CRITICAL MANAGEMENT IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT

CRITICAL MANAGEMENT IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT

 

Introduction

In any kind of organisational business, there obviously have several cultural groups among the employees. For running the business successfully the higher authorities of those companies will have to manage the leadership in the right manner, have to maintain the strategic as well as the business plan, right decision in the difficult situation, good communication with the employees, improvement of the quality of the products, efficient number of production as per the demand of the people. Apart from this, the higher authorities of the companies will have to provide a higher level of customer service to the people of the country through which the companies can increase production. Here, the problem is that the companies are sometimes intersecting the employees on the basis of gender. Through the gender intersects with other identity categories to make the reinforcement to the experiences regarding the privilege as well as oppression in the workplace. The discussion will be made on this. The further discussion will be made regarding the critical evaluation of the organisational context as well as the management issues which can be addressed in any kind of organisation. In the last section, the discussion will be incorporated with the consequences of maximizing the value of the shareholder and critique whether this should be the dominant principle of corporate governance.

1. Gender intersects with other identity categories (such as race and class) to reinforce the experiences of privilege and oppression in the workplace

Gender intersects in the companies and arguments

In any kind of business process, there obviously have several numbers of employees. Among the employees, some are male employees and some are female employees. Here, the discrimination has established due to the workability or producing the work effort for the companies. In the general sense, the male employees are thinking that the female employees will not compete against the male employees. In this matter, it is to be stated that in some organisations, the higher authorities of the companies are also thinking the same kind of thing. According to Strid and Verloo (2018), some organisations are intersecting in the workplace as per the gender of the employees which is obviously not in the form of the good workplace. In companies, the main problem has been created for women employees in the workplace. Women are literally harassed in the workplace due to gender mainly. On the other hand, gender has intersected in the workplace with other identity categories like the race or class in the organisations. Through the division in the workplace as per the gender, the companies cannot increase the production in the countries. The women employees are suffering due to the culture, colour or the language in the workplace. The male employees are doing the harassment to the women employees who specially belong to the minority scale or from the needy family (Lombardo and Rolandsen Agustín, 2016). In other words, sometimes, the harassment is happened due to the colour of the women. That means the black coloured employees are harassed in the workplace. In this case, it is to be recognised that racism is considered in the companies due to the superiority of one kind of race over another race. That means it is mainly included the discrimination or the prejudice which can be detected in the organisations where several cultural employees have been worked. Racism is mainly happened due to the increased rate of race in the workplace or ethnicity in the workplace (Collins, 2017).

The race in the organisations is mainly incorporated due to several biological differences between the employees. In this regard, it is to be stated that the management of the companies are not able to lead the companies in the right manner or somehow the working process of the companies is not focused on by the higher authorities. Apart from this, people from minority groups are working in several organisations. However, the higher authorities of the organisations obviously have several rules and regulations for minority employees in the companies separately. However, inside the business other leaders or the employees are not maintaining the rules which are made for the minority group especially. Due to the lower class or the minority class, the employees especially the women are harassed by the other employees. As cited by Steffensmeier et al., (2017), workplace harassment is one of the biggest issues of the companies to maintain the business in the right from. The companies are also facing the issues that the employees are moving out from the organisations due to the extreme level of discrimination or the harassment in the workplace. Women from minority groups are not secured in the workplace. The women of the companies have faced the oppression inside the organisations and the higher authorities are providing some rules to retain the trust of the employees (Harris and Leonardo, 2018).

Trust is definitely one of the finest things in companies. Through providing the trust, the employees are feeling free to work under the company and the employees can provide some extra efforts as per the needs of the management of the organisations if there is the higher level of demand in the countries. For the minority section of the companies, the higher authorities of the organisations are making the rules for the minority section in the company and the minority groups are getting the privilege from the management of the organisations through which the groups are able to get some advantages in the business operation such as the compensation in the salaries, leave request for the urgent basis of the bonus as per the performance in the companies (Noe et al., 2017). The higher authorities of the companies have to maintain the rules and regulation to maintain the business process in an effective way. Through the implementation of the rules, other employees will not able to make any kind of harassment inside the companies. In this matter, it is to be noted that the higher authorities of the companies have to give focus on the internal activities of the companies through which the leaders or the employees cannot make any kind of discrimination in the business or any kind of harassment to the employee especially to the women who are coming from the minority section. The management of the companies is giving the privilege to the particular section of the employees due to give the advantage or the right which is granted to that particular section among the employees. The example of the privilege can be the money for incorporating the higher level of education.

