Here is Dissertation Sample Tourism, Hospitality, Events on Topic conduct research on advances in Tourism and Hospitality Post-pandemic.

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.0 Introduction

Tourism and hospitality sector was impacted severely due to COVID-19 as international tourism was shut down due to contain the spread of diseases and preserving lives. Hospitality management methods are required to be applied to improve understanding of advances in tourism industry in post-pandemic world. Tourism and hospitality sector is vital for economy as it provides employment opportunities as well as vital revenues which help attain GDP growth for most countries. In this research, current status of hospitality sector was evaluated and Hilton Hotel was identified as a case study for a post-pandemic era assessment of the UK market. Information is collected on state of tourism and hospitality industry in the aftermath of COVID-19 and advances made by businesses in hospitality industry.

1.1 Research Background

Dissertation Sample : Tourism, Hospitality, Events

Figure 1.1: Businesses operating in travel and tourism industry from 2020 to 2021

(Source: ONS GOV, 2021)

Globally, hospitality was impacted heavily due to this pandemic and it changed stakeholder perspective of business operations. As opined by Chang et al. (2020), businesses in hospitality sector are adopting practices to attain economic sustainability after being impacted by COVID-19. Travel and tourism industry is expecting to attain sustainability in tourism. It is crucial to consider different stakeholders’ aspects to understand current state of tourism industry. The pandemic had a global economic impact, and hospitality sector is still recovering from this adverse and severe impact. International travel was stopped and leisure activities were suspended as tourism was shut down during this pandemic. For instance, Hilton Hotel has adopted digitalisation in post-pandemic world to accommodate customer demands better. Integration of advanced technology such as artificial intelligence (AI) would allow businesses of Hilton Hotel to improve customer engagement in UK markets. Governments declared lockdowns and restrictions to stop this pandemic from spreading further. Businesses were forced to close down operations due to political pressure and social distancing measures were adopted along with a continuation of lockdowns. Quarantine was declared along with crowd control measures to reduce infection rate. This measure adopted to save lives impacted businesses financially in tourism and hospitality sector.

After COVID-19, businesses are required to adopt approaches that help businesses to attain recovery. According to Ntounis et al. (2022), hospitality sector has proven to be vulnerable to COVID-19 because at the early stages of this pandemic businesses in different sectors were impacted equally however because continuation of lockdowns created more challenges for this sector. In post-pandemic world, there are several safety implications persisting despite risks of infection decreasing (STORIES HILTON, 2021). Hospitality sector is impacted severely due to this pandemic and local revenues have dropped as hotel operations are closed in this sector for a prolonged period of time. Businesses in these sectors are required to attain recovery by adopting suitable approaches and road to recovery is not easy for businesses operating in this sector. Customer behaviour has changed after this pandemic as more tourists are hesitating to travel to touristic locations.

Customer engagement has changed in this sector and hospitality industry has been impacted by these changes. This pandemic has increased number of challenges faced by businesses in this sector and tourism activity has been impacted in different countries. Therefore, this industry is finding new ways to deal with these challenges by adopting strategies that help them advance further and attain resilience in this industry. International passenger numbers decreased due to lockdown measures and passenger numbers decreased from 6.8 million to 112,300 (ONS GOVE, 2021). After COVID-19 businesses are going through transition periods and going through economic decline due to this pandemic. Tourism businesses show growth after partial relaxation was declared and this trend is followed in both for air-traffic and vehicle traffic in UK. Loss of international travellers is observed in terms of hotel occupancy in a post-pandemic era in hospitality sector.

1.2 Problem Statement

In this research issues faced by businesses to integrate Artificial Intelligence into tourism and hospitality industry after COVID-19 are discussed in detail. Businesses are facing issues due to loss of international tourists because of changes in customer perspective in this sector. This pandemic impacted global economy, however, measures taken in public interest impacted hotel and tourism industry like Hilton Hotel in UK disproportionately, which has suffered losses as tourism activities were closed down globally.

1.3 Research Rationale

In post-pandemic world, businesses are adopting strategies to attain advancement in tourism and hospitality industry. As opined by Wang et al. (2022), in post-pandemic world businesses are required to implement suitable strategies to attain resilience and strategies are aimed to revitalise this sector in hospitality industry. Government initiatives are vital to regaining financial strength in hospitality sector businesses in public and private sectors. It is crucial to select right criteria while creating strategies to revitalise tourism and hospitality sector. Business turnover was impacted heavily after COVID-19 as tourism activity decreased. Turnover was reduced by 26.0% in 2020 and travel agency activity decreased to 9.3% after a lockdown was declared in UK (ONS GOV, 2021). Uncertainty of further lockdown measures impacted business operations and any information of restriction lifting resulted in growth in tourism activity. This study would be focusing on consequences of application of advanced technologies like AI over tourism business; Hilton Hotel. In this study secondary sources will be taken into consideration for meeting aims and objectives. Through the help of secondary sources like journals, books and articles, themes will be framed and analysed as per requirement. Other than this, sources dated from 2018 to 2022 will be taken so that recent reports can be interpreted.

Businesses such as Hilton Hotel are adopting advanced technology like Artificial Intelligence as it enhances innovation in current business environment. This organisation has adopted a digital transformation strategy to ensure that Hilton is able to fulfil customer requirements in post-pandemic era (ATLANTIS PRESS, 2021). At the same time, travel activity decreased each time control measures were declared in UK. It is observed that recruitment of number of workers aged between 16 to 24 years decreased in 2020 in UK (ONS GOV, 2021). Restrictions declared by UK government as public health measures affected businesses in the tourism and hospitality sector which is a vital part of UK economy. Travel and tourism industry provides 6.7% of gross value in 2018 in UK hence it is an essential part of this nation’s economy (ONS GOV, 2021). Number of travellers has decreased globally and tourism sector in UK is impacted by this trend in hospitality sector. International travel decreased during this pandemic and UK citizens’ visits to foreign countries reduced as well. In 2021 same trends impacted tourism and hospitality industry as impact of COVID-19 continued to affect normal business activity. Tourism and hospitality businesses were observed to have catastrophic effects in Asia due to this pandemic. Future of businesses in tourism and hospitality sector is currently facing challenges due to devastating impacts of this pandemic.

