Comply with infection prevention

Comply with infection prevention and control policies and procedures

Answer 1. Below are the Seven times hand wash hygiene.

  • Before and after patient care
  • Before donning sterile gloves
  • Before inserting invasive devices
  • After contact with patient’s skin (intact and non-intact)
  • Body fluids, and wound dressings
  • After removing gloves (Effa et al., 2013)
  • After contact with close objects/equipment
  • Moving from contaminated to clean site on same patient

Answer 2. Steps involved in routine hand wash.

  • Wet the hands with clean water and apply the sanitizer.
  • Foam the hands by rubbing well them with sanitizer.
  • Scrub the hand well for at least for 20 seconds
  • Rinse the hands well under clean water and dry hands.

Answer 3. Steps involved in waterless hand hygiene

  1. Make sure all organic matter is removed from hands.
    All visible organic matter (for example: dirt) must be removed from hands prior to applying waterless hand sanitizer (Kirkland et al., 2013)
  2. Apply a dime sized amount of waterless hand sanitizer to the palm of one hand or use a waterless hand sanitizer wipe.
  3. Rub hands together covering all surfaces of hands and fingers.
  4. Rub until waterless hand sanitizer is absorbed.

Answer 4. Steps involved in the pre-surgical hand wash

  • Remove the hand jewelry, rescrub and wash the hands with an antimicrobial soap and warm water.
  • With the help of nail toll clean the subungual areas of nails.
  • Do the surgical scrub in fingers, hands and back areas of the hands for two minutes.
  • Scrub the arms make sure that hands must be higher than arms so that bacteria cannot spread on hands (Barbaro et al., 2014).
  • Wash the hands and arms up to two inches ago for one minute.
  • Wash the hands, fingers, hands and arms through water in one direction.
  • Proceed for surgical area with help up hands.

Answer 5.

When hand is visibly soiled they needs to be washed with soap and water rather than alcohol based hand wash.  Hand wash form alcohol can be alternate option in case water and towel is not available. However, it is not appropriate for all the conditions.

Answer 6.

By wearing full sleeves apron and gown a worker can save his skin with the impact of hand washing.

Answer 7.

Health care workers who assist the patients must keep the nail short, clean and unpolished. In addition, they must to regular manicure and nail trims, also, they must use cuticle oil on regular basis to avoid the split in nails that can be portal for entry of bacteria.

Answer 8

ideally, jewelry must not be worn in providing care as germs and bacteria can be spread through coming in the contact with patient. At the same time, skin under rings is the most colonized portion with microorganisms (Melker et al., 2013). Also, it may cause to tear of gloves and jewelry can affect the proper washing of hands and not let them dry.

Answer 9.

Two guidelines for using the gloves in healthcare

1) Selection of gloved must be appropriate to job task as per hand size and activities.

2) Powdered medical gloved must not be used can cause to infection and allergy and use gloves must not be washed for reuse and should be discarded.

Answer 10.

Health care worker must wear the gown or apron when there is possibility of splashing off the blood onto cloths (Gould, D. and Drey, 2013). However, waterproof long sleeved gown need to wear when blood of blood fluids can be spread to cloths or skins, these wears must be wearing once and discarded.

Answer 11.

It is not preferable to wear the prescribed glasses in place of protective glasses. As to why, regular prescription eyeglasses do not qualify as safety glasses unless they meet specific criteria.

Answer 12.

Wearing the masks is required:

  • When a person in sick.
  • While assisting the patient having tuberculosis
  • In crowd or polluted areas.

Answer 13.

The cleaning schedule contains the list of placed and items need to be cleaned. It includes the cleaning of equipment, tools, containers, floors, special wards etc (Taneff, 2015).

Answer 14.

It is required to the do common cleaning for removing dirt and dust on the ground before applying the pH neutral solution. At the same time, floors need to clean through water, detergent well.

Answer 15.

How to handle and transport linen:

Wash hand before wearing gloves.

Treat all linen as if contaminated

Fold the lines after removing it from bed

Hold the lined away from the body

Drop the linen on the floor or not shake it ( Furterer, 2017).

In addition to this, wash the dirt as per the hospitals procedures and wash in machine, Put off the cloths and discard them before washing hands.

Answer 16.

Below are the three paths:

  • The air as small droplets (droplet spread) or tiny aerosol particles (airborne spread)
  • Contact with faeces and then with the mouth
  • Contact with the skin or mucus membranes (nose, mouth, throat and genitals)

Answer 17.

The chain of infection is a medium to collect the information require disrupting or preventing a disease. It includes the pathogen, reservoir, portal of exit, means of transmission, portal of entry, and the new host.

Answer 18.

The five main infectious agents are:

  • Viruses
  • Bacteria
  • Fungi
  • Protozoa
  • Worms

Answer 19.

Following are the modes of transmission

  • Direct—it requires physical contact between hosts.
  • Indirect—it happens due to contact with body fluids or tissues of an infected individual.
  • Droplet—when large infectious particles sprayed into the air from the respiratory tract of an infected individual (Wittkopp et al., 2013).

Answer 20.

A susceptible host is a suspected individual in a group of people who can easily infected by diseases. In other words, the person who has low immunity efficiency due to which easily can get sick.

Answer 21

Methods for clean the medical equipments avoiding infection

  • Chemical germicides
  • Physical methods
  • Disinfection of mechanical ventilators

Answer 22.

Infection means while assisting the patient the germs and bacteria spreads to the environment and infects the other people in hospital. it can be due to infection during blood of urine test.

Answer 23.

