Diagnostic tools

Diagnostic tools

Diagnostic tools and Reflection

Willingness to listen Diagnostic

  1. Discussion

Listening is an important skill of the effective communication. In an organization, the listening skills of an employee can be increased by the use of training programs because most of the people are not the poor listener but they do not concentrate (Bodie, 2013). From the above report, it is analyzed that I do not like to listen to boring speakers because it makes me bored, sleepy and tired in the speeches. On the other side, I also not listen to the speech willingly when there is another noise in the presentation. I listen unwillingly to the non-immediate and non- responsive speakers in the presentation. Additionally, I listen to the speaker who has different viewpoints and quality to attract the audience in the presentation. It is defined by me that I do not like to listen to the speaker who has an unclear voice and low creditably in the speech.

  1. Findings

As par the above report, the test of willingness to listen Diagnostic provided me the total scores 89. This score is calculated by the following steps:

Total score: 72 – total from step 1 + total from step 2 which is: 72 –26+43 =89

(The step 1 includes 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 14, 16, 17, 19, 21 and 23 = 26) and (The step 2 includes 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 11, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22, and 24 = 43).

Form the above test, I have a total score 89. This score shows that I have moderate willingness to listen to the speaker because the score between from 59 to 89 indicates the moderate willingness to listen. On the other hand, the score more than 89 need to the high willingness and less than 59 indicate low willingness to listen.

Tolerance for Disagreement Scale (TFD)

  1. Discussion

Tolerance for disagreement scale is a measurement tool to measure the degree of tolerates other people in the disagreement (Gao and Jia, 2013). In the point of view of tolerance of disagreement, I do not consider the lots of disagreements in any discussion. So, I prefer the talking with the people who have beliefs same as mine because there are no disputes. Furthermore, I try to change the discussion topic when there is some disagreement in the discussion to avoid the disputes. I do not argue with other people at the time of disagree on the things we have. I like to work independently rather than the people I have to disagree with their arguments and I also try to join the group which does not have the disagreement.

  1. Findings

From the above measurement scale, it is identified that in this tolerance for disagreement scale, I have scored 32. This score is attained from the following calculation:

Total score: 48 + total from step 1 – total from step 2

Total score: 48 + 32 –16 = 32

Total from step 1 (includes 1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 14, and 15) is 16 and total from step 2 (includes 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13) is 32.

In this test, it is specified that total score less than 32 shows the low TFD and more than 46 show that it has high TFD. But if the score is between from 32 to 46 then it will show the moderate TFD. In this test, I have scored only 32 which indicate that I have the moderate tolerance for disagreement (TFD).

Nonverbal immediacy Scale-Self Report (NIS-S)

  1. Discussion

The scale of the nonverbal immediacy shows the positive behavior of a person by the use of their nonverbal things in the communication (LeFebvre and Allen, 2014). This scale plays an important role to provide the nonverbal immediacy of a person by the use of the self report. In this scale, it is identified by me that during taking with the people I mostly use my arms and hand as the gesture. Moreover, I never look over and away from another during the conversation to make it effective. I also make eye contact with other while talking with an effective body position without any tense. At the time of talking with other, I never change my voice in monotones or dull but different kind of vocal expressions are used by me.

  1. Findings

In the report of Nonverbal Immediacy Scale, I have got score 98. This score is attained from the subsequent calculation:

The score of step 1 (includes 1, 2, 6, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 19, 21, 22, and 25) are 49 and the score of step 2 (includes 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 15, 18, 20, 23, 24, and 26) is 29. The total score is calculated in step 3: 78+1 step–2 step

= 78+49-29= 98

From the above calculation, it is identified that the total score is 98. This score is moderate in both females and males norms. It is because the score more than 112 in females and 104 in the males show high nonverbal immediacy. On the other hand, the score less than 92 in females and 83 in males shows low nonverbal immediacy.

Talkaholic Scale

  1. Discussion

The talkaholic scale measures a communication skill of a person in which a people how much can keep quiet in the presence of people (Sidelinger and Bolen, 2015). In the group, there are many people who drive the talking on a topic to show the presence. In this talkaholic scale, it is measured that I am a borderline talkaholic person in the group because I can control my talking during the conversation. But, sometimes I feel that I talk more than I want due to deep knowledge about the topic. By the use of this scale, I measured my talkaholic behavior where I am a compulsive talker. Furthermore, it is analyzed that there are only a few people who say that I talk too much in the communication.

