BREXIT

Consequences of BREXIT for European Security

Introduction

In the recent years, BREXIT has been remain a significant well known tem, everyone has well familiar with the BREXIT.  This term indicates to the Bre –Exit where UK decided to leave the member ship of the European Union. This decision is taken behalf on the referendum on 23 June 2016, where 51.9% participants said for leaving the EU.

UK was jointed the EU since from the 1973 which membership was confirmed in 1975. It is identifying continuous that BREXIT has significant impact on the Europe in the different perspectives such as European Security (Heisbourg, 2016).

After the BREXIT, the European Security has been evaluated many times by the different interested elements in the environment. In this, it is found that there are some positive and negative results of BREXIT on the European Security.

During the BREXIT, various kind of possible implications were adopted by the EU. In the same concern, this report critically evaluates the consequences of BREXIT for European Security. In this way, it analyses the positive and negative impact of the BREXIT on the European Security.

Positive Consequences of BREXIT for European Security

In the research of Stellini (2016) depicted that there has significant impact of the Brexit on the European Security. The threat of military invasion is also not needed to duplicate traditional collective defence arrangement of the NATO.

Additionally, the EU is also able to face the challenges both internal and external dimension to address the threats. Brexit provided the most immediate impact on the foreign, security and defense policy areas by the use of high force in EU.

The EU has created the immediate security policy because regulating the state according to the new policy and their high security from externals. The new government of the EU has already made collaboration with the other member states.

EU has taken attention on the defense and security policy strictly for removing the risky movement that is created by the Brexit. The government provided a series of civilian and military by the conflict mission management. It has an unexpected size and capacity in term of the defense of the country by undertaking the mission.

Brexit provided the good government to the EU that helps the country in the high development and security (McCann and Hainsworth, 2017). They carefully managed the economic damage that is created by the Brexit.

The Brexit provided the new framework to the European security and this is useful for the development of the country. At the same time, the economic area of the EU will not highly be affected by flexibility in the government of the UK.

The UK has most trade and investment channels that can also be developed by EU in this state to increases the development of both. This decision of the EU has developed new trades and investments to cover the market. In the words of Mitsilegas (2016) Brexit also affected believes of the public because they are thinking that it will provide the high growth in the long run to the country.

Additionally, the economy of the EU will also speedily grow. European security market is now protected by the EU government and this provided the high growth to the market by a heavy trust on the new government.

The EU also provided the complimentary things in the implementation and also makes them flexible to change them according to the need of the people (Benitez, 2016).

It is also seen that the expeditionary tasks have outlined in the EUGS for ensuring the collective defense. Additionally, Europeans also increased their credibility for the health situation of the development of the country. At the same time, the EU has focused on the cost saving for the future of the EU that provided helps the country in the budget.

In the views of McCann and Hainsworth (2017), the Brexit provided the financial advantage to EU members like high investment and free trade in EU. Additionally, it provided the market to the member states that can import or export between the member states with any tariff.

It also increases the trading in the market of the EU and helped the country in the economic development. At the same time, the production cost of the companies has reduced because EU does not take the tariff on import (Oliver and Williams, 2016). It also reduces the total cost of the production and the total national products will also increase because there is no tariff on the export also in the EU.

The sovereignty is also the very important part that provided the positive feeling to the EU members. It is because the sovereignty provides the self-control on the security decisions and development. SYS (2016) stated that the change in the democratic power of the people can develop the interest of the big business with the permanent administration.

EU members wanted to their own sovereignty to develop the country by using their independent trade and develop the business. At the same time McCann and Hainsworth (2017), stated that the British government yet also bounded some memberships for the EU such as NATO, WTO, the UN and many treaties and agreements with other nations that can be helpful for the EU development. But the country is also able to develop their economy on the available options.

The law of EU provided the benefits to the public, in which anyone has a right to live and work in the UK according to their job (Vasilopoulou, 2016).

Additionally, the people of the UK also have same right to live in the EU for the good relationship between the UK and EU. Many people work in the UK and help the economy of the EU by increasing the net national income. At the same time, it provided the benefit by the increment in the GDP of the EU.

The UK provides the strong hand to support the EU in the international sanctions. The Brexit reduces the problem of the security by improvement in the security system of the country.

Additionally, both the countries have increased their defense and security by the compromise and negotiation. The risk of both side Brexit also helped the people to provide the jobs because it increases the work of the governments.

After the Brexit, the EU is able to take decision-related with the trading and security that was not provided by the UK properly to develop the EU. Now the security of the trades in the EU will provide by the EU government with the economic development by less cost production.

At the same time, the Brexit is also beneficial for the EU because now it can globalize the trades to develop the international understanding of the firms (Menon and Salter, 2016).

Moreover, the firm in the EU will take advantage of the culture and communication to increase the selling. The UK has created the special relationship with the EU after the Brexit to share the security equipment. The UK has also used the capital in the trade development that was previously used in the European.

The EU has also used the security surplus because it has more power in the military and intelligence to make secure the country. The UK also provided the contribution in the security of the Europeans during the Brexit because it is beneficial for both.