Colonization: It refers to the presence of microorganisms in the patient that spreads without tissue attack and cellular injury (Malanchi et al., 2012).

Diseases: it refers the particular unusual condition that harms the parts of body not due to any physical injury. It can be happen due to internal dysfunctions in the body.

Answer 24.

Jock itch, ringworm and yeast infections are the most examples of fungal infections. |It spread due to come into body contact with microscopic spores exists in air and soil.

Answer 25.

Virus is a parasite made of protein and considered as core of genetic material ether for DNA or RNA. It spreads due to come in touch with another virus or cell. Sneezing is the best example of it.

Answer 26.

Additional Precautions are infection prevention and control precautions and practices required in addition to Routine Practices. They are based on the mode (means) of transmission of the infectious agent: airborne, droplet, and contact.

Answer 27.

The types of additional precautions are based on the mode of diseases transmission and taken when it is highly infectious, those are

  • Contact
  • Droplet
  • Airborne
  • Combinations of all

Answer 28.

Three types of additional precautions for incubation period:

  • Special Precaution – Hand Hygiene, Personal protective equipment.
  • Transmission based Precautions- Gloves, Impermeable apron/gown, P2 Respirator.

Answer 29.

Hazard – Hazard refers to potential cause of harm can affect the persons or group of person.

Risk – Risk is the possibility to happen the uncertain events that can have adverse impact.

Risk Control –It means to step taken in order to prevent the predicted risks (Kappes et al., 2012).

Answer 30.

Proactive strategy: In this strategy, preventive actions are taken before the uncertain event happen and arise of danger.

Reactive strategy: In this strategy, corrective actions are taken after the incident has happens.

Answer 31.

In order to assess the risk the risk matrix need to be maintained that level of risk by considering the category of probability or likelihood against the category of consequence severity.

Answer 32.

Older people and small child less than age of five are the examples have more chances to be infected and easily suspected due to bacterial infections etc.

Answer 33.

List the hierarchy of control to prevent the infections:

  • Eliminations substitution
  • Additional precautions
  • Administrative Controls
  • Personal protective

Answer 34.

Immune systems are multifaceted network of cells, signals, organs that acts and helps the germs cause to infections. It prevents any harmful bacteria and viruses to enter into the body.

Answer 35.

The people with an open wound more at risk of acquiring an infection because all the bacteria’s and virus are available in the open wound. It can be said that the break in the skin provides a route to the germs for traveling outside to the inside and generally the skin acts as a barrier to acquiring an infection in the body ((Weekley and Harris, 2013).

Answer 36.

It is identified that the medication and co-morbidities can make a person more susceptible to infection because if a person has ability to tolerate drugs tolerate. In addition, there are numerous changes with normal aging within the immune system of the human.

It is commonly observed in the elderly that deficit of profound occurs to immune function and it decreases the ability of the drug resistance to make him more susceptibility to infection ((Surawicz et al., 2013).



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Effa, E.E., Okokon, E.E. and Oduwole, O.A., 2013. Handwashing practice among healthcare providers in a teaching hospital in Southern Nigeria.

Ellingson, K., Haas, J.P., Aiello, A.E., Kusek, L., Maragakis, L.L., Olmsted, R.N., Perencevich, E., Polgreen, P.M., Schweizer, M.L., Trexler, P. and VanAmringe, M., 2014. Strategies to prevent healthcare-associated infections through hand hygiene. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology35(8), pp.937-960.

Furterer, S.L., 2014. Linen Loss Reduction in an Acute Care Hospital. In Lean Six Sigma Case Studies in the Healthcare Enterprise (pp. 229-259). Springer, London.

Gould, D. and Drey, N., 2013. Types of interventions used to improve hand hygiene compliance and prevent healthcare associated infection. Journal of Infection Prevention14(3), pp.88-93.

Kappes, M.S., Keiler, M., von Elverfeldt, K. and Glade, T., 2012. Challenges of analyzing multi-hazard risk: a review. Natural hazards64(2), pp.1925-1958.

Kirkland, K.B., Homa, K.A., Lasky, R.A., Ptak, J.A., Taylor, E.A. and Splaine, M.E., 2012. Impact of a hospital-wide hand hygiene initiative on healthcare-associated infections: results of an interrupted time series. BMJ Qual Saf21(12), pp.1019-1026.

Malanchi, I., Santamaria-Martínez, A., Susanto, E., Peng, H., Lehr, H.A., Delaloye, J.F. and Huelsken, J., 2012. Interactions between cancer stem cells and their niche govern metastatic colonization. Nature481(7379), p.85.

Melker, R.J., Gravenstein, N., Dennis, D.M. and Batich, C., University of Florida Research Foundation Inc, 2013. Handwashing compliance detection system. U.S. Patent 8,525,666.

Taneff, Y.G., 2015. Hand washing enforcement system. U.S. Patent 9,030,325.

Weekley, C.M. and Harris, H.H., 2013. Which form is that? The importance of selenium speciation and metabolism in the prevention and treatment of disease. Chemical Society Reviews42(23), pp.8870-8894.
Surawicz, C.M., Brandt, L.J., Binion, D.G., Ananthakrishnan, A.N., Curry, S.R., Gilligan, P.H., McFarland, L.V., Mellow, M. and Zuckerbraun, B.S., 2013. Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Clostridium difficile infections. The American journal of gastroenterology108(4), p.478.

Wittkopp, S.H. and Hart, J.M., GM Global Technology Operations LLC, 2013. Multi-speed transmission having automatic and manual modes. U.S. Patent 8,460,151.

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