1.4 Research Aim

Advances tourism and hospitality sector in post-pandemic world are evaluated in this research after devastating impact of COVID-19. Adverse impact of economic development due to COVID-19 is evaluated along with ways this pandemic impacted normal business operations in this Hilton Hotel, UK. Research is conducted to identify government initiatives to advance and ensure growth & development in tourism and hospitality sector, Hilton Hotel, UK.

1.5 Research Objectives

  • To assess the significance of hospitality businesses in tourism sector of Hilton Hotel in UK.
  • To identify the effects of COVID-19 on both tourism and hospitality sectors; Hilton Hotel in UK.
  • To determine the tourism industry’s current position in a post-pandemic era in UK.
  • To evaluate challenges faced by businesses and recommend strategies in tourism and hospitality sector of Hilton Hotel in UK.

1.6 Research Questions

  1. What is the significance of hospitality businesses in tourism sector; Hilton Hotel in UK?
  2. What are the effects of COVID-19 on tourism and hospitality sector; Hilton Hotel in UK?
  3. What is the current position of tourism industry in post-pandemic era in UK?
  4. What are the challenges faced by businesses and recommend strategies in tourism and hospitality sector of Hilton Hotel in UK?

1.7 Significance of Research

Tourism and hospitality sector has adopted approaches to attain advancement after devastating impacts of this public health issue. According to   Baum and Hai (2019), research is required to be conducted to attain sustainability in tourism and hospitality sector.  There are market challenges persist that impact current state of business in this sector. These are roadblocks faced by businesses in tourism and hospitality sectors like Hilton Hotel in UK. This sector is still facing challenges to recover from effects of COVID-19 and strategies to attain economic growth in post-pandemic world are required to be conducted to improve practices in tourism and hospitality sector in UK.

1.8 Research Scope

There is research scope available to understand ways different sub-sectors within tourism and hospitality sectors in UK are impacted after this pandemic. Long term impact on travel and tourism industry is required to be evaluated along with kind of support required to be provided to any sectors that are affected severely after this pandemic. In post-pandemic times further research is required to be conducted to understand ways nations rely on tourism to attain growth and development in tourism and hospitality industry; Hilton Hotel in UK.

1.9 Structure of Dissertation

Dissertation Sample : Tourism, Hospitality, Events

Figure 1.2: Structure of dissertation

(Source: Created by Author)

1.10 Conclusion

Tourism and hospitality sector in UK is a vital part of its economy and this sector was impacted severely due to this pandemic. In post-pandemic era, businesses are observing changes in customer behaviours. Differences in economic development are observed in different countries as COVID-19 impacted countries and businesses globally. Tourism and hospitality sector is impacted heavily because of this pandemic as lockdown measures and restrictions impacted business activity in UK. There are trends observed that travellers are hesitating to travel to different international locations due to concerns about health impacts. Pandemic still continues in some parts of the world; businesses are adopting strategies to advance in future in UK in this sector.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.0 Introduction

In this research, advances in tourism and hospitality sector in post-pandemic period are discussed in detail. Hospitality sector in UK is a dynamic as well as diverse industry. Businesses in this sector were impacted severely by COVID-19 and this sector received government support provided to businesses in hospitality sector. This pandemic has increased risks in tourism and hospitality sectors. There are factors such as employee issues and government measures affecting status of tourism and hospitality industry after this pandemic. There are opportunities for Hilton to support local drive to increase tourism within the borders of Britain with help of Visit Britain initiatives. According to Visit Britain hospitality sector is facing challenges due to low occupancy in hotels after the pandemic. This is affecting recovery of this sector negatively. There are challenges persisting to new travel trends and economic development has been impacted by COVID-19.Post-pandemic recovery is affected by loss of affordable and experienced labour sources after Brexit and COVID-19.

2.1Significance of hospitality and tourism sector in UK after COVID-19

Dissertation Sample : Tourism, Hospitality, Events

Figure 2.1: Employment opportunities in tourism sector in UK

(Source: STATISTA, 2021)

In the tourism sector, customer satisfaction is vital as it is a service industry and there is economic significance of hospitality services. As per view of Zhong et al. (2021), tourism sector is required to attain development after this pandemic. In UK, tourism and hospitality sector is a major part that affects this nation’s economy. Tourism sector has contributed 59.7 billion in Gross Value Added (GVA) which results in 3.2% of total GVA (OECD ILIBRARY, 2020). It is expected that new jobs will be created in tourism industry of this nation. There are governing bodies present for instance Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) which finances tourism activity. Tourism activities have increased in New South Wales, Northern Ireland and London. There are different departments present such as “Department of Transport ”, visit Britain and “Foreign and commonwealth office also governs tourism activity in this sector. Visit Britain prioritises improving value in tourism and it also focuses on improving productivity in tourism sector. In this context, it can be advised for Hilton Hotel to incorporate self-service technology will be helpful to deal with labour shortage and fulfil customer requirements and customer bases are becoming more open-minded in terms of using these advanced techniques. These advanced technologies such as Artificial intelligence (AI) and Internet of Things (IoT) allow businesses to improve their services and this trend is currently observed in hospitality sector. There are different businesses operating in hotel and hospitality sector, for instance, it includes business practices from different sub sectors. These are food and beverage industry, accommodation sector, recreation businesses, travel and tourism sub sector along with that it includes meeting and event industry. These different sub sectors operate in hospitality industry. This tourism industry provides employment to 3.96 million individuals in UK IN 2020. It is observed that employment opportunities have decreased in this sector as it was observed to be at 4.27 million in 2019 (STATISTA, 2021). COVID-19 has created both direct and indirect impacts on businesses operating in hospitality sector. Travel and tourism activity is expected to create 700, 000 new jobs in next ten years and GDP of this sector is expected to increase as well. It is expected that businesses in tourism and hospitality sector are forecasted to grow at a 3% rate (HOSPITALITY NET, 2022). In this sector, recovery has been slow and this sector is struggling to attain pre-pandemic levels of business operation in tourism sector in UK.