  1. Findings

In the report of Talkaholic Scale, I have got score 36. This score is attained from the subsequent calculation:

The score of step 1 (includes the items 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 14) are 27 and the score of step 2 (includes the items 13 and 16) is 3.

The total score is calculated in step 3: 12 + Total from step 1 – Total from step 2

= 12 + 27 – 3 = 36

According to this scale, the score between 30 and 39 shows that the person is borderline talkaholic and my score is 36, so I am borderline talkaholic. I am able to control the talking in the discussion mostly but sometimes it is quite difficult. The score less than 30 indicate that the people have a very low quality of talkaholic but more than 40 indicates the talkaholic. A person who has the quality of talkaholic can effectively communicate with others.

Personal report of Intercultural Communication Apprehension (PRICA)

  1. Discussion

The personal report of intercultural communication apprehension is developed for solving the communication apprehension related with the intercultural (Neuliep, 2017). PRICA indicates that how much a person is comfortable in the communication with the different culture and language. In this scale, it is identified by me that I am comfortable in the communication with a group which has a differentiated culture. Additionally, I do not feel nervous and tense during talking with the people who have different culture, while I like to interact with this kind of group. On the other hand, during the interacting with a group of the different culture, sometimes I calm and relaxed to understand the things. It is also identified that I have no fear to speak up during the conversation with differentiated culture if I have good knowledge. Moreover, I do not feel uncomfortable, confused and jumbled at the time of interacting with a group of the different culture.

  1. Findings

After the scoring of the 14 statements, it is analyzed that I have a total score 21. In the report of PRICA, this score is attained from the subsequent calculation:

The score of step 1 (includes the items 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, and 12) are 28 and the score of step 2 (includes the items 2, 4, 6, 8, 11, 13 and 14) is 7. The total score is calculated in step 3:

42 – Total from step 1 + Total from step 2

= 42 – 28 + 7 = 21

My score is only 21 which indicate that I have the low level of intercultural communication apprehension. The score more than 52 indicates that there is a high level of intercultural CA and between 32 and 52 indicates that it is moderate.

  1. Key communication issues

The key communication issues in these diagnostic tools are lack of listening skill and inefficiency in intercultural communication skills.

  1. Findings different skills

From the above diagnostic tools, it is identified that there are two issues in the professional interactions. The lack of listening skill and inefficiency in the intercultural communication are the major issues in this report. Additionally, it is found that the other communicational skills in these diagnostic tools are moderate.

Literature Review

Intercultural communication skills:

According to Hudelson et al. (2011), it is important for an individual to have strong intercultural communication skills to achieve success in personal and professional life. It is because the increasing globalization has raised the need for the individuals to work regardless geographical boundaries. In order to work efficiently in different countries, it is required for the workers to know the cultural differences and related communication to convey their views to others. In relation to this, Samovar et al. (2014) stated that communication in intercultural perspective is significant to be competent in the field of business to understand the views and concerns of employees as well as customers. The better understanding of intercultural communication enables an individual to understand the views and opinions of colleagues and develop the better relationship with them. At the same time, this is also useful to develop the understanding of the needs and requirements of the customers through the development of better communication with them that leads to success at personal and professional levels.

The research of Yoshida et al. (2013) reveals that the lack of intercultural communication skills causes the problem for the individual to sustain in the labor market due to increasing demand of the workers who can communicate with the foreigners or people in different countries. Relating, Lane et al. (2013) depicted that in order to determine the competency level in intercultural communication, it is required to conduct Self-Perceived Communication Competence Scale (SPCC) test that measures this competency. It also tells about the competence level of an individual while communicating in a given situation or context.

