiveness of Jewellery brands in the UK and India. Thus, it can be said that the positivism philosophy has been helpful to gain an understanding of the research problem to obtain reliable outcomes in a logical manner with highly structured methods.

3.3 Research approach

The research approach can be referred to as the setting of the plan and procedure from the assumptions (wide principles) to justify specific methods of collection of data, its analysis and interpretation considering the research nature. The major research approaches are deductive, abductive, and inductive. Among these, deductive research approach was preferred for reasoning/ data analysis. This approach was apt as it had allowed to the researcher to explore a known phenomenon and test for rationality of the research theory by reasoning using statistical approach from general towards specific. This approach has supported in justifying the selection towards specific research methods. This approach has also supported in arriving at conclusive results in logical way. This reasoning approach has been positive to explore and seek out explanation for the jewellery brands competitiveness in two different countries. Besides, the partiality for deductive approach has been appropriate with the choice of positivism philosophy.

3.4 Research design

Resign design provide support to outline the process of investigation with specific direction for data collection and analysis procedures. The key research designs are mixed-methods research, qualitative and quantitative. The research has favoured the use of quantitative research design because as it sufficiently fulfils the requirement of measurable data to achieve the research aim and objectives with reliable and valid results. Moreover, the quantitative design gives high priority to analytical techniques to develop relationship between the known phenomenon and the observations (Creswell, 2013). The quantitative design fullfiled the researcher intentions towards generalization of results from a sample to a target population (Choy, 2014). The use quantitative design was positive to accomplish the research aim an objective in a moderate timeframe.

Once the research design was selected, the next step was to identify suitable methods to source and collect the research data.

3.5 Research Purpose

The research purpose is also a part of the research methodology that is beneficial to improve the researcher’s understanding on the research topic and problem. The selection of the appropriate researcher purpose helps the researcher to investigate the researcher problem deeply. In the research methodology, the descriptive, exploratory and explanatory are types of researcher that demonstrate the different purpose of the research study. In this, exploratory research as the name suggest investigates the research problem at the unknown areas of the research and explore the something new in the conclusion. In order to conduct the research with the exploratory research, the researcher needs to develop the depth understanding of the research topic or area (Flick, 2015). Moreover, explanatory research study is conducted when there is a need to determine or investigate causal relationship between the research variables. In the same concern of this, the decretive research study is used when the researcher has purpose to examine the characteristic of the selected population group. In this, the researcher investigates on the research views, opinion and attitude of the population on the selected research topic and problem.  In order to complete this research, explanatory research study is used that helps the researcher to investigate the relationship between the apparel industry and Jewellery brands. It allows the researcher to develop the understating on complementary role of apparel industry (Mackey and Gass, 2015).

3.6 Research strategy

In the views of Kumar (2019), research strategy is a vital method that sure the researcher regarding the availability of the presented data and information to complete the researcher. Moreover, the selection of the correct research strategy is helpful for improving the research validity and reliability.  It also helps to achieve the research aim and objective effectively. In the research methodology, there are various research strategies such as survey, case study, literature review, focus group and experiment etc those can be used by the researcher to answer the research questions. In this research, literature review and survey strategy are used by the researcher to accomplish the research study.

In this research, survey strategy by the help of the developing the survey questionnaire that is part of the primary research study is used to collect the view and opinion of population on the research topic. In order to conduct the survey, the main focus of the researcher was on research problem and research questions. The survey strategy has completed with the persons who have the significant knowledge of the research topic (Robson, 2011). It is also helpful to collect the reliable and valid data and information. At the same time, data and information will be collected from the different age group, gender and professional. It will be helpful to reduce the issue of the biasness from the research study. Beside of this, the researcher is also used the secondary data sources in the context journals, articles, textbooks, companies profile and websites. The use of the secondary data research enables the researcher to develop the depth understanding of the research problem. At the same time, the use of the secondary data is also helpful for the researcher to complete the research study at the less time and cost (Mackey and Gass, 2015).

The survey strategy is quite helpful to complete the research study under a proper control that is not possible by other research strategy. But, there are some limitation of this as it is time consuming that affect the research in the negative manner. At the same time, there is always a question on the reliability of the survey because it is not guarantee that respondent is proving the right information (Flick, 2015).

The literature review is another research study that is selected under the current research strategy. In this research strategy, the researcher is collected data and information by the help of the past researcher studies related to research topic. However, it is easy and time saving method of data collection. But, there is issue related to required information and available information.

3.7 Time Horizon

According to Tuohy et al., (2013), the time horizon is a significant element of the research methodology that helps the researcher to complete the researcher study in the available time period. However, there are two types of the time horizons those are used by the researcher to complete the research study that are cross-sectional and longitudinal. In the cross sectional, the researcher collects the data one time from the research participants with the similar characteristics. However, there may differences in the context of demographic situations. This type of the time horizon is helpful to conducting the interview in the research study. This method is also helpful to collect the lots of the information at the minimum time period (Alvesson and Sköldberg, 2017).