The EU members have a powerful policy in the security that is provided by the EU to develop the member states immediately (Rieker, 2017). The Brexit also influenced on the European security but the UK provided the same position at NATO by introducing European power and capability.

Both EU and UK are now able to fulfill the requirement of the people according to the new laws. The wish of the EU has been fulfilled that it has freedom of movement from the defense union.

However, the EU knows that the most of the voter wanted to leave the EU by the election. The EU can develop a more positive relationship with the other countries across the world for the development of its union (Biscop, 2016).

The rebalancing of the economy of both EU and UK make it the best place for the business with the economic growth, investment, and trade. All the benefits of the Brexit are very important to the independent market of the EU and the customs union. Moreover, the Brexit also provided the important and massive fringe benefits to both the EU and UK.

The government of the EU can directly focus on the common regulations that will provide the direct benefit to the citizen of the EU (Whitman, 2016). At the same time, the government has decided to establish the universities for the research and development to actuality make the infrastructure of EU in front of the UK.

The financial services of the EU have most regulated industry especially at the time of crises but Brexit helped the EU to provide new regulations for safety.

Additionally, the government of the EU has built the strategy where it will boost the single market but focus on the direct benefits for people. It is stated by the Menon and Salter (2016) that it will focus on the common regulations that will help the citizens of the EU at least cost.

The single market will provide all the benefits by the help of FDI. This market will create huge talent in the general public and they will able invest in the developing market for future success. It will also promote the public of Europe to develop the innovation program and make the market leader.

Negative Consequences of BREXIT for European Security

The research study conducted by Pisani-Ferry et al. (2016) demonstrated the negative impact of the Brexit can be seen as the economic, financial and social challenges faced after the leaving the UK to the European Union. These economic, financial and social challenges have raised the issue and question for European Security and defence policies.

In the recent, Janusz Onyszkiewicz who is the former defence minister of Poland said in its interviews that the new developed policies of the USA’s president demonstrate that now Europe will not capable to get the benefit of USA support to protect it against adverse future contingencies (Whitman, 2016).

It increased the issue for the Europe because now it is required to improve its material and the political capacity for improving its defence system and seek the outside support. At the same time, it is also analysed that European Union is also facing an issue to decide what fundamental political problem and what will be accurate strategy to mitigate these issues European security and defence policy.

At the same time, it is also found that Consequences of BREXIT is a significant loss for the European Union and its defence. Due to Brexitm it is identifying that the capacity of the European deference is continues decreasing quarter by quarter by quarter. It is because the leaders of the EU are not working for the increasing the capacity of the EU defence (Oliver and Williams, 2016). Along with the strategic plans were stopped by EU after leaving the membership by the UK.

The finding of Whitman (2016) also determines that EU security can be less immediately affected by Briexit in the context of the labour policies and trade. The negative result of the Brexit can increase day by days as increased the challenges for the European security. Even thought, both these are subject of the long term uncertainty and change.

In the same concern of this, the research study developed by Biscop (2016) posits that there is a number of the positive and negative consequences of BREXIT for European Security. In this, it is found that the decision of the UK to leave the EU is showing challenges for UK and European security rather than defence. Due to this, there is an issue has risen to long term uncertainty and change.

A negative Consequences of BREXIT on European Security can also be seen as that it decreased the defence budget of the EU and UK. It affected the European ambitious defence equipment spending plans negatively. Due to the decision of the UK leave to EU, it is also observed that the value of the sterling decreased in the international market.

Due to this, UK’s defence organisations are highly vulnerable to major financial losses with the other organisations in the different sectors (Whitman, 2016). At the same time, it is also found that the sale of the defence equipment has decreased after the Brexit. It raised the question for the profitability and availability of the finance for the defence industry of the Europe.

The impact of the Brexit is also seen in the research and development of the European secure. Due to unavailability of the sufficient budget for the defence sector, Europe is not able to spend more money on the research and development. It is significant an area where the consequences of BREXIT for European Security are being seen.

Due to this, it has been observed that the number of the innovation has reduced the European security. The UK’s risk declined access to EU fund for research and development in the defence sector that has a significant impact on the research and development in the security (Economides and Himmrich, 2016).

Before the time of the Brexit, there was a plan to invest a large amount on the research and development for the improving the defence but, this plant has postponed for the sometime.

In the Europe, there was EU framework in the context of the permanent structured cooperation (PESCO), it looks the areas of the security and deference of Europe. After the decision of the UK to leave the EU, it will deprive EU to access the militaries and defence of the UK.

In the EU, the UK was one of the largest countries that had a largest militaries and deference. But, at the same time, the Prime Minister of UK said that “We are leaving the European Union, but we are not leaving Europe”. It indicates that there is possible situation that UK can provide the possible help to EU in the some worst situation (Biscop, 2016).

The vote of the people to leave EU has introduced the difficult situation of the Europe and UK in the economic and financial uncertainty. It affected the all EU’s market as well as the income sources of the EU. IN this, it is observed that the value of the share FTSE 100 was declined by £120 after the Brexit (Oliver, 2016).