According to Process Model of Intercultural Competence (Deardorff, 2006, 2009), intercultural communication competence is a lifelong process that indicates the need of regular learning to be interculturally competent. In relation to this competence, it is required to have much attention to the development process how an individual can acquire the required skills, knowledge and attitudes.  This framework is comprised of attitudes, knowledge, skills, internal and external outcomes. Attitude is related to the respect, openness, curiosity and discovery in which openness and curiosity are associated with the willingness to risk and moving beyond the comfort zone. At the same time, it is also required to demonstrate that other are valued to communicate respect to others. These attitudes are necessary to develop knowledge and skills for intercultural communication competence (Arnold and Boggs, 2015). Knowledge regarding self-culture and others’ culture is necessary for intercultural competence. In addition, skills of observation, listening, analyzing and interpreting the views of others are significant to develop intercultural competence. Internal outcomes are associated to flexibility, adaptability, an ethnorelative perspective and empathy that enable an individual to see from others’ perspectives and to respond to them accordingly. On the other hand, external outcomes are related to behavior and communication of the individual that is experienced by others (Martin and Nakayama, 2010). These elements of intercultural communication competence framework can be presented as below:

From the research of Kluver (2010), it can be evaluated that trainers of intercultural communication help to create opportunities for the learners to develop understanding of other cultures and interact with foreigners and acquire the knowledge regarding values of global and trans-cultural citizen. However, the findings of Perry and Southwell (2011) highlight the importance of Moodle platform in designing courses for the students and trainees to develop intercultural communication. This platform allows teachers and trainers to facilitate learning through alternative information sources and creation of simulations and scenarios. In addition, Penbek et al. (2012) depicted that the use of information and communication technologies like eCurs and Blackboard are effective sources to develop intercultural communication. These tools are effective to develop competence of individual in areas of intercultural communication and generate positive attitude and tolerance towards other cultures. In different way, Baker (2011) pointed out that some ICT tools like voice call function in Skype and Yahoo messenger are helpful for the learners to interact in real time with persons having different cultures. At the same time, the study of Holliday et al. (2010) highlights the importance of social media in developing intercultural communication among people. This study found that the use of Facebook and Yahoo is also significant to create multinational groups in which students can learn from each other. It means that these projects can be performed by making agreements with trainers in different countries. At the same time, YouTube can also be a source of intercultural communication learning by watching videos and making comments on them. So it can be stated that the use of ICT can be significant in developing understanding of the intercultural communication. On the other hand, Fall et al. (2013) highlighted the importance of study materials including books and articles is also useful to develop understanding about different cultures and related communication contexts and perspectives. These study materials are useful to develop knowledge of cultural differences and communication skills to convey views and opinions in different cultures. However, the study of Neuliep (2017) suggests that it is better to attend the personality development classes and seminars on intercultural communication. It is because the participation in such programs enables to develop knowledge about intercultural communication and learn how to communicate in different cultural contexts.

Listening Skills:

According to Bodie (2011), listening aspect is crucial to develop the good understanding of others and develop good communication with others. In perspective of listening skills, it is required to have attention and efforts to develop the attitude of others. In relation to the importance of listening skills, Gautam and Kumar (2015) highlighted in their study that effective listening enables an individual to sustain and enhance human relationships by connecting others. It is because it helps to show respect to others as others also respect as a good listener has a greater impact on other people. At the same time, Brownell (2015) depicted that a good listener can learn more about others and make new friends easily and perform better in personal and professional life. If someone listens carefully others, he/she can improve existent relationships. Moreover, Graham (2011) points out that having good listening skills contribute to the improvement in communication skills. It is because it will avoid a lot of misunderstandings and confusions while communication.