On the other hand, longitudinal time horizon is quite different from the cross sectional time horizon. It is said because the longitudinal allows the researcher to collect the data and information on the research questions more than one time. It means that from the longitudinal time horizon provides the advantage of the collect the data and information multiple times. But, there are some limitations of this method as due to multiple collections of data, it is probability of manipulation of the meaning (Tuohy et al., 2013).

In the reference of this research study, the main aim to analyse the complementary roll of the apparel industry on the jewellery brands.  Due to this, cross-sectional time horizon is appropriate to accomplish the research study in the effective manner. The selection of this research method is helpful to minimize the issue of the manipulation of the research answer. It is also helpful to maintain the validity and reliability of the information and complete the research study on the time.

3.8 Data collection techniques

This step forms an important research process to fulfil the data requirement from different sources so that research questions are addressed precisely. The two categories of data collection methods are primary and secondary method. For this study, both primary and secondary methods of data collection were considered because of the nature of research and study variables (Gray, 2013) and to make use of researcher analytical and researching skills. Under the primary data collection method, the measurable data was collected with the use of questionnaire methods for survey. A total of 15 questions were designed to collect the data. The questionnaire comprises of closed ended questions regarding demographics and in relation to role and impact of apparel industry for jewellery brands, link among apparel and jewellery brands, regarding factors for jewellery brand competitiveness. The questions with Likert rating scale were also included. The questionnaire method of data collection allowed the researcher to obtain fresh and new data which forms the primary data for analysis. It was indentified that use of questionnaire method has limitation as close ended questions were used that has limited the answer options for the research participants and also to get answers in detailed form (Lietz, 2010).

Under the secondary data collection methods, the existing data was collected from books, eBooks, research journals and articles, news articles and online publications and reports form India and the United Kingdom for the literature review. The purpose of collecting secondary data was to support the primary findings and also to get a compare the previous findings with the current study findings.

3.9 Sampling

The sampling was an essential step that supported primary data collection by identification of an appropriate sample that contributed in the research process and were representative of the target population. For this study, preference was given to probability sampling procedure under which the random sampling method was used by the researcher.  This was selected as it gave all the participants from population of interests an equal changed of getting selected. This provided a non-biased method of selection (Acharya et al., 2013) and to keep away from researcher bias by making random selection to work for this study to meet the aim and objectives.  The population samples for this study comprised of the senior level managers and middle level of apparel companies in India and the United Kingdom. The sample size was set at 120 numbers of participants from different apparel companies from these countries.

3.10 Data analysis methods

In order to present the research study in the readable format, the researcher conducts the data analysis. It allows the researcher to accomplish the research with presenting the accurate data and information. However, there are different data analysis methods in the research methodology those are used according to collected data and nature of the research study. Generally, a researcher can use content analysis, thematic analysis, statistical analysis, factor analysis, etc. This forms a critical step involving the analysis of the collected primary data in a systematic way to interpret and identify conclusive results that realise and fulfil the aim of the research. A statistical approach was adopted to analyse the questionnaire responses data by the use of MS Excel spreadsheet software, a data management tool. The MS excel was used to distribute the data for each research questions and to present data in understandable format (Gray, 2013). The analysis of questionnaire responses was used to interpret and provide meaning information to form conclusive results.

3.11 Ethical consideration

To complete the research in ethical manner is essential to accomplish the coursework under the ethical guidance. The consideration on the potential ethical issue helps the researcher to complete research without any issue. As concerning of the selected data collection method in this researcher, it is found that copy right and plagiarism are significant ethical issues that can happen due to secondary data. To overcome the ethical issues in the context of the copy right and plagiarism, the researcher provided the proper citation and references of the all the used sources. At the same time, all the secondary data or information have written in the own language that helped to overcome the issue of the plagiarism (Robson, 2011). In additionally, as concerning of the ethical issue of the privacy of the research participants, the researcher ensured all the participants in written that all the information will be used for the academic purpose and the personal information of the participants will not be disclosed.

3.12 Summary

On the basis of above discussion, it can be said that this research provides the depth understanding and knowledge of the researcher methods, techniques and tools. This chapter is also helpful to provide the appropriate justification for the selection of the research methods. It can also be summarized that to collect data and information on the role of apparel industry positivism research philosophy, deductive research approach, quantitative research design, survey and literature review research strategy, and longitudinal time horizon, primary and secondary data collection method with randomly sampling and statistical approach are used by the researcher.