There are advances observed in tourism and hospitality sector as an increasing number of emerging technologies are used in this sector. As opined by Ntounis et al. (2022), after COVID-19 businesses in tourism and hospitality sector are showing resilience as evident from current activities in this sector. Technology such as voice search is used by businesses along with augmented reality in tourism and hospitality sector. It is observed that advanced technology such as facial recognition is used more by businesses and use of technology such as Artificial Intelligence and Internet of Things (IoT) is also being used more frequently. Customers are using this technology as it helps to get service and businesses in travel industry are using this technology as it helps to improve customer experience in this sector. In 2022, tourism and hospitality sector has gone through major shifts and use of smart hotels along with adoption of sustainable approaches has increased tourism and hospitality sector. In global tourism industry, these trends were observed to create a major positive impact in post-pandemic era in hospitality sector. This sector is a major contributor to this nation’s economy; therefore, businesses in this sector are vital for generating revenue at current rate. This sector represents 3-5% of companies operating in different locations in UK (COMMONS LIBRARY PARLIAMENT, 2022). Therefore, this sector is crucial for economy of this country as this sector includes food and service industry. Restaurants, pubs, hotels and catering services are also included in tourism and hospitality sector.

2.2 Factors affecting status of tourism and hospitality sector due to COVID-19

Dissertation Sample : Tourism, Hospitality, Events

Figure 2.2: Factors affecting employability status of tourism and hospitality sector due to COVID-19 in 2020

(Source: ONS GOV, 2021)

Economic development is impacted negatively due to COVID-19 in tourism and hospitality sector. This decline is observed in this sector as pandemic impacts business practices internationally. According to Dube et al. (2021), COVID-19 crisis has impacted business practices in restaurant business which is a vital part of service industry in hospitality sector. Tourism sector is impacted negatively by policies created in public interest during this pandemic. International tourism is also impacted severely by public measures adopted during this pandemic and a 60% decrease in tourist activity is observed in 2020 (OECD, 2020). Recovery is expected to be affected in international tourism sector as well. It is expected that domestic tourism is going to improve rapidly however businesses are required to rebuild tourist destinations before reopening. A collaborative approach is required to be adopted in tourism sector and businesses are required to join their efforts to attain development in tourism and hospitality sector. Hilton hotel is impacted by recent events during this pandemic and in post-pandemic world; businesses are impacted by human resources related issues gravely. It is vital to recruiting talents with adequate soft skills and maintaining investor relations is equally essential for businesses in hospitality sector in UK.

Liquidity support is vital for businesses to attain growth and development in this sector at the same time diversifying market has potential as well. Businesses are required to abide by health protocols while reopening their business activity in tourism and hospitality sector. Burcu (2021) opined those effects of COVID-19 are observed in hospitality industry and payment policies are required to be changed in tourism sector to ensure liquidity flow. Diversification strategies are required to be adopted to ensure that this sector recovers promptly. This strategy to diversify services in the hospitality sector is expected to ensure development of hotel industry.  This helps to improve profit levels and allows businesses to gain financial stability. Diversification of services in hospitality sector is expected to ensure that organisations gain market leader positions in hospitality industry. This is attained by creating new services for travellers by increasing use of technology, adopting new policies and managerial strategies.

Government initiative is another factor which impacts businesses in tourism and hospitality sector in UK. Recovery plans namely “Travel Recovery Plan June 2021” is crucial for businesses to attain pre-pandemic levels of growth in tourism and hospitality sector (ASSETS PUBLISHING SERVICE, 2021). Business in this sector is planning to attain recovery and government initiatives are vital for attaining this goal. Hospitality sector requires increased resilience and governing bodies such as “Hospitality Sector Council” are created which include business leaders and representatives from this sector (ASSETS PUBLISHING SERVICE, 2021). Consumer and labour are also essential for businesses in this sector to attain growth, along with recovery which is expected to lead to improved resilience for businesses in this sector. In 2020, multiple impacts were observed in hospitality sector as food and beverage services were affected along with accommodation of visitors. In this sector, travel agencies were impacted negatively and cultural activities were stopped due to COVID-19 in tourism and hospitality sector. Restrictions applied suddenly to stop public health crisis also impacted business revenue as tourist activities such as exhibitions and conferences were closed to avert further spread of infection. Different sectors were also impacted however tourism and hospitality sector businesses faced catastrophic effects due to COVID-19. In next paragraph, ways advanced technology such as Artificial intelligence impacts tourism and hospitality sector is explained.

2.3 Benefits of advanced technology “Artificial Intelligence” influencing tourism and hospitality sector after COVID-19

Figure 2.3: Benefits of advanced technology influencing tourism and hospitality sector in post-pandemic era

(Source: Inspired by António and Rita, 2021)

Tourism and hospitality sector is adopting advanced technology like Artificial Intelligence to improve customer experience and gain economic profits. As opined by António and Rita (2021), this pandemic has acted as a catalyst and increased speed of transformation of business practices in hospitality sector. There are productivity tools present and applications of these tools are beneficial for businesses in tourism and hospitality industry. Technology such as Artificial Intelligence has improved business practices in this sector and helped to elevate customer experience. Hospitality sector requires maintaining quality of its services as businesses were affected adversely by COVID-19. In post-pandemic era, businesses such as Hilton Hotel in UK are impacted positively by advanced technology as this organisation provides facilities such as digital keys and it also allows businesses to upgrade room benefits for customers. An easy booking facility is provided for guests visiting its premises. Businesses are required to improve their efforts and find a balance to gain customer confidence in tourism and hospitality sectors. There is new technology available like Artificial Intelligence and trends observed in tourism sector which is expected to benefit business practices. Customers are expecting to receive excellent services simultaneously expecting extra conveniences to be offered by businesses operating in tourism and hospitality industry. Companies are required to provide extra services such as digital checks out and checks in, technology that allows controlling room temperature.