In the views of communication scholars, listening includes five elements named as perception, attention, and interpretation, remembering and responding. All these elements constitute the definition of listening for over 60 years. At the same time, Berninger and Abbott (2010) stated that an effective listener will focus on the type of listening and situation. Listening can be classified into foundational, discriminate and comprehensive or aural and visual.  Listener perceives and identifies sounds in the environment and uses these sounds for the adoption of the environment.  On the other hand, Rost and Candlin (2014) pointed out that in listening, it is required to have specific behavioral skills like taking good notes, asking questions, harmonizing speech speed and thought speed and paraphrasing. At the same time, to be a good listener requires specific skills like high attention, being present, eye contact, touching, silence, empathy and facial expression. At the same time, the study of Zou (2013) reveals that critical listening is related to listening to understand and assess the message. Such type of listening is required in leadership to make judgment and reasoning.  This type of listening sharpens with the maturity that leads to acceptance or rejection of a message. Supporting to this, Woottipong (2014) affirms that it is required to evaluate arguments and avoid faulty reasoning to be a good listener.  He/she needs to connect to what was heard and experienced. In relation to this, cognitive psychologists consider that listening is the first step in information processing while others consider listening as a social purpose. Furthermore, Bozorgian (2015) added that in listening, a person receives information from different stimuli like verbal and nonverbal including perception, attention, and processing. The study of Wolvin (2010) suggests that improvement of personal health through proper nutrition and enough sleep helps to improve memory and ultimately listening. However, Rönnberg et al. (2013) recognized that it is more useful to listen to audios and see videos to enhance listening skills as it helps to increase concentration on the messages which are spoken in audios and videos. On the other hand, the study of Brownell (2015) suggests that it is mandatory for a good listener to have the good understanding of body language including making eye contact, uncrossing arms and turning shoulders. It shows the interest and concern of an individual in listening others like nodding head. Meanwhile, it is important to ask questions and request examples for clarification to be a good listener (Berninger and Abbott, 2010). It shows that the listener is showing a better understanding what is being said. But Bodie (2011) argued that acting out a story is the important strategy to improve listening. It is a good listening activity that allows for imagining, pretending, pantomiming and physically coordinating. It helps the shy student as he acts with other children and observes others’ actions and reactions to the story. In this, the teacher tells the story while students act on this. There is no further instruction on this as the students have to listen carefully and to imagine how and to do it.

Action plan

After the analysis of this study, it is identified that there is a need for a person to have good an effective listening skill and good communication skill in the different culture. These skills are helpful to provide the effective results to an employee at a workplace. In order to improve these skills, different training and development programs should be introduced for developing their skills related to the listening and communication in differentiated culture.

There are some activities that can be undertaken over next 6 months in order to obtain the information, skills, and behaviors that can be identified as per the requirement in the component.

Skills to be improvedActivitiesTimelineEvaluation
Intercultural Communication skillsØ  Training

Ø  Moodle platform &  Blackboard

Ø  Social Media (YouTube, Facebook, and massager)

In these activities, it is analyzed that it will take around 3 months to improve the intercultural communication skills.The intercultural communication skills can be checked by interacting with the people of different culture. By taking the test, identify the level of interest in different culture, by providing feedback from the group of the different culture. Additionally, by checking the quality of language can also evaluate the communication skills of the different culture.
Listening skillsØ  Enough sleep

Ø  Listen to audios and see videos

Ø  Develop understanding of  body language (including making eye contact, uncrossing arms and turning shoulders)

Ø  Ask questions and request examples for clarification

Ø  Acting out a story

These activities will also take approximately 3 months for improving or enhancing the listening skills.The learning skills can be evaluated by taking tests, by the arrangement of speech, by asking different questions related to the topic, etc. The improvement in listening can also be evaluated by the use of self-assessment program, with the evaluation of listening attributes, by having appropriate feedback can be helpful to evaluate the improvement in listening skills.

This action plan is very effective to improve the intercultural communication and listening skills of a person. The intercultural communication skill can be developed by providing effective training where the information related to the different culture is introduced to the people. Additionally, Moodle platform & Blackboard and social media also play the important role to provide effective communication skills for the different culture. The social media includes YouTube, Facebook, and massager to provide different information and knowledge about the different culture.

On the other hand, the listening skill of a person can also be improved by effectively implement the action plan. First of all, the listening skills need enough sleep to concentrate on the topic. A person should also listen different kind of audios and see videos to improve the listening capacity. These videos are helpful to develop the understanding of a different kind of body language in the communication. Acting out a story is another listening activity that helps in imagination, pretending, pantomiming and physical coordination of the people.

References

Arnold, E.C. and Boggs, K.U., 2015. Interpersonal Relationships-E-Book: Professional Communication Skills for Nurses. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Baker, W., 2011. Intercultural awareness: Modelling an understanding of cultures in intercultural communication through English as a lingua franca. Language and Intercultural Communication11(3), pp.197-214.

Berninger, V.W. and Abbott, R.D., 2010. Listening comprehension, oral expression, reading comprehension, and written expression: Related yet unique language systems in grades 1, 3, 5, and 7. Journal of educational psychology102(3), p.635.