As cited by Noe et al., (2017), the gender division in the companies is needed to increase productivity in the market. The female persons are not able to do heavier work or the female persons will not able to give the same effort as the male persons in the companies. This can be argued as a negative aspect. However, the author does not support any kind of discrimination in the business process through which the productivity of the companies will be reduced. On the other hand, the minority of the companies has to get the same elements which are getting the normal section of the companies. In accordance with the upper section of the companies have to produce strict rules against the oppression of the employees in any kind of purpose in the business (Meuser et al., 2016). On the other hand, the higher section of the companies can remove the working process as per the gender basis. That will be good for the companies to run the business effortlessly and the employees will not leave the companies by providing issues like unhealthy workplace or the discrimination in the business or any kind of harassment in the business.

2. Critical evaluation of the organisational and management issues (such as power, hierarchy and identity) that are addressed in an alternative organisation

As per the given context, the evaluation will be made on the basis of the management issues in the companies on the basis of the power, hierarchy and the identity which are addressed in any kind of organisation. For running any kind of business, the companies may face several issues such as the problems regarding the leadership in the business or the control over the business (Arena and Uhl-Bien, 2016). Here, the higher authorities can follow several theories to run the business in an effective manner. Through following the theories, the management of the companies can lead the employees in the right way. However, the issue regarding the leadership or the hierarchy of the company is creating problems to give the right information to the employees through which the business function of the companies can run in the right direction. If there has the problem in the leadership then, obviously, the production of the companies will be reduced and the standard of the companies will be decreased. The main problem has happened inside the companies (Spector, 2016). Through the effective leadership in the companies, the higher authorities of the companies can make a good relationship with the employees and can give direction to the employees of the companies through which the business operation will work in the right process. The employees of the companies can understand the needs of the management and do the work as per the given information of the higher authorities. Through communication, the higher authorities can understand the problem of the employees and can rectify the problems according to the provided problem of the employees. Thus, the rectification of the problem can be made if the higher authorities of the companies can maintain the leadership role in the right manner. The leaders have the power to make the right decision in any kind of difficult situation during the business (Mouton, 2019). It is needed for every company that the leaders of the companies are effective and the leaders are able to take risks in the market. In this manner, here, the debate has been incorporated between the manager as well as employees of a Tesco Company. The company is one of the biggest retail companies in the UK.

The base of the debate

The main focus of the debate is to make a critical evaluation on the basis of the organisational or management issues in an organisation through which the production of the company has decreased. The management issue is mainly considered as the leadership of the company as well as the less number of effective leaders in the company. In this case, it is to be noted that it is really the main element of the company to lead the employees or the company to take over other companies in the market. Tesco is one of the biggest retail companies in the country. That means the leadership or the hierarchy of the company is well established here. However, the problem has been detected since the last two or three years that the company is facing the issue to deliver the same amount of productivity in the company (Bouzenita and Boulanouar, 2016). That is happened due to the leadership in the organisation as well as the hierarchy of the company.

The argument in the debate

First, the manager of the company has given the reason behind the issue created in the past few years. The manager is giving the logic that the company has focused on the Trait Theory from the initial stage of business. In this matter, it is to be noted that the implementation of the Trait Theory is mainly based on a particular case of leadership where the leadership roles are mainly focused to analyse the mental or physical condition of the employees as well as the social characteristics for gaining a large number of understanding of the leaders of the company. In the initial stage, the higher authorities of the company were able to make competitive advantage in the market. After some years, the manager has realised that the higher authorities of the company were focusing on the condition of the employees rather than the business activities. That is why the manager has decided to change the following theory on the basis of the leadership of the company as well as the power of the leaders to make the identification of the working process. Now, the manager has decided to follow the Great Man theory to sustain the development of the company (Mouton, 2019). In this theory, it assumes that the traits of leadership are mainly considered as intrinsic. Through the theory, the higher authorities of the company can lead the company in the right direction and the employees will follow the information of the leaders. In this matter, it is to be stated that the Great Man theory has been made for understanding the power or the role of the leaders. Leaders are those who have the ability to lead the company as the leader of the soldiers (Soni and Soni, 2016). Through effective leadership, the employees can understand the needs of the higher authorities and the working process will go in a smooth way. That is why the higher authorities will follow this theory.

