Diversity and Performance

Diversity and Performance (Annotated Bibliography)


This assignment gives a detailed understanding about the HRM and OB practices. In regards to this, there are four journal articles are selected that demonstrates the topic diversity and performance.

The focus has on different articles and scholars in order to gain issues, theories, finding and methodology approaches related to performance and diversity. Based on this, several studies will be undertaken and this helps to gain major learning about HRM and their strategies to increase performance in diversity.

Journal articles

There are four journal articles are selected that includes understanding about diversity and performance.

Article 1- Gender diversity, business-unit engagement, and performance.

Article 2- Why organizational and community diversity matter: Representatives and the emergence of incivility and organizational performance.

Article 3- Getting specific about demographic diversity variable and team performance relationships: A meta-analysis.

Article 4- Expanding insights on the diversity climate–performance link: The role of workgroup discrimination and group size.

Article 1

Badal, S. and Harter, J.K., 2014. Gender diversity, business-unit engagement, and performance. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies21(4), pp.354-365.

Critical analysis of literature review

As per the research of Badal and Harter (2014), it is identified that demographic diversity is helpful to increase the interest of the businesses in managing diversity issues effectively that are prompt by the civil rights movement and government legislation.In like a manner, Badal and Harter (2014) defined about the gender diversity in their literature.

In this, the literature is assessing the relationship between performance and several kinds of demographic diversity like age, race, or gender to examine the independent effects on performance by the use of each demographic characteristic.

This study is also focusing on the facts that are pointed out by numerous researchers, they are tried to conduct a meta-analysis in concern to each category. In addition, it is also identified that gender diversity positively affects the financial performance at the business unit level that is helpful to appear substantial practical implications.

Similarly, it can also be said at as per the literature of this research that making diversity is an organizational priority that may realize financial benefits to a firm. This study also supported in their literature review that employee engagement independently and separately contributes to the bottom-line of the company. As well, it is also stated that diversity and engagement do not performas a proposition or either.


In this research, the researcher decided to use both mixed research method i.e., qualitative and quantitative research method which help in examining the relationship between the gender diversity and also business-unit level performance respectively.

In this, primary and secondary data collection method is used by the researcher for addressing or testing the different develop hypothesis which helps in determining the positive or negative relation of the employee in terms of gender diversity. On the other hand, this study also helped in analyzing the relationship between the two different dependent and independent variables.

In addition, this research study used survey method as a research design in which all employees of the company are selected in the hospitality industry i.e., more than 50 employees from 284 restaurants in the United States. In concern to this, 92% of the respondent has responded through a survey in order to determine the relationship of the firm performance on the employee gender diversity.

In support of this, this study also used regression data analysis method for influencing the employee engagement at the workplace environment. In this, multi-linear regression approach is testing the hypothesis for assessing the unique financial prediction and also help in the testing the significance of the two different terms i.e., gender diversity and employee engagement.


The overall study helps to understand that diversity is relatively independent to financial success in their contribution as well it is also suggested by several authors in the literature that organizations should focus on the selection of a diverse workforce and engaged culture development of good performance.

On the basis of the above findings, it can be said that this article is significant to develop an understandingof diverse workforce and performance.


As a conclusion, it can be said that gender diversity and financial performance are having a positive relationship at the business-unit level, where this relationship is moderated by the employee engagement. Therefore, it is concluded that the resource-based view of the firm, psychological presence theory,and resource dependency theory are the three well-established theories for explaining the linkage between gender diversity and performance.


This research article has developed my understanding ofgender diversity, business-unit engagement, and performance engagement. There issome implication that reflected me because itconsiders the knowledge that is helpful for me to efficiently develop further research.

At the same time, this study also reflected the mixed result related to the impact of gender diversityon the business-unit engagement, and performance engagement.


It is identified that this study includes several limitations that should be addressed in future research. This study is based on the cross-sectional nature of the data that makes it difficult to draw causal inferences so that the researcher can use the longitudinal study to mitigate this limitation in the potential study.

Article 2

King, E.B., Dawson, J.F., West, M.A., Gilrane, V.L., Peddie, C.I. and Bastin, L., 2011. Why organizational and community diversity matter: Representativeness and the emergence of incivility and organizational performance. Academy of Management Journal54(6), pp.1103-1118.

Critical analysis of literature review

King et al. (2011) stated that diversity increases the ethical issues for the employees where they have to manage their work with the diversified community. In concern to this, this study provides outcomes of intra-organizational diversity on health care settings and incivility as an outcome of intra-organizational diversity.

But on the other hand, as per the research of King et al. (2011), it is identified that when organizations do not reflect on the community’s demography, then it can emerge to the social categorization processes, which is embedded by manifestations and dysfunctional of negative intergroup behaviors. At the same time, the literature of this study is also focusing on global trends, which are increasingly diverse communities and workplaces.


