CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment Sample

1.0. Introduction

Motivation is a process that fosters goal-oriented behavior by satisfying the personal and professional needs of the workers (Deckers, 2018). The report has been concerned with the applicability of the construction industry’s motivational theories or leadership theories. Various competing theories have been proposed by different experts, which require appropriate application by the management of foreign firms. The construction industry is comprehensive and includes multiple activities such as quarrying, forestry, manufacturing, infrastructure designing, operation, and disposal. UK industry has experienced that 60% of the construction projects are new buildings while the 40 % of construction activities are refurbishment and maintenance (Dadhich et. al. 2015).http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment Sample

The report will present the description of various motivational theories that will improve the productivity of the employees when applied in the construction sector. There are certain professional ethics that the management can follow in the construction industry.

2.0. Organisational and Management Processes

The construction industry is quite a critical industry that requires a high degree of management skills, minute attention to detail, and monitoring of the different variables. The construction industry in the UK involves the management of people ineffective way that ascertains the allocation of the right persons at the right place.

Process management refers to the alignment of the goals, process architectures, and measurement systems in order for the process to run smoothly, yielding desired output (Slack and Brandon-Jones, 2018).http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment Sample Process management can be automated with the application of software supporting the business process. Construction companies need to implement process management and project management activities for the accomplishment of construction projects within time. Project managers are required to keep a strict eye on the issues such as scheduling, the safety of the workers, maintenance of the quality standards, or controlling the cost to be incurred in the project (Hammer, 2015).http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment Sample

An appropriate organizational structure has guided management in the construction industry. The organizational structure maintained should be hierarchical in nature. Hierarchical structure allows the separation of duties in the project teams by the knowledge of functions and skills (Maduenyi et. al. 2015).http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment Sample Construction industries require the supervision of all the activities by one manager who has a centralized approach under such an organizational structure. Construction industries are prone to external risks that may arise in the industry due to the ever-changing factors of the environment. Some of the physical factors also exist in construction industries, such as the safety and security of the men working on-site, environmental issues, or the corporate social responsibilities to be fulfilled. Therefore, the construction industry must stress the need to adopt risk management policies.

3.0. Theories of Motivation

Motivation is a force that drives employees to work with their utmost efficiency and effectiveness. Motivation may be considered as an intrinsic or extrinsic activity (Heckhausen and Heckhausen, 2018). http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment SampleThe nature of motivation depends on either the desirability or interest in the action or the external reward related to the movement. The construction industry is an industry that is highly based on human efforts. Therefore, it is necessary to keep the human resources highly motivated and enthusiastic to complete the targets and projects by the deadline. Motivational theories are categorized in the industry in two forms:

CPM 7001  Construction Management Assignment Sample

Figure 1: Motivational Theories Types

(Source: Self Made, 2021)

3.1.Significance of Motivation

Motivation in construction industries has been considered essential for the following reasons:

  • The most apparent benefit of motivation in the organization has been the achievement of organizational goals in the industry. The best possible utilization of resources creates a cooperative work environment in the workplace (Peters, 2015). http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment SampleEmployees become goal-oriented in their behavior and allow smooth operations in the organization.
  • The workforce in the organization is less prone to conflicts in the organization, and hence harmonized work occurs in the organization. Effective cooperation among the workers would foster a sense of stability in the organizations.
  • Resistance to change is managed by the application of motivational theories in practical life as the employees will be more adaptable and understanding when they are wholly satisfied with the working conditions in the industry (Kanfer al. 2017).http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment Sample
  • The stability in the working conditions will lead to the profit maximization approach through increased productivity of the workers.
  • Motivation is a process that results in the Indifferent Attitudes of the employees.
  • Another significant benefit of motivation has been a reduction in the employee turnover of the organization. This will reduce the cost of the training and development of the newly recruited employees in the organization. Reduction in Absenteeism would be a positive signal for the management.