Customers are using mobile devices more hence business has to ensure that viability is improved online in addition mobile services have to be available for business in this sector. Blockchain technology and contactless services are popular and these practices are expected to be beneficial for businesses in tourism and hospitality sector. According to Dragović et al. (2018), contactless communication through messaging applications helps businesses to communicate better.  This technology is expected to be helpful for developing businesses in this sector. Companies in tourism sector are using this technology currently and these practices are expected to show future directions for business operations. Businesses are using analytical software and Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology to fulfil customer requirements. Chatbots are useful for businesses in tourism sector as it allows businesses to communicate better with consumers. Blockchain technology is used by businesses as this decentralised technology allows tracing data effectively. Tourism and hospitality sector is required to invest in blockchain technology as this technology helps to maintain a decentralised database that has potential to improve cyber security.

Technology is expected to have several benefits for businesses operating in tourism and hospitality sectors. Internet of Things (IoT) and smart energy solutions help to transform service in this sector. According to Maglovska and Dimitrov (2020), Internet of Things (IoT) is applicable in hotel and hospitality sector because it enables use of “smart objects” in this sector. Smart objects are used increasingly in hospitality sector and are integrated with smart sensors which allow for improving customer experience in hospitality sector. For instance, it enables car parking for guests relatively easily as companies are able to keep track of it. Businesses in this sector are able to provide personalised services to customers and cloud-based technology allows them to maintain customer databases and manage reservations better in tourism and hospitality sector.

2.4 Challenges in ecotourism, domestic and international tourism and Hospitality after the pandemic

Figure 2.4: Challenges of tourism and hospitality sector after COVID-19

(Source: Inspired by Robina-Ramírez et al. 2021)

Hospitality sector has been impacted by COVID-19 adversely compared to different industries. Barriers are observed in ecotourism, domestic as well as international tourism after COVID-19. As opined by Robina-Ramírez et al. (2021), businesses in this sector are still impacted negatively as safety and health measures limit the number of consumers interested to visit tourism and hospitality sectors. After this pandemic, high risk is observed in tourism and hospitality sector and businesses are still facing numerous challenges to revive this sector. It is crucial to revive the strength of this industry. In recent times tourism sector has observed growth however COVID-19 has created a negative impact on businesses in this sector. Customers are interested in spending more on tourism and leisure activity however it is creating sustainability issues for businesses as it increases environmental effect on vulnerable natural habitats (STATISTA, 2021). These new trends such as ecotourism provide new opportunities to attain economic development however, they also create major issues such as increased greenhouse gas emissions. For instance, Hilton Hotel is facing a number of challenges in post-pandemic era although despite COVID-19 number of tourists visiting these facilities is increasing. Businesses are required to consider collective impact of tourism activity and adopt sustainability practices to address issues that impact tourism sector. Domestic and international tourism activity is still facing various challenges in UK. Businesses are facing human resources issues in this sector and decline in tourist numbers has created barriers to reviving this industry. An increase in fixed costs is also observed in this sector. As opined by Huynh et al. (2022), green zone initiatives are created by businesses in hospitality sector to deal with decline in this industry. Businesses are required to be motivated to attain economic development in this sector. After major disruptions due to these pandemic businesses are becoming more vulnerable to economic decline hence it is crucial to deal with challenges. Businesses are expected to face challenges to revive this sector and suitable interventions are required at each stage of business practice to attain this objective.

Domestic tourism has started to reach pre-pandemic levels after removal of restrictions, however understanding demands of domestic travellers is challenging for businesses in post-pandemic era. International tourism is facing challenges as taxes implied on tourism activity are impacting international tourism negatively. Accommodation taxes on travel activity for UK residents are applicable in international tourism (Heffer-Flaata et al. 2021). Tourists from UK are required to pay taxes for travelling to destinations in European Union; travel demand is impacted by taxes while visiting from UK to foreign destinations. Businesses are facing issues to adopt promotional activity in this sector and companies are required to work with different organisations such as VisitBritain to overcome current challenges in this sector. Improving domestic and international tourism is necessary for businesses operating in this sector and lack of suitable policy to intervene and improve tourism activity is impacting businesses in tourism and hospitality sector. Tourism sector does not have adequate action plans to address issues impacting outbound and domestic travel in UK. Businesses are facing strategic challenges to deal with current issues affecting businesses in this sector. This sector is facing barriers to adopting sustainable practices and companies are still facing challenges to make tourism more accessible to public after COVID-19.

2.5 Impact of COVID-19 on economic development in tourism and hospitality sector

Figure 2.5: Impact of COVID-19 on economic development

(Source: MCKINSEY, 2020)

COVID-19 has affected economic development negatively in tourism and hospitality sectors in UK. After this pandemic business activity is still recovering from adverse impact of public health measures such as lockdown and restrictions. Hotel occupancy has remained lower compared to pre-pandemic levels even after lockdown is called off and restrictions are lifted It is observed that tourism industry and sustainable development approaches were impacted adversely during and after this pandemic (Rwigema, 2021). According to a VisitBritain report, hospitality sector is facing issues with low hotel occupancy and room occupancy has been relatively lower in hospitality sector after this global pandemic. Despite passenger numbers increasing, hotel occupancy rates are lower in tourism and hospitality sectors. In post-pandemic era, businesses are dealing with issues to increase this number to post-pandemic levels in UK. Air travel has increased and become normal after pandemic restrictions. Tourism and hospitality sector is expected to face both short term and long-term impacts as a result of this pandemic. Hilton Hotel is able to attain economic growth despite being severely impacted by COVID-19 and it is expected to attain growth in near future in hospitality sector. This organisation is expected to expand its business operation in different locations and adopt strategies as well as technology to improve its occupancy rate in this sector.