On the other hand, the employees of the company have provided a different view. The employees have said that the company has followed the right leadership theory for increasing the development of the company. In this matter, it is to be noted that the higher authorities of the company have good leadership skills to handle the country’s large retail organisation. That is why the revenue of the company has increased day by day. However, the problem has been noticed in the internal business process due to the improper hierarchy in the business. That is why the employees are giving the recommendation of following Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. It is the theory through which the higher authorities can do the right hierarchy process in the business.

Figure 1: Maslow’s Hierarchy theory

(Source: Bouzenita and Boulanouar, 2016)

As per the given figure, the higher authorities of the company can match up the business activities as per this theory. In this case, it is to be stated that the employees of the company can make the self actualisation about the business process. The leaders can provide the safety of the employees through which the employees can do the work effortlessly by following the information of the leaders. Apart from this, through the theory the higher authorities can provide the motivation to the workers of the company through which the employees will get the motivation to give more efforts in the business process.

That is how the debate has been made and the leaders of the company have decided to make the implementation of the Hierarchy theory which is considered by the employees of the company (Velmurugan and Sanka, 2017). The leader of the company has listened to the employee due to the working effort to complete the task in the company.

3. Discussion the consequences of maximizing shareholder value as well as the critique whether this should be the dominant principle of the corporate governance

For making the higher level of profit ratio in the market, the companies will always have to give the right values to the shareholders of the companies. The shareholder of the company is one of the vital elements to increase the business activities or the expansion of the business in the country. Through giving the right value to the shareholders of the companies, the shareholder will be more excited to provide further investment for the company (Velmurugan and Sankar, 2017). Higher level of investment will help the company for making the improvement in the near future. Through the higher number of shareholders, the companies will be able to increase the business boundaries in the countries or the outside of the countries. In this matter, it is to be noted that the management of the company has to recognise the right shareholders for the companies. It is obviously needed that the higher authorities will have to select the right shareholders for the business expansion through which the companies can make higher level of revenues in the country. For granting the revenue from the market, shareholders are the main aspects for the company for any kind of business (Velmurugan and Sanka, 2017). Through the shareholders, the company can make the right decision due to right market reading power. Shareholders obviously have the knowledge to read the market because the shareholder can invest the money in several companies through which the shareholders can make higher level of profit. The capability of operating margin of the business can help the company to tie up with other companies. Through tie up with other companies, the parent company can make higher level of profit in the market. Higher level of profit can attract other leading companies in the country through which both the companies can run the business in the higher efficiency. On the other hand, the cash tax rate is mainly implemented after making the discussion with the shareholders. In this matter, it is to be recognised that the higher section of the companies will have to give or have to increase the value of the shareholders through which the shareholders will not leave the companies (Smith and Rönnegard, 2016). The management of the companies will have to give the right amount to each and every shareholder of the companies through which the shareholders can easily provide the higher level of investment in the companies. In this regard, it is to be noted that through the increase rate of investment for the company, the higher authorities of the company can increase the rate of expenditure. Higher rate of expenditure will attract the customers due to the implementation of the new products in the market (Page and Spira, 2016). Apart from this, the higher rate of expenditure is mainly considered for the innovation in the companies. If the companies can increase the expenditure that means the higher authorities of the companies have the capability to grab higher rate of profit ratio. Due to give the right amount of values to the shareholders or maximizing the values to the shareholders, it helps the company to raise the working capital of the employees. Through the higher level of working capital or increase of the rate of salary will keep motivate the employees to give more effort for producing the products. On the other hand, for making more competitive advantage in the country, higher number of shareholders will help to attract other companies.