4. Data Analysis

DATA ANALYSIS

Gender
 MaleFemale
6555

 

Age group
18-30 Years31- 40 Years41-50 Years51 Above
22354122

 

Do you think that apparel industry plays a significant role in growth and development economic?
Strongly agreedAgreedNeutralDisagreeStrongly Disagreed
235022025

 

Do you think that apparel industry includes designing, wholesaling, manufacturing, and retailing of the clothes, fashionable products and footwear?
Strongly agreedAgreedNeutralDisagreeStrongly Disagreed
186032118

 

Are you agreed that factors like, cinema, fashion trend and latest western trends affect the people dressing and clothing preferences in the country?
Strongly agreedAgreedNeutralDisagreeStrongly Disagreed
304132917

 

Do you think that availability of UK’s clothing brands such Mufti, Allen solly, Levi’s, Pape Jeans and Wrangler in India create the relation between the UK’s and Indian apparel industry?
Strongly agreedAgreedNeutralDisagreeStrongly Disagreed
323913018

 

Whether diverse and global public this is the reason here clothing lines and appeals are quite experimental based on latest fashion?
Strongly agreedAgreedNeutralDisagreeStrongly Disagreed
304052520

 

How much you are agreed from the statement as Jewelry and clothing fashion influences each other as people uses suitable Jewelry according to changing apparel fashion.
Strongly agreedAgreedNeutralDisagreeStrongly Disagreed
254033022

 

Do you think that desire of females as wear the matching Jewellery and apparel increases the sales of Jewellery brands?
Strongly agreedAgreedNeutralDisagreeStrongly Disagreed
154843221

 

Are jewellery work dresses decreased the sales of Jewellery brands in the industry?
Strongly agreedAgreedNeutralDisagreeStrongly Disagreed
363053217

 

In your views, select the best Jewellery brands in India
AmrapaliSencoJosco GroupKalyan JewelersPC Chandra
3028202319

 

In your views, select the best Jewellery brands in UK
ChopardMikimotoBvlgariPiagetBuccellati
2826242022

 

Are you agreed that due to large market size of UK’s apparel industry as compared to India affect more the competitiveness of Jewellery brands.
Strongly agreedAgreedNeutralDisagreeStrongly Disagreed
224473215

 

Do you agree that cost of the apparel industry products is less due to this, customers only prefers to apparel industry as compare to buying jewellery?
Strongly agreedAgreedNeutralDisagreeStrongly Disagreed
363822420

 

Are you agreed that marketing strategy of apparel industry brands is more effective as compared Jewellery brands that affect the sales of Jewellery brands?
Strongly agreedAgreedNeutralDisagreeStrongly Disagreed
304023216

 

References

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Dasanayaka, S.W.S.B. and Sardana, D.G., 2015. Development of Small and Medium Enterprises through Clusters and Networking: A Comparative Study of India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. International Journal of Economics and Business Administration3(2), pp.84-108.

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Jafri, H., 2012. Psychological capital and innovative behaviour: An empirical study on apparel fashion industry. Journal of Contemporary Management Research.

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 Questionnaire

Gender

  • Male
  • Female

Age group

  • 18-30 Years
  • 31- 40 Years
  • 41-50 Years
  • 51 Above

Do you think that apparel industry plays a significant role in growth and development economic?

  • Strongly agreed
  • Agreed
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagreed

Do you think that apparel industry includes designing, wholesaling, manufacturing, and retailing of the clothes, fashionable products and footwear?

  • Strongly agreed
  • Agreed
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagreed

Are you agreed that factors like, cinema, fashion trend and latest western trends affect the people dressing and clothing preferences in the country?

  • Strongly agreed
  • Agreed
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagreed

Do you think that availability of UK’s clothing brands such Mufti, Allen solly, Levi’s, Pape Jeans and Wrangler in India create the relation between the UK’s and Indian apparel industry?

  • Strongly agreed
  • Agreed
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagreed

Whether diverse and global public this is the reason here clothing lines and appeals are quite experimental based on latest fashion?

  • Strongly agreed
  • Agreed
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagreed

How much you are agreed from the statement as Jewelry and clothing fashion influences each other as people uses suitable Jewelry according to changing apparel fashion.

  • Strongly agreed
  • Agreed
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagreed

Do you think that desire of females as wear the matching Jewellery and apparel increases the sales of Jewellery brands?

  • Strongly agreed
  • Agreed
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagreed

Are jewellery work dresses decreased the sales of Jewellery brands in the industry?

  • Strongly agreed
  • Agreed
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagreed

In your views, select the best Jewellery brands in India

  • Amrapali,
  • Senco,
  • Josco Group,
  • Kalyan Jewelers,
  • PC Chandra

In your views, select the best Jewellery brands in India

  • Chopard
  • Mikimoto
  • Bvlgari
  • Piaget
  • Buccellati

Are you agreed that due to large market size of UK’s apparel industry as compared to India affect more the competitiveness of Jewellery brands.

  • Strongly agreed
  • Agreed
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagreed

Do you agree that cost of the apparel industry products is less due to this, customers only prefers to apparel industry as compare to buying jewellery?

  • Strongly agreed
  • Agreed
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagreed

Are you agreed that marketing strategy of apparel industry brands is more effective as compared Jewellery brands that affect the sales of Jewellery brands?

  • Strongly agreed
  • Agreed
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagreed

 

 

 

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