Targeted support is required to ensure that businesses are able to make recovery in this sector. Tourism activity was impacted as travel activity was stopped for a longer period and it created a negative impact on businesses operating in this sector. It is vital that businesses are able to attain new legislation in tourism and hospitality sector. After businesses where reopened businesses were required to adopt three R strategies to gain strength and it includes a detailed process for reopening businesses in tourism and hospitality sectors. This pandemic has created long term impacts on health as well as availability of skills in this sector.

Communities are impacted adversely and a lack of cohesion in effects also increased number of challenges in tourism and hospitality sector. After this pandemic equality was exposed and differences were increased in this sector which is unexpected to create major issues in future if adequate initiatives are not adopted in tourism and hospitality sector (Dangi and Petrick, 2021). It is expected that long term impacts of this public health crisis are expected to create further long-term impacts on businesses. Lack of experienced workers is also observed as businesses lost a large number of their employees during this pandemic, labour shortage is expected to be observed in tourism and hospitality sector in near future. This pandemic has presented numerous issues which impact business practices, lack of trust in government initiatives and access to health services which impacts tourism and hospitality sectors as well.

There are several short-term impacts observed in tourism and hospitality sectors. These policies adopted by UK government helped to reduce rate of transmission among the general public. It created significant short-term impacts on businesses in tourism and hospitality sector and government impact is necessary to overcome short term effects in this industry. Labour migration has impacted tourism and hospitality sectors (Filimonau and Mika, 2019). Economic growth is impacted negatively by these short-term impacts and it is expected that with time part of this labour force is expected to return to work in tourism and hospitality sector in this country. Therefore, it is expected to have an impact which is temporary. This sector has been previously impacted by public health crisis although COVId-19 is able to create a global impact for businesses operating in tourism and hospitality sector.

 

2.6 Strategies for government to encourage travel in tourism and hospitality sector

Implementation of Governmental commitment to tourism and hospitality sectors

As an impact of COVID-19 pandemic on tourism and hospitality, stakeholders, shareholders and business persons faced potential difficulties. As per these instances, international tourism has reduced during this on-going pandemic scenario effectively. As per the views of Rwigema (2021), sudden outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic has created negative impacts on global economic positions. For instance, due to the imposition of COVID-19 pandemic, the buying attitude of customers changed dramatically and resulted in a 69% drop in purchase of non-essential products. Apart from this, in the UK domestic tourism expenditure was increased in 2020 to 2021 and lost 34 billion British pounds due to this on-going pandemic situation (STATISTA, 2022). However, a plethora of tourism and hospitality related businesses like hotels, restaurants and airlines witnessed lower demand by individual tourists during these pandemic situations. Under these consequences, “World Travel and Tourism Council” strongly encouraged UK Governments to formulate effective Governmental policy in these concerned sectors (UNWTO, 2022). As a result, it provides extensive support for struggling tourism and hospitality sectors by protecting their livelihood.  For instance, Hilton Hotel has followed governmental guidelines with respect to wearing face masks along with hand sanitizer. Utilisation of contactless trips by Hilton hotels helped to improve pre-existing hospitality as well as tourism management effective in post-pandemic situations (HILTON, 2022).  Based on the effective medium of government commitment towards the tourism and hospitality industry, it can be estimated growth in annual revenue by 2023.

Comprehending tourism policy response to COVID-19

Successful implementation of required policy responses in tourism and hospitality sectors created positive impacts on development of it. Implementation of tourism policies in UK has been evaluated from “2021 inbound estimates for UK”. Due to restrictions of COVID-19, visitors of air passengers have decreased by 1.8 million in 2021 in UK. Based on the inbound central scenario forecast, there were 11.3 million inbound visits and up to 2% in 2020. Level of inbound estimation in 2021 was decreased by the previous year 2021 (STATISTA, 2022). For these instances, the British tourism and hospitality sectors have invested by 51% in 2021 as compared to 2020. On the basis of Governmental actions, local governments in UK invested more than £ 25 billion in economic support to the tourism and hospitality industry (FORRESTBROWN, 2022). Introduction of £ 12 billion from Coronavirus job retention scheme helped the tourism industry to measure potential impacts of COVID-19 within an effective manner. In the context of tourism policies, £ 2.5 billion from temporary cuts in VAT for managing accommodation, attraction and quality in the hospitality and tourism sectors in UK (LORDS LIBRARY, 2022).  For instance, development of suitable tourism policies responses to COVID-19 would be effective to Hilton Hotel, UK for increasing rate of occupancy in 2021 to 2022. Rate of occupancy was increased by 57.3% in 2021 and reflected 40.3% up as compared to last year (HILTON, 2022). In a post-pandemic situation, Hilton Hotel recorded their annual revenue by 5.79 billion US dollar at the end of 2021. The Government of UK introduced “Tourism Recovery Plan ” in 2021 to accelerate the current conditions and business landscape of tourism sectors.

Rebuilding and recreation of technological advancement in tourism sector for future development

Successful integration of technological advancement helped in designing significant space for tourism after post pandemic situations. Integration of technological advancement influenced targeted customers in terms of tourism towards the hospitality and tourism sectors. Internet of Things (IoT) plays a vital role in this concerned technological advancement for increasing opportunities to tourism and hospitality sectors. Development of technological approaches also helps these sectors to deliver contactless delivery services during these on-going pandemic situations. More than 35% of UK travellers agreed technological advancement in the tourism and hospitality sectors (STATISTA, 2022). Leading technologies can increase confidence to travel after a panic situation. As a result, it helps to draw potential attention from individual tourism and customers.  According to Rwigema (2021), continuous support from governmental authorities also helped UK based tourism and hospitality sectors to continue their business after pandemic situations. For instance, Hilton hotel introduced keyless entry and contactless services after a pandemic situation in business process. As a result, more than 75% of customers have been attracted to these services and productivity practices of Hilton hotels in UK (HILTON, 2022). This technological innovation improves user experiences and upgrades business processes. Integration of “Cloud technology” during travelling also helps customers to get accurate information through online platforms regarding desired places effectively.