At the same time, it is also identified that value of the sterling was hit the lowest value of the in the last 31years. It also decreased the GDP growth rate of EU that is why, the security and deference system has declined.

But, at the same time, the views of the Oliver (2016) determine that the Brexit is an agreement between the UK and European commission that is procedure. In this, it can be said that Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) of Europe is the not a part of the policy of the Brexit because it is a political aspect for the EU and UK.

After the departure of the UK, it is analysed that there are various agreement and policies on the European security are pending that needs review. Its negative effect is that it can create the confusion at the time of the emergency in the Europe.

In the support of this, Kienzle and Hallams (2016) stated that due to Brexit, security and defence issues are increased in the European Union and UK. But at the same time, it is also stated that it is political problem not the military.

European Union has always manager its security and defence issue by the help of the different channels. But, after the implication of the Brexit, it is found that these policies affected all security and defence policies of the Europe and UK (Uttley and Wilkinson, 2016).

Hence, overall it can be said that the concept of the BREXIT increased that the issue for the European security. In this, it is found that due to BREXIT, the economic growth of the both UK and EU declined that is why they are not able to do spend on the security and defence. At the same time, it also decreased the investment in the research and development that can raise issue in the future.

Conclusion

From the above discussion, it can be said that consequences of BREXIT for European Security have evaluated in the context of the positive and negative way. In this, it found that after the BREXIT, there are opportunities for European Union to improve the security and defence area.

It is because the BREXIT has negative influences for the European security. In this ways, it ways it is found that due to decline in the economic growth, the budget on the security and defence has decreased. At the same time, the EU will not be able to get advantage of the largest militaries of UK.

At the same time, it is found the due to BREXIT, the cost of the defence has decreased of the EU. It is because before Brexit, it had to spend a lot of money on the UK’s security and defence.

References

Benitez, D., (2016) The EU as a global security actor in the 21st Century: Dealing with security challenges in a multilateral framework (Bachelor’s thesis, University of Twente).

Biscop, S. (2016) All or nothing? The EU Global Strategy and defence policy after the Brexit. Contemporary Security Policy, 37(3), pp.431-445.

Economides, S. and Himmrich, J. (2016) What price autonomy? Brexit’s effect on Britain’s soft power, trade deals and European security. LSE Brexit.

Freund, P., (2015) Opportunities and Risks of the Proposed Referendum on United Kingdom’s Membership in the EU (BREXIT).

Heisbourg, F. (2016) Brexit and European security. Survival, 58(3), pp.13-22.

Kienzle, B. and Hallams, E. (2016) European security and defence in the shadow of Brexit. Global Affairs, 2(5), pp.465-469.

McCann, G. and Hainsworth, P., (2017) Brexit and Northern Ireland: the 2016 referendum on the United Kingdom’s membership of the European Union. Irish Political Studies, 32(2), pp.327-342.

Menon, A. and Salter, J.P., (2016) Brexit: initial reflections. International Affairs, 92(6), pp.1297-1318.

Mitsilegas, V. (2016) The Uneasy Relationship Between the United Kingdom and European Criminal Law. From Opt-Outs to Brexit?.

Oliver, T. (2016) European and international views of Brexit. Journal of European Public Policy, 23(9), pp.1321-1328.

Oliver, T. and Williams, M.J. (2016) Special relationships in flux: Brexit and the future of the US—EU and US—UK relationships. International Affairs, 92(3), pp.547-567.

Pisani-Ferry, J., Röttgen, N., Sapir, A., Tucker, P., & Wolff, G. B. (2016) Europe after Brexit: A proposal for a continental partnership. Brussels: Bruegel.

Rieker, P., (2017) The French return to NATO: Reintegration in practice, not in principle. In French Foreign Policy in a Changing World (pp. 107-131). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Stellini, S., 2016. An analysis of the implications of a UK exit from the EU on CFSP and British foreign and security policy(Bachelor’s thesis, University of Malta).

SYS, T. (2016) Health system efficiency: how to make measurement matter for policy and management. TEN, 33.

Uttley, M.R. and Wilkinson, B. (2016) A spin of the wheel? Defence procurement and defence industries in the Brexit debates. International Affairs, 92(3), pp.569-586.

Vasilopoulou, S., (2016) UK Euroscepticism and the Brexit referendum. The Political Quarterly87(2), pp.219-227.

Whitman, R.G. (2016) Brexit or Bremain: what future for the UK’s European diplomatic strategy?. International Affairs, 92(3), pp.509-529.

Whitman, R.G. (2016) Epilogue: European security and defence in the shadow of Brexit. Global Affairs, 2(5), pp.521-525.

Whitman, R.G. (2016) The UK and EU foreign, security and defence policy after Brexit: integrated, associated or detached?. National Institute Economic Review, 238(1), pp.R43-R50.

Whitman, R.G., (2016) The UK and EU foreign and security policy: an optional extra. The Political Quarterly, 87(2), pp.254-261.

  

 

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