Content theories are related to an individual and the driving factors that generate a behavioral approach for an individual (Gopalan et. al. 2017).http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment Sample Various content theories are given as:

3.2. Herberg’s Motivation/Hygiene Theory

This theory was concluded after a survey on 200 engineers and accountants who have accounted for the workplace incidents that influence satisfaction. The two crucial factors enhanced in theory are considered as:

  • hygiene factors
  • Motivator factors

The strength of these factors is only analyzed in terms of the level of satisfaction derived from them and not dissatisfaction. The theory has enhanced that the employees will be dissatisfied with the financial remunerations such as salary and bonuses if they are not provided with hygienic conditions in the workplace (Herzberg, 2017).http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment Sample It is evident that the employees will not be wholly satisfied until and unless all other motivators are not satisfied.

The hygiene factors are inclusive of the relationship and communication of individuals with the companies’ superiors and policies and strategies. Therefore, the monetary factors are also accompanied by the employees’ personal and hygienic factors in the workplace.

Construction sites are generally messy and require working out on their hygiene. Hence, this theory accounts for the managers in the construction industry. Other theories are more focussed on the monetary aspects as well which are considered the most fundamental in the motivation (Al-Abbadi et. al. 2019).http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment Sample Thus, the theory is a booster for construction workers in terms of the requirement of hygiene.

3.3. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Contrary to the theory above, Maslow’s Need hierarchy theory has focused on the personal and professional needs and requirements of the workforce. Need satisfaction is one of the crucial aspects of the motivator factor for the employees. Employees have defined their needs to be assigned hierarchically from lower to higher levels (Stewart et. al. 2018).http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment Sample An employee would pursue higher requirements only if the lower conditions are satisfied.

Figure 2: Maslow Hierarchical Model

(Source: Self-made, 2021)

The five needs from the lower level in the hierarchical model have been  enhanced as:

  • Physiological or the basic survival needs (food and clothing)
  • Safety needs (job security for the employees )
  • Love and belonging needs ( friendship, affection, or love)
  • Esteem (Self Expression)
  • Self-actualization.

The first four levels of the model have been referred to as deficiency needs or D-needs, and the topmost need has been defined as the growing needs or needs. Deficiency needs are considered when they have not been accomplished by the employees or are still unmet (Hopper, 2020). http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment SampleThey find an origin in the deprivation of an individual.

The loophole of the theory lies in the issue of the inability of all the employees to move in a uni-directional manner in the model due to the intervention of various personal or professional reasons such as divorce or loss of a job. Therefore, progress is not assured between each level of the motivation theory. The description of each stage has been given in the following manner:

Physiological needs are the biological needs of an individual considered essential for the survival of humans, such as shelter, clothing, food, or sleep (Maslow, 2019). Safety needs, on the other hand, have been salient after the fulfillment of the basic requirements. The employees need to experience order, predictability, and control during a particular job, and the accomplishment of such needs is possible through the institutions like police, schools, or business. Examples of this kind of need are financial or emotional security.

Hale et. al. (2019) states that Love and belongingness need to consider the human emotional condition, which develops a sense of collective emotions and yields a feeling of being part of a group.

Esteem needs are self-worth or accomplishment in the form of respect in society. This has been categorized in a particular condition or societal form. Achievement, mastery, or independence are the needs while the status or prestige of the other members in the organization or others.

The highest level in Maslow’s hierarchy is the Self-actualization needs of an individual. Realizing personal potential and the individual’s personal growth is one of the key objectives of the theory.

3.4. Macgregor’s Theory X and Theory Y

Another view of the motivation theories presents that Managers have opted for the criteria of motivating people based on their point of view being damaging (X) or positive (Y) for human beings. Theory X is the conventional approach for the supervision and monitoring of the human resources in the organization (Hattangadi, 2015). In contrast, Theory Y brings in the transformational approach for the direction and control of the people. The assumptions in theory X have been presented in the following elements:

  • It assumes that workers are not willing to work with interest and inherent dislike of work.
  • Disinterested workers are forced to achieve organizational goals and are also punished for the same.