Ensuring sustainable development in business process of hospitality and tourism sectors in UK

Sustainable development guidelines along with management practices were applicable for tourism and hospitality sectors to analyse every niche of tourism segments. Sustainable development principles are based on economic, environmental and socio-cultural aspects (UNWTO, 2022). Making extensive use of environmental resources in context of sustainable development is considered to constitute key elements in tourism development. For these instances, it helps in managing ecological processes and helping to preserve natural heritage along with biodiversity in UK.  Based on current trends of sustainable tourism, public health, and social inclusion has been measured by this kind of development in tourism sectors after COVID-19 (WIPO, 2022). For instance, Hilton Hotel introduced the “Light Stay” management system in context of sustainable development to improve government portfolio in 2023. In the context of WIPO GREEN, in UK more than 3000 sustainable technologies have been introduced in tourism sectors to improve the business landscape of tourism sectors after the pandemic situation.

2.7 Theoretical Perspectives

Cohen’s Theory of tourism development

Dissertation Sample Tourism

Figure 2.6: Cohen’s Theory of tourism development

(Source: As inspired by Ntounis et al. 2022)

Successful development of Cohen’s theory of tourism development (Figure 2.7) helps to explore multiple perspectives of tourism and hospitality sectors that influenced the business landscape. As per these instances, the tourist, business operations, services or products in tourism and governmental regulations are addressed as major perspectives of tourism sectors. Application of this concerned theory involved in evaluating engagement of governmental bodies and tourism policies of local communities in UK-based tourism sectors. As per views of Ntounis et al. (2022), UK based tourism as well as hospitality sectors faced potential issues of economic constraint, diversification and international trading context. For instance, the Government of UK published “Tourism Recovery Plan, June, 2021” for providing extensive support to tourism sectors after pandemic situations.  Recovery domestic inbound trip volume increased by 23% by the end of 2022 as compared to 2021 and 2020 (UNWTO, 2022). Implementation of such playing context provides immense benefits to every region and nations with visitors staging longer. For instance, on the basis of the corporate effort of Hilton hotel, and Hilton Foundation, this company decided to offer more than $1 million dollars during COVID-19 for community responses (HILTON, 2022). Apart from this, the rate of occupancy during off-season and pick season increased. As a result, expenditure of tourism and hospitality also increased and maintained transportation infrastructure as well.

Tourism theory of change

Dissertation Sample Tourism

Figure 2.7: Tourism theory of change

(Source: As opinion by Dube et al. 2021)

Application of “Tourism Theory of change” (Figure 2.8) helps to acknowledge importance of required changes in business processes of these concerned sectors. Integration of development programs on the basis of this concerned theoretical perspective is also involved in mitigating potential consequences and adverse impacts of COVID-19 from tourism and hospitality sectors. For instance, UK tourism sectors decided to introduce sustainable development in terms of change management in the business process for recovering the effect of COVID-19 positively (WIPO, 2022). Based on this concerned change management towards sustainability development, tourism as well as hospitality sectors have tried to respect socio-cultural authenticity for host or local communities. For these instances, based on a recent report of “2030 Goals in Hilton Hotel, UK”, double investment creates positive impacts on social context and cuts environmental footprints as well.  Natural heritage and biodiversity are also maintained by these sectors after paramedic situations. In addition, for making economic development in the business process of hospitality and tourism sectors, introducing new legislation of “Tourism Recovery Plan, June 2021” helped to bring significant success in firm resilience.

2.8 Gap in Literature

The future researcher can easily figure out the focal and main context or points of research studies. In current research, gaps are addressed or explored in multiple spheres, especially originated by (Allaberganov et al. 2021), has not directed their potential on evaluating economic, social, cultural and economic challenges faced by UK tourism and hospitality sectors during on-going pandemic situations. However, in secondary scholar resources, there is less available information regarding the business condition of tourism and hospitality sectors in UK during on-going pandemic situations. In terms of addressing these gaps, this researcher is going to direct complete focus on pre-pandemic, on-going and post-pandemic secondary tourism as well as hospitality sectors in UK, which need to be resolved within an immediate basis. On the contrary, there are such literary pieces that outline alternative positive strategies taken by the tourism and hospitality sectors in UK after the pandemic situation. Therefore, these mentioned factors are going to be critically analysed and evaluated in the data analysis section of this current research study for better understanding. Furthermore, this current literature is developed by the researcher to mitigate these gaps or loopholes and interpret major facts regarding advancement as well as resilience in tourism or hospitality sectors in UK.

2.9 Summary

Employment opportunities are considered as significant aspects in tourism and hospitality sectors in UK. Evaluating on-going impacts of COVID-19 on tourism sectors not only have negative effects but also have positive as well as direct impacts on these concerned sectors. Incorporating with on-going pandemic situations, these mentioned sectors decided to implement a context of change management in the business process. Continuous support from Governmental authorities helped UK based tourism or hospitality sectors to improve firm resilience after pandemic situations within an effective manner. Apart from this economic development, diversification, governmental initiatives are considered as major factors that influenced the business perspective of tourism and hospitality sectors in UK. Besides, technological advancement like IoT and AI along with block chain technology helped tourism sectors to make sustainable development in business processes.