In addition, this research study also used suitable research design and method which helped the researcher in gathering the data and evaluating the accuracy of data or information to an extent. For this study, a suitable method which is selected is qualitative research and quantitative research is used by the researcher for addressing the research aim efficiently.

From this, it is determined that the use of mixed research method developed strength for overall research in terms of achieving the aim & objectives attractively. After analyzing the research, it is determined that there are different alternatives that can be used by the researcher for conducting this research study properly.

In addition, the primary and secondary data collection methods are used by the researcher in which primary data is collected directly from the respondents through conducting a survey and secondary data is collected from the different sources of data which help in justifying the overall study efficiently.

At the same time, it is also determined that researcher selected research design is survey method through which staff members will be selected as a data to capture a large amount of demographic employees profile for gathering an effective and accurate data or information.

Through this survey process, the researcher got 54% respond which is equal to approx. 68719 employees or respondents. The employees who are selected as respondents are associated with the National Health Service (NHS) in which they are considered as non-specialist staff.

With this survey process, the researcher selected to use the best data analysis method i.e., descriptive statistics and correlation method for significant evaluation and also calculation related to the community diversity. In concern to it, by using the correlation analysis method, the researcher tested three different hypotheses for achieving the research aim & objectives on time.


It is found in this article that management scholars and practitioners are helpful to attend the demography within and outside of organizations. However, it is described that an organization can get success when it overcomes the challenges through civility, which are raised from diverse interactions.


The results of the current study have provided some suggestions that organizations should reflect on the demography of the communities to emerge negative intergroup behaviors in manifestations and dysfunctional social categorization processes.

In addition, it is also concluded through the findings that the challenges can be overcome through civility in concern diverse interactions that may help an organization to be successful.


The above given finding has provided me support for the future researcher in regards to making more innovation and relevancy in the study. However, this study can also be consisted of me as a base for future study. T

herefore, this way the given article supported the new researches, ideas,and thoughts etc. that I can develop in the future. The finding of this study will be helpful for me to successfully implement the ideas of diversity in an organization to improve performance.


In concern to this study, it is identified that the measure of the construct of incivility has been used during the research that is not previously validated. In this concern, the researcher should reflect on the conceptual components of respect and courtesy, which can be easilyaddressed the measures of civility.

Article 3

Bell, S.T., Villado, A.J., Lukasik, M.A., Belau, L. and Briggs, A.L., 2011. Getting specific about demographic diversity variable and team performance relationships: A meta-analysis. Journal of management37(3), pp.709-743.

Critical analysis of literature review

Bell et al. (2011) clarified that diversity is paramount that is helpful to develop an understanding that how differences on demographic variables can influence the performance of the team.

In addition to this, the above articles are also representing the effect of the diversity on the performance of employees and organization as well as these articles are also defining the impact of diversity on the continues performance and ethics of the employees and their family members.

In regards to this, when we talk about the journal article of Bell et al. (2011), it can be said that this article is analyzing a meta in order to get specific about demographic diversity variable and team performance relationship in the organization.

In concern to this, this study also analyzed that researchers have been perplexed as per this demographic diversity research because the limited meta-analytic is an evidence that demographic diversity despite on the theoretical appeal of the team performance relationship.

In concern to the literature of this research, it can also be said that the study has examined the relationship for specific demographic variables such as functional background, race for revisiting the team demographic diversity–team performance relationship as well as to move beyond previous meta-analyses, In addition, the conceptualizations of diversity is also examining seem other variables like separation, variety, and disparity.


In this research study, research method which is found suitable by the researcher was the quantitative research method which helped in gathering the practical knowledge and for which inductive research approach is used in which hypothesis are developed for specific demographic diversity and also for accomplishing the research study efficiently.

In this study, the use of quantitative research method by researcher helped in developing a better understanding regarding the further research by using the data simulation method for better exploring of sampling range respectively. Moreover, this study also used primary data collection method for addressing or testing the hypothesis which is developed for determining the null or alternate hypothesis for the selected demographic variables.

For proper evaluation of correlation data analysis method that is found to be used by the researcher in order to the correlation between the studies setting and time suggested for addressing the research aim in which researcher has to observe the team performance and surface –level variables for conducting a proper field study respectively.

In this research, the researcher decided to use meta-analysis for evaluating and justifying the research topic i.e., determining a specific relationship between demographic diversity variables and team performance.

This analysis process found to have the strength for the researcher in focusing on different dependent demographic variables and categories such as functional background, employee & organization tenure as well as this research methodology also helped the researcher in contributing towards the demographic variable in order to understand the team performance relationship at a moderate level.


It is found in the literature of Bell et al. (2011) that the authors have investigated the influence of the study setting, performance criteria and team type within different relationships provided in the study.