Theory Y has the opposite assumption concerning the theory has emphasized the facts as:

  • As a result of experience, employees turn out to be lazy and are not inherently lazy.
  • Work is considered as natural as rest and play.
  • Self-evaluation and direction are required in the workplace.\
  • All the employees have different potential, which can arise under appropriate circumstances and, ingenuity and creativity in the employees can be utilized in the industry.

Lawter et. al. (2015), believes that the managers holding the opinion in favor of theory Y are more successful in motivating the employees as transformational leadership allows more scope for the employees to be free.

3.5. Process Theories

In contrast to content theories, process theories are aimed to enhance the sustainability of the motivated behavior achieved by the content theories (Brand, 2016).http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment Sample Some of the process theories have been enlisted as:

3.6. Expectancy Theory

This theory is contradicted by the attitude of individuals who make decisions on the basis of the beliefs in their minds. This theory assumes that the result of actions is highly dependent on the attraction of the movement to the individual (Baumann and Bonner, 2017).http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment Sample The basic idea behind the approach is that it individually identifies certain links between effort, performance, and outcomes in the form of effort performance linkages and valence (attractiveness) of products.

Vroom has stated the inclination of individual motivation by the three factors mentioned below:

  • Self Judgment of an individual
  • Perception of individual
  • Variation in the Interpretation of comparative treatment

Rehman et. al. 2019 proposed the idea that the measurement of motivation is in the form of valence, instrumentality, or expectancy. Valence is the reward for the employees. Construction industries have been keen on providing valence to the employees on the completion of relevant projections (Rehman et. al. 2019).http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment Sample Instrumentality refers to the performance of the employees. At the same time, the third influencing factor is expectancy, which is the established relationship between the efforts made by an individual and the ultimate result performance of the same. Construction industries may find the application of such theory within particular jobs.

3.7. Goals Setting Theory

Locke proposed this theory in the year 1968. According to the viewpoint of Locke, this theory has considered the process of setting and achieving organizational goals during motivation to be inseparable. The basic idea of the approach has been focused on the conscious intentions (also called goals) to be a vital regulator of the actions of the individuals (Latham, 2016).http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment Sample It is identified that the challenging objectives ascertained by the management result in a higher level of output. There is a set mindset of the employees that the goal-setting teams are more inclined to achieve the objectives than those who are simply assigned goals. This theory runs parallel with the management by objective (MBO) but faces implementation issues in the industry concerning the heavy layer of bureaucracy.

4.0. Application of the theories in the construction industry

Various incentives paid in the construction industry are guided by the motivational theories provided above. Management keeping the optimal balance of the motivational factors in the industry would foster better performance (Larsson et. al. 2018).http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment Sample Maslow’s hierarchy theory applies in construction firms. Employees or workers in a construction firm are more inclined to fulfill the lower level needs before heading to the top needs of self-actualization.  The construction workers require the fulfillment of Physiological requirements in the form of salaries and bonuses provided to them. The construction industry is full of dangers and hence the second need for safety and security is the second top priority of the employer. It should be ascertained that the workers are given appropriate tools and training to perform technical functions in the construction or building process (Graboviy, 2016).http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment Sample Social fostering for the workers may be in the form of appreciation for the project completion or discussion and proper communication. Self-confidence in the construction industry employees is by awarding them motivational awards in the form of financial and non-financial remuneration. This acts as a motivational factor to work with greater interest. Self-actualization needs are associated with the employees’ professional goals, which the respective project managers should appropriately analyze (Capozza et. al. 2016).http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment Sample

Project managers make use of this motivational theory as it keeps away conflicts and aligns the personal as well as the professional goals of the employees.