 

 

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

3.0 Introduction

The chapter Research methodology is helpful in highlighting philosophical underpinnings of the research and outlines a specific research design as per choices. This chapter is important for two reasons, firstly it helps to demonstrate understanding of research design and make the research replicable. In this research, Saunders research onion was selected to identify appropriate tools and techniques for undertaking suitable design in research and compare with findings (Saunders et al. 2019). Ethical consideration was also maintained in the research to address suitable data collection method, analysis, sampling techniques and sample size. Research problems along with limitations were also identified through development of research methodology in this study.

3.1 Research Onion

Dissertation Sample Tourism

Figure 3.1: Research Onion

(Source: Inspired by Melnikovas, 2018)

3.2 Research Philosophies

Research philosophies describe underlying beliefs regarding the data should be collected, analysed and used. These philosophies are considered as a form on the basis of research by delineation of ontological assumption, knowledge and facts. According to Saunders et al. (2019), research philosophies are based on certain theoretical approaches that involve specific tools and techniques in the research process. In this research, development of suitable research philosophy was involved in underpinning research design of choices and providing clarity based results in research findings. Taking into account the existence of philosophy, two common research philosophies are adopted such as “Interpretivism” and “positivism”. Interpretivism research philosophy is mainly underlying in qualitative studies. Development of Interpretivism research philosophy helps the researcher to collect or analyse information on the basis of observation and results in evaluating unique information towards reality. Positivism research philosophy helps to collect information from reality objectively and results in evaluating only one reality.

Considering significance of hospitality and tourism sector in UK after COVID-19 pandemic situation, “Interpretivism research philosophy” was selected. This philosophy was assisted in acknowledging subjective ontological assumptions on basis of hospitality performance in Hilton Hotel, UK after on-going pandemic situation. On the other hand, positive research philosophy was rejected in this study because it might create potential bias results in research findings. Therefore, selection of Interpretivism research philosophy was effective in this research for conducting a socially contributed reality towards tourism and hospitality sectors in UK.

3.3 Research Approaches

Research approaches can be distinguished between two approaches of studying future research such as qualitative and quantitative. Quantitative approach is involved in forecasting mathematical operations and assumptions to interpret final results in research findings. On the other hand, a qualitative approach is involved in forecasting potential action based results with theoretical underpinning. As per views of Melnikovas (2018), development of suitable research approaches is involved in managing strong balance between research physiology and choices within an effective manner. On the basis of an indicative starting point, two common approaches can be used in the research such as “Inductive” and “deductive”. A new integrated theory has been generated through the development of an inductive research approach. On the other hand, the deductive research approach is involved in underlying with pre-existing theory proposed in the literature review section. In the data collection method, development of a suitable research approach tends to be confirmatory in approach. Empirical overview on both research approaches denoted that use of “inductive research approach” was suitable as well as applicable.

Development of inductive research approach was assisted in understanding potential factors that influenced economic and business status of tourism as well as the hospitality sector in on-going pandemic situations, UK. Additionally, an inductive approach is involved in evaluating specific information that is underlying with unsuitable structural and argumentation. In this context, application of this selected approach helped to address benefits of using AI technology in business development of Hilton Hotel in UK in COVID-19 scenario. On the other hand, deductive approach was discarded in this research as it aimed to generate knowledge along with functional control on basis of physical assumption. Henceforth, selection of an inductive research approach was effective to this research for developing argumentative and specific results in research findings.

3.4 Research Strategy

Research strategy is an action plan in research which helps researcher to find accurate ways to conduct the research on basis of aims and objectives proposed in introduction chapter. Development of suitable action plan in research helps to select appropriate data collection methods to provide proper evidence on basis of pre-existing research questions.  According to the suggestion of Saunders et al. (2019), six common research strategies can be used such as Experimental, action research, case study, grounded theory, archival and ethnography. Application of suitable research strategy along with an action plan helps the researcher to explore and examine relevant results in research findings that largely depend on research aims and objectives. Taking into account of selected research physiology and approach, “Action Research” was selected in the study. In action research, a practical implication along with setting was developed to control the potential environment along with context of the research topic. Apart from this, this selected research strategy also helps to maintain a potential interaction within the real world activities (Basias and Pollalis, 2018). Action research oriented research strategy is assisted in focusing on the research participants to evaluate validate information in research findings and data collection procedure. Therefore, in order to evaluate benefits of advanced technologies like AI on business development of Hilton Hotel in UK during a pandemic situation, “Action research oriented strategy” was effective.

3.5 Research Choice

Identification of suitable research choice is helpful in accumulating relevant information to develop an evidence-based research on the basis of research challenges. Machado and Davim (2020) suggested suitable research choices are involved in highlighting appropriate tools and techniques in the study and results in understanding suitable data collection methods. “Mixed”, “Multi” and “Mono” methods are commonly used as research choices in the research process. Considering selected research philosophy, approach and strategy, “Mixed method” was used. In case of using both qualitative and quantitative data, taking mix method approach is highly effective. Taking into account the chosen research strategy, mixed method was used to analyse the results statically and collect qualitative data in this study. On the other hand, mixed methods are also useful in identifying and analysing qualitative information on the basis of theoretical underpinning to satisfy requirements of research objectives.

3.6 Time Horizon

3.6.1 Analysis of Work Stages

Time horizon is involved in describing the overall timeline of the research within an accurate manner. Cross sectional and longitudinal time horizons can be categorised as two common types of time horizons. As per views of Saunders et al. (2019), time horizon implies simple factors to evaluate practical constraints and implication in the research. Cross sectional time horizon is involved in collecting information at one point in time and the longitudinal time horizon is useful in conducting research within multiple points in time. In this research, a cross sectional time horizon was developed to set appropriate time of each task along with dependencies within an effective manner. However, it is necessary to adopt a cross sectional time horizon to maintain a suitable time frame in the data collection and analysis process.