Similarly, it can be said that the meta-analytic results of the study providea meaningful summary of the demographic diversity and team performance by examining relationships with more consistent prevailing theories and frameworks.


Through this research, it is concluded that team demographic diversity and team performance relationship has a positive relationship that is helpful for the organization to get coherent information.

It can also be stated that the relationship among the organization can be influenced by study setting, team type, and performance criteria. The meaningful summary of the demographic diversity and team performance is also identified through the meta-analytic results.


From this study, I have clearly developed my understanding of the demographic diversity variable and team performance relationships. During this study, I increased my knowledge about a meta-analysis and how it is effective to get positive results.

At last, I have also understudied that how an effective article provides a positive outcome about the research topic. The overall study helped me to develop a better understanding of both diversity and performance of the organization or employees so that development of the business can be attained in the best efficient manner.


After studying this article, it can be suggested that this study can also be made effective if the author could use a more complex theoretical framework. It is because;the theoretical framework is supportive to make clear about the impact of diversity on the performance of the employees.

Article 4

Boehm, S.A., Dwertmann, D.J., Kunze, F., Michaelis, B., Parks, K.M. and McDonald, D.P., 2014. Expanding insights on the diversity climate–performance link: The role of workgroup discrimination and group size. Human Resource Management53(3), pp.379-402.

Critical analysis of literature review

According to the research findings of Boehm et al. (2014), it is identified that the diversity climate provides important normative information to the organization about diversity-related attitudes and behaviors, which are expected, supported, and rewarded by a firm.

In addition to this, the literature review of this study also presents extended knowledge about the performance consequences of workgroup diversity climate. In concern to this, the study also considers the climate model of productivity that was built by Kopelman, Brief, and Guzzo in 1990.

This model introduces the workgroup discrimination as a behavioral mediator to explain the positive effects of diversity climate on the performance of the workgroup. In addition, the lectures of the study also discuss the dependency of the mediated relationship by the use of testing methods.

In addition, several authors have supported in this research that diversity climate has a consistently positive relationship with the workgroup performance as per the structural equation modeling reveal as well as discrimination is helpful to mediate this relationship.


In this research article, it is also evaluated that the researcher has used different research methods, designs, data collection method for collecting or gathering a large amount of information efficiently.

The research method used by the researcher is a mixed research method in which both qualitative and quantitative methods are used for gathering both theoretical and practical knowledge to a large extent.

In concern to it, the strengths are identified from the research method are independent data sources and a large sample size which is used for accomplishing the research aim & objectives efficiently and effectively.

The use of different data sources like articles, books, magazines helped in gathering and collecting a large amount of data or information so that research gets completed on time and meet the aim & objectives.

In addition to this, different research data collection method is used i.e., both primary data and secondary data collection method which is used for gathering data directly from the respondents and from already existing data. In primary data collection, the descriptive data analysis method is used for analyzing the collected data efficiency and accuracy for which survey method for collecting data directly from the respondents i.e., military group members.

The survey method has strength and advantage that data is directly collected from the large sample population but the use of interview and group discussion found to be a weakness for this researcher as sample selected is large. But at the same time, the researcher also stated that use of cross-sectional research design use somewhere created a weakness for the research and that resultant into the limitation for the research.

Moreover, the researcher also used sampling procedure in order to evaluate or test the collected data or information relationship with the research topic. In this process, a large sample group is selected in which 248 members of the military are targeted for the conducting a survey.


It is found in the research that through perceptions of workgroup discrimination, an indirect relationship between workgroup diversity climate and group performance can be developed that is more pronounced in the smaller workgroups.

As well, the findings are also helpful to make a valuable contribution in diversity because it provides a solid base for poetical studies, which are theoretically and practically relevant to emerging issues.


On the basis of this study, it can be concluded that the study is focusing on the effects of diversity climate, the impact of these effects on performance and discrimination between diversity climate and performance. However, it can be said that the study resulted that the diversity climate effects can be mitigated in discrimination as well as it is more pronounced in large workgroups.


This study helped me to learn about the performance consequences of workgroup diversity climate. In addition, during this study, I have developed understanding about the diversity climate theory, effect of workgroup diversity climate on workgroup performance, effect of workgroup diversity climate on workgroup discrimination and effect of workgroup discrimination on workgroup performance.

In concern to this, I have defined that workgroup discrimination has mediation effects on the basis of the size of the workgroup. In this study, the hypothesis was developed by the researcher that helped to learn that how to make an effective result through developing a hypothesis.


This study can be suggested that there should be drawn a final conclusion about causality, which is not used in this article due to the cross-sectional design. It can also be suggested that the author should use other sources of performance ratings in the further studies, so a perfect performance appraisal can be resulted.

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