Motivational theories may involve the use of three kinds of factors which are defined as:

  • Financial motivators ( that are monetary or cash rewards )
  • Semi-financial motivators (providing perks and benefits in the form of pension schemes, staff canteens, or temporary bus facilities).
  • Non-financial motivators (self-fulfillment or self-expression)

The financial motivators share a close connection to the performance of the individuals. There are two payment mechanisms indulged in the construction industry: the piece-rate system and the standard hourly rate. Any work exceeding the regular working hours will be an incentive for the individuals. Construction industries majorly make use of the financial indicators that will yield the need of the workers on a contract basis (Cardoso et. al. 2015).http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment Sample The employees, on the other, have been effectively interested in the top needs of the theories like self-esteem or actualization.

5.0. Limitations of motivation theories in the construction industry

It is pretty apparent that motivation techniques have been essentially implied in the construction industry. Still, the peculiar working conditions in the sector have restricted the complete adoption of the entire theory. The application of Herzberg’s theory has been able to distinguish boundaries between the Labour or subcontractors clearly. One the experts Olomolaiye and Price, have laid emphasis on the adoption of Herzberg “s theory in the construction industry (Anderson et. al. 2017).http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment Sample It was because the “open shop” nature carried by the industry workers has been fostering them to be more aligned with the organizational goals assigned as against the factors proposed by Herzberg.

Another critique of motivational theories has been presented to identify that conceptual applications lack empirical verification. Maslow’s theory enhances the ability of workers to achieve a higher level of satisfaction in their current job after fulfilling their basic needs. The same does not comply with the construction industry. The example for the same can be presented in the form of supervisors or artisans learning the abilities to craft or design would not further continue in the organization—my approach to practice their skills rather than liking to get promoted in the same firm.

The series of critics brought forward McGregors’s Idea considered as the best to motivate the employees to be fundamentally wrong. It was believed that the employees were rigidly bifurcated in the form of X and Y employees because the employees significantly differ from each other in their skills, attitude, and working profession (Cardoso et. al. 2015).http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment Sample Their behavior as per the theory should be considered as a continuum to the assumptions preferred by Gregor.

The UK’s construction industry has several drawbacks that pull the growth and development of the whole industry. Construction industries are affected by Wasteful activities, less innovative approaches in the sector, low knowledge perspective, and many more.

There is a need to introduce ways and means to enhance the bring improvement of inefficiency. Construction or builders rely on the clients to have a sound design but present the final result that does not perform as excellently as displayed in the format (Adjei, 2016).http://CPM 7001 Construction Management Assignment Sample Such a situation of difference between anticipated and actual performance in the construction industry is referred to as the performance gap. Builders should be aware of promising only relevant details to the client. This would cause the issue of the performance gap in the industry and does not violate the ethical standards of the construction industry.

The government requires being more efficient in fostering the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions to the extent of 80% by the year 2050. The government is considered to accomplish the target of sustainability in the environment, which needs cooperation from the construction industry. The new construction of the buildings should be efficient in its designs and long-term sustainable in nature to avoid any sort of wasteful activities produced due to frequent construction of different structures, sites, or projects.

6.0. Conclusion

Construction management ascertains higher productivity by the application of such motivational and leadership theories. There are various cases where human resources have experienced a boost in productivity after the application of such approaches. The deficiencies in the industry and the non-alignment of the logic still do not allow full adoption of the theories by the construction industry. There is still scope for the evolution of motivational theories, which are designed as per the risk perception and the working patterns of the construction industry.

The report has effectively presented the motivational theories and the application of the same to the construction industries. The industries that have indulged in the payment based on daily performance have to be proactive in applying all such theories and maintain a satisfied workforce in the organization. The benefits of motivation will be effectively visible in the productivity and the effectiveness of the functions of the individual and the groups.

7.0. References

Adjei, S.D., (2016). Review of waste management in the UK construction industry. Routledge.

Al-Abbadi, G.M.D. and Agyekum-Mensah, G., (2019). The effects of motivational factors on construction professionals’ productivity in Jordan. International Journal of Construction Management, pp.1-12.