As per the critique, the corporate governance is also important for any kind of business process. Through the corporate governance, companies can make the governance structure for implementing the business process in the tight manner. Through the governance structure, the higher authorities can follow the rules and regulations to increase the production of the companies. The governance structure is mainly built by the Board members or the committee of the companies. In this matter, it is to be noted that the higher section of the country will have to make the board committee in the tight manner through which the leaders can follow the norms and regulations to run the business effortlessly (Boatright, 2017). Apart from this, as per the critique, it has been noted that there have the dominant principles to follow the corporate governance. By incorporating the rules, the higher authorities can judge the performance of the companies through which the companies can make the competition in the market. This kind of competition is healthy for the companies due to the implementation of the rules in the business. As per the corporate governance, the higher authorities can maintain the duties and can divide the duties among the employees. It is really important to divide the working schedules with the right persons through which the business process will go on. On the other hand, the exact time of the duties. The employees should have to follow the duty time which will be made by the board members of the company (Mouton, 2019). If the employees will not maintain the rules and regulations, then it will be not good for the companies and the companies will not make the profit maximization or the competitive advantage in the market. In this manner, it is to be recognised that through the corporate governance the companies can maintain the flow of the business in the right manner.

Conclusion

In the above evaluation, the discussion has been put on the basis of the given three questions. The higher authorities of the companies will have to follow the proper rules and regulations through which the higher authorities can maintain the flow of the business activities.

 

References

Arena, M.J. and Uhl-Bien, M., 2016. Complexity leadership theory: Shifting from human capital to social capital. People and Strategy, 39(2), p.22.

Boatright, J.R., 2017. Ethics and corporate governance: Justifying the role of shareholder. The Blackwell Guide to Business Ethics, pp.38-60.

Bouzenita, A.I. and Boulanouar, A.W., 2016. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: An Islamic critique. Intellectual Discourse, 24(1).

Collins, J.D., 2017. Exploring intersectional influences of race and gender on student leadership capacity development: a critical quantitative approach (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign).

Harris, A. and Leonardo, Z., 2018. Intersectionality, race-gender subordination, and education. Review of Research in Education, 42(1), pp.1-27.

Lombardo, E. and Rolandsen Agustín, L., 2016. Intersectionality in European Union policymaking: the case of gender-based violence. Politics, 36(4), pp.364-373.

Meuser, J.D., Gardner, W.L., Dinh, J.E., Hu, J., Liden, R.C. and Lord, R.G., 2016. A network analysis of leadership theory: The infancy of integration. Journal of Management, 42(5), pp.1374-1403.

Mouton, N., 2019. A literary perspective on the limits of leadership: Tolstoy’s critique of the great man theory. Leadership, 15(1), pp.81-102.

Noe, R.A., Hollenbeck, J.R., Gerhart, B. and Wright, P.M., 2017. Human resource management: Gaining a competitive advantage. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Page, M. and Spira, L.F., 2016. Special issue on “Business models, financial reporting and corporate governance”. Journal of Management & Governance, 20(2), pp.209-211.

Smith, N.C. and Rönnegard, D., 2016. Shareholder primacy, corporate social responsibility, and the role of business schools. Journal of Business ethics, 134(3), pp.463-478.

Soni, B. and Soni, R., 2016, July. Enhancing Maslow’s hierarchy of needs for effective leadership. In Competition Forum (Vol. 14, No. 2, p. 259). American Society for Competitiveness.

Spector, B.A., 2016. Carlyle, Freud, and the great man theory more fully considered. Leadership, 12(2), pp.250-260.

Steffensmeier, D., Painter-Davis, N. and Ulmer, J., 2017. Intersectionality of race, ethnicity, gender, and age on criminal punishment. Sociological Perspectives, 60(4), pp.810-833.

Strid, S. and Verloo, M., 2018. Doing Intersectionality in Gender-Based Violence: The Dynamics of Inclusion, Opposition, Coalition and Power. In ECPR Joint Sessions, Nicosia, Cyprus, April 10-14, 2018.

Velmurugan, T.A. and Sankar, J.G., 2017. A Comparative Study on Motivation Theory with Maslow’s Hierarchy theory and Two-factor theory in Organization. Indo-Iranian J Sci Res, 1(1), pp.204-8.

Leave a Comment