3.7 Techniques and Procedures

3.7.1 Data Collection

Application of data collection method is an integral process for the research that depends on selecting the type of data plan to collect. Development as well as accumulation of relevant data from suitable data collection methods helps to interpret in-depth information in research findings. As a result, it is also helpful in deriving positive outcomes in the final conclusion of research. Reddy (2020), suggested developing and conducting critical understanding on the basis of research topics, it is necessary to address suitable data collection methods. “Primary” and “Secondary” data collection methods are considered as two major types of data collection used in research. In this research, both data collection methods were used to interpret fact based information regarding benefits of using AI technology in business performance of Hilton Hotel in UK.

In the primary data collection method, relevant information was collected as well as accumulated from Survey questionnaire procedures. Accumulating information through a survey questionnaire process helped the researcher to gather real time information and responses towards benefits of AI in Hilton Hotel, UK. Multiple experiences of customers in terms of participants were gathered through the primary data collection method which was effective to this current study. As a result, it helps to accumulate first hand information and interpret with unique information regarding use of advanced technologies like AI in Hilton Hotel, UK. Apart from this, Secondary data collection method was also selected to collect second hand information from relevant secondary data sources. “International Information Technology ”, “IOP Publishing ” and “McKinsey” related articles were selected in secondary data collection method to collect relevant information regarding AI technology, utilisation of AI in tourism sectors, and customer benefits in UK. “Business Wires”, “MDPI” and “Research gate” were also selected to collect secondary information regarding the research topic.

3.7.1.1 Search Strategy

Phrases of terms of collecting information Data obtained from number of resources
“Significance” OR “Role” AND “Hospitality” AND “Tourism” like “Hilton Hotel” IN “UK” IN “COVID-19” 3
“Factors” OR “Affecting” “AND “Status of Hilton Hotel” IN “COVID-19” 3
“Benefits” OR “Impact” AND “AI” AND “Tourism” AND “COVID-19” 3
“Challenges” OR “Issues” AND “Ecotourism” AND “Domestic” AND “International” Tourism” AND “Hilton Hotel” 3
“Strategies” AND “Government” OR “Encourage” AND “Travel in tourism” AND “Hilton Hotel” AND “COVID-19” 3

Table 3.1: Search Strategy

(Source: Created by author)

3.7.1.2 Sample Size and Population

In this research, sample size was selected as 12, and Managers were considered as the selected population in the primary data collection method. On the basis of selected data collection method and accumulation of data, Random sampling strategy was developed that involves random selection of participants. Considering selected sample size, managers were selected to collect valuable insights of individuals regarding benefits of AI technologies in business performances of Hilton Hotel in UK during ongoing pandemic situation. Chosen participants belonged to Hilton hotels and the hotel was provided potential permission to the researcher to collect and accumulate responses of questions from participants.

3.7.1.3 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria

Exclusion criteria Inclusion criteria
●      In exclusion criteria, journals and articles published before 2018 were discarded.

●      Information related to personal viewpoints and doctoral dissertation was also rejected.

●      Subscription oriented information and websites were excluded in accumulating secondary information.

●      A certain period of time from 2018 to 2022 is considered during collection of secondary information.

●      Authenticated websites related to AI technologies, Government websites, and recent news of Hilton Hotel was selected.

●      Both pre and post COVID-19 related information were collected on the basis of business performance of Hilton hotel.

Table 3.2: Exclusion and Inclusion Criteria

(Source: Created by Author)

3.7.1.4 Sampling Technique

On basis of selected sample size, 8 survey questions were developed in the primary data collection method. Among these 8 questions, 2 demographic questions were developed and other 6 questions were relied with benefits, significance, challenges and strategies of AI technologies in Hilton Hotel in UK during on-going pandemic situation.

3.7.2 Data Analysis

On the basis of the primary data collection method, a quantitative analysis procedure was developed in this research. Conducting survey questionnaires process, relevant information was collected on the basis of responses of participants. Collected responses were analysed as well as interpreted in statistical format. Excel sheet was used to calculate total responses of individual questions. On the other hand, in secondary data collection method, a qualitative analysis method was developed on basis of thematic structure. Five individual themes were developed in the data interpretation process to satisfy key requirements of research objectives proposed in the introduction section. Kiger and Varpio (2020) suggested that thematic analysis is involved in evaluating suitable information that interconnects with practical observation and theoretical concepts. Thematic structure was followed towards significance, impacts, challenges, factors and strategies that related to AI technologies on business performances of Hilton Hotel in UK during COVID-19 pandemic situation. Therefore, development of both primary quantitative and secondary qualitative data analysis processes was assisted in forming fact based information in final research outcomes.

3.8 Analysis of Capital Resources

3.8.1 Ethical Consideration

Data Protect Act, 2018 (c. 12)” was developed in the research during primary data collection method. Under this act, it helps the researcher to provide required permission along with consent for the research participants. After signing a consent form by the research participants, the survey process would be started. Successful development of this act helps to improve quality of data and control disclosure of personal credentials along with information of the research participants. On the other hand, “Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (c. 42), Chapter III (c.28)” was maintained in this research to handle quality and reliability of information in research findings (LEGISLATION, 2022). External modification and personal viewpoints were discarded in the development of literature in this study. Therefore, development of these acts in this research was assisted in confirming ethical guidelines properly.

3.8.2 Reliability and Validity

In secondary data collection method, criteria of reliability and validity help the researcher to maintain a higher level of integrity in research finding and conclusion. For managing reliability, a certain time period of 2018 to 2022 was maintained in this research during collection of secondary data. On the other hand, for managing validity, information collected from notable organisations like “Hilton Hotel ”.

3.9 Summary

Utilisation of Interpretivism research philosophy, inductive research approach, action research and mixed method was helpful in serving in-depth results on research areas or topic. Both primary and secondary data collection methods were selected to accumulate practical as well as real time information regarding benefits of using AI technologies in business development of Hilton Hotel. In thematic analysis, multiple themes were developed on the basis of research objectives to maintain a potential interconnected between literature review and research findings.

 

 

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