Anderson, H.J., Baur, J.E., Griffith, J.A. and Buckley, M.R., (2017). What works for you may not work for (Gen) Me: Limitations of present leadership theories for the new generation. The Leadership Quarterly28(1), pp.245-260.

Baumann, M.R. and Bonner, B.L., (2017). An expectancy theory approach to group coordination: Expertise, task features, and member behavior. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making30(2), pp.407-419.

Brand, C., (2016). Dual-process theories in moral psychology. Wiesbaden: Springer.

Capozza, D., Brown, R., Aharpour, S. and Falvo, R., (2016). A comparison of motivational theories of identification. In Social Identities (pp. 51-72). Psychology Press.

Cardoso, P., Dominguez, C. and Paiva, A., (2015). Hints to improve motivation in construction companies. Procedia Computer Science64, pp.1200-1207.

Dadhich, P., Genovese, A., Kumar, N., and Acquaye, A., (2015). Developing sustainable supply chains in the UK construction industry: A case study. International Journal of Production Economics, 164, pp.271-284.

Deckers, L., (2018). Motivation: Biological, psychological, and environmental. Routledge. Gopalan, V., Bakar, J.A.A., Zulkifli, A.N., Alwi, A. and Mat, R.C., (2017), October. A review of the motivation theories in learning. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 1891, No. 1, p. 020043). AIP Publishing LLC.

Graboviy, P., (2016). Methods of motivation improvement and effectiveness increase on the example of construction industry enterprises. Procedia Engineering165, pp.1520-1528.

Hale, A.J., Ricotta, D.N., Freed, J., Smith, C.C. and Huang, G.C., (2019). Adapting Maslow’s hierarchy of needs as a framework for resident wellness. Teaching and learning in medicine31(1), pp.109-118.

Hammer, M., (2015). What is business process management?. In Handbook on business process management 1 (pp. 3-16). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Hattangadi, V., (2015). Theory x & theory y. International Journal of Recent Research Aspects2(4), pp.20-21.

Heckhausen, J. and Heckhausen, H., (2018). Motivation and action: Introduction and overview. In Motivation and action (pp. 1-14). Springer, Cham.

Herzberg, F., (2017). Motivation to work. Routledge

Hopper, E., (2020). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Explained. ThoughtCo, ThoughtCo24.

Kanfer, R., Frese, M. and Johnson, R.E., (2017). Motivation related to work: A century of progress. Journal of Applied Psychology102(3), p.338.

Larsson, J., Eriksson, P.E. and Pesämaa, O., (2018). The importance of complex project management and team motivation for construction project performance. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business.

Latham, G.P., (2016). Goal setting: A possible theoretical framework for examining the effect of priming goals on organizational behavior. Current Opinion in Psychology12, pp.85-88.

Lawter, L., Kopelman, R.E. and Prottas, D.J., (2015). McGregor’s theory X/Y and job performance: A multilevel, multi-source analysis. Journal of Managerial Issues, pp.84-101.

Maduenyi, S., Oke, A.O., Fadeyi, O. and Ajagbe, A.M., (2015). Impact of organizational structure on organizational performance. Nigeria: Thesis Submitted to Covenant University, pp.354-356.

Maslow, A.H., (2019). A theory of human motivation. General Press.

Peters, R.S., (2015). The concept of motivation. Routledge.

Rehman, S.A., Sehar, S. and Afzal, M., (2019). Performance Appraisal; Application of Victor Vroom Expectancy Theory. Saudi Journal of Nursing and Health Care2(12), pp.431-434.

Slack, N. and Brandon-Jones, A., (2018). Operations and process management: principles and practice for strategic impact. Pearson UK.

Stewart, C., Nodoushani, O. and Stumpf, J., (2018), July. Cultivating employees using Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. In Competition Forum (Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 67-75). American Society for Competitiveness.






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