Bodie, G.D., 2011. The understudied nature of listening in interpersonal communication: Introduction to a special issue. The Intl. Journal of Listening25(1-2), pp.1-9.

Bodie, G.D., 2013. Issues in the measurement of listening. Communication Research Reports30(1), pp.76-84.

Bozorgian, H., 2015. Less-skilled learners benefit more from metacognitive instruction to develop listening comprehension. International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning4(1), pp.3-12.

Brownell, J., 2015. Listening: Attitudes, principles, and skills. Routledge.

Fall, L.T., Kelly, S., MacDonald, P., Primm, C. and Holmes, W., 2013. Intercultural communication apprehension and emotional intelligence in higher education: Preparing business students for career success. Business Communication Quarterly76(4), pp.412-426.

Gao, H. and Jia, G., 2013. Assessing disagreement and tolerance of misclassification of satellite-derived land cover products used in WRF model applications. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences30(1), pp.125-141.

Gautam, D.G.S. and Kumar, G.R. (2015) An Analysis on Listening Skills and Tasks to Develop Listening Skills. English Studies International Research Journal3, pp.94-97.

Graham, S., 2011. Self-efficacy and academic listening. Journal of English for Academic Purposes10(2), pp.113-117.

Holliday, A., Hyde, M. and Kullman, J., 2010. Intercultural communication: An advanced resource book for students. Routledge.

Hudelson, P., Perron, N.J. and Perneger, T., 2011. Self-assessment of intercultural communication skills: a survey of physicians and medical students in Geneva, Switzerland. BMC medical education11(1), p.63.

Kluver, R., 2010. Globalization, informatization, and intercultural communication.

Lane, H.C., Hays, M.J., Core, M.G. and Auerbach, D., 2013. Learning intercultural communication skills with virtual humans: Feedback and fidelity. Journal of Educational Psychology105(4), p.1026.

LeFebvre, L. and Allen, M., 2014. Teacher immediacy and student learning: An examination of lecture/laboratory and self-contained course sections. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning14(2), pp.29-45.

Martin, J.N. and Nakayama, T.K., 2010. Intercultural communication in contexts.

Neuliep, J.W., 2017. Intercultural communication: A contextual approach. Sage Publications.

Neuliep, J.W., 2017. Intercultural communication: A contextual approach. UK: Sage Publications.

Penbek, Ş., Yurdakul Şahin, D. and Cerit, A.G., 2012. Intercultural communication competence: A study about the intercultural sensitivity of university students based on their education and international experiences. International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management11(2), pp.232-252.

Perry, L.B. and Southwell, L., 2011. Developing intercultural understanding and skills: Models and approaches. Intercultural Education22(6), pp.453-466.

Rönnberg, J., Lunner, T., Zekveld, A., Sörqvist, P., Danielsson, H., Lyxell, B., Dahlström, Ö., Signoret, C., Stenfelt, S., Pichora-Fuller, M.K. and Rudner, M., 2013. The Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model: theoretical, empirical, and clinical advances. Frontiers in systems neuroscience7, p.31.

Rost, M. and Candlin, C.N., 2014. Listening in language learning. Routledge.

Samovar, L.A., Porter, R.E., McDaniel, E.R. and Roy, C.S., 2014. Intercultural communication: A reader. Cengage Learning.

Sidelinger, R.J. and Bolen, D.M., 2015. Compulsive communication in the classroom: Is the talkaholic teacher a misbehaving instructor?. Western Journal of Communication79(2), pp.174-196.

Wolvin, A.D., 2010. Listening engagement: Intersecting theoretical perspectives. Listening and human communication in the 21st century, pp.7-30.

Woottipong, K., 2014. Effect of using video materials in the teaching of listening skills for university students. International Journal of Linguistics6(4), p.200.

Yoshida, T., Yashiro, K. and Suzuki, Y., 2013. Intercultural communication skills: What Japanese businesses today need. International Journal of Intercultural Relations37(1), pp.72-85.

Zou, B., 2013. Teachers’ support in using computers for developing students’ listening and speaking skills in pre-sessional English courses. Computer Assisted Language Learning26(1), pp.83-99.

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