diversity

An analysis of impact of cultural diversity of customers on marketing strategies within hospitality/tourism sector in the U.A.E

 

ABSTRACT

In this research, there are various aspects in research methodology including approaches, methods, techniques, philosophies, etc that are defined in the research by the researcher in the research.  Furthermore, the survey through questionnaire is also used by the researcher for collecting the reliable data. For this, 88 employees form Dubai and Abu Dhabi hotels are targeted by the researcher to collect the data and to produce the effective research outcomes.  The reason behind to use the survey through questionnaire is that it is an appropriate way for the researcher in the primary data collection. So, researcher used this way to collect the data.

Along with this, in order to analyzed the data, researcher used simple and table and graph format. The reason in this is that it is suitable way to present the findings in a systematic manner and to develop understanding about the all research findings. From this research, it is identified that the cultural diversity in the UAE has a significant influence on the marketing strategies within the hospitality sector. Apart from this, in this chapter, it is also discussed that there are different factors that affect the business of the firm in Dubai and Abu Dhabi and in this, culture; religion, etc are the major issues. As well as, it is also discussed that there are various ways and the strategies that are also used by the firm to manage these issues in Dubai and Abu Dhabi.

 

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Background of Research

In today’s competitive environment, cultural diversity is emerging concept which is involved in every field of area be it small and medium enterprises or large business firms. In general, the cultural diversity can create both positive and negative impact on the consumer buying behavior as culture is something which set the values, beliefs and ideology (Al-Jenaibi, 2012). Nowadays, consumption of consumer is highly dependent on their culture due to which consumption of product and services also get influence to a large extent (Hanzaee and Farsani, 2011). In UAE market, the culture is different in comparison to other countries where consumer buys goods which satisfy there need and desire but in UAE, consumer focuses on buying the luxury branded products which are prices higher than any functional products (Randeree and Ghaffar, 2012).

Along with this, it is also observe that UAE has significant growth in their luxury market which results into the increase in retail per capita income. In luxury buying, UAE is rated under top 5 companies which have an effective consumer buying behavior towards luxury brand clothes and accessories (Randeree and Ghaffar, 2012). The cultural diversity is one major factor which influenced the consumer buying behavior of UAE as consumer changed their behavior of buying luxury items from traditional marketplace to shopping center. The hospitality / tourism sector of UAE is different from other countries because UAE countries people are more connected with their religion and culture which directly or indirectly affects the marketing strategies and services offered to customer (Al-Jenaibi, 2011). In UAE, the culture followed is very different because UAE has built with its rich history and tradition which influence consumer buying by motivating them to consume the goods and services which met their values, religion and society (Ashencaen Crabtree, 2010).

1.2 Research Rationale

This research report helps in understanding the meaning of cultural diversity and also determining its impact on the consumer buying behavior. However, this research paper focuses on identifying the issues due to cultural diversity which UAE companies face in terms of marketing strategies. At the same time, some effective ways are also recommended to companies in order to manage the issues related to cultural diversity in hospitality / tourism sector in UAE. Thus, this overall research study will help in understanding and determining the cultural diversity impact on hospitality/tourism sector in UAE.

1.3Research Aim

The aim of this proposal is to critically assess the cultural diversity faced by the rapidly growing and internationally popular tourism sector of UAE and to what extent do the businesses in this sector adapt or develop their marketing strategies to successfully attract new customers and retain the existing customers.

Some of the objectives are listed as follow:

Objective 1: To analyze different dimensions of cultural diversity and consider various marketing strategies and its effect on the hospitality and tourism sector.

Objective 2: To evaluate the link between cultural diversity and marketing strategies within tourism industry.

Objective 3: To discuss the factors that affects the tourism sector in the UAE.

Objective 4: To critically analyze the marketing issues in the tourism sector.

1.5 Research Question

  1. How does cultural diversity in the U.A.E affect the marketing strategies within the hospitality and tourism sector?

1.6Research Scope

This research study is conducted to reach and achieve a valuable outcome from the research.  In this study, different cultural dimensions and different marketing strategies and their impact on the hospitality and tourism sector are analysed. In this research, the impact of the cultural differences in the UAE on the consumer buying behaviour is analysed. Apart from this, this research is also conducted to investigate the effects of cultural diversity on marketing practices of the firms in the UAE due to the changes in the consumer buying behaviour. Additionally, different factors that may impact the tourism sector in the UAE are also discussed during this study (Fabio &Musso, 2014).

1.7 Methodology

In this research, the researcher focused on survey method to collect the required data from the research participants to know their views on the impact of cultural diversity on the marketing practices in the UAE. For this research, qualitative and quantitative data is collected to develop in-depth understanding of the topic and analyse the numeric data to present more valid and reliable research outcomes. In order to analyse the collected data, graphical method is used to present and analyse the data in graphs and tables effectively.

1.8Structure of Dissertation

For this dissertation, the following structure is followed by the researcher:

Chapter1: Introduction

This chapter provides information about the research background, research questions and research aims and objectives. At the same time, it also provides the rationale and scope of the study.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

In this chapter, the research findings of various previous researchers are provided to develop theoretical understanding of the topic. The findings of this chapter help the researcher to support the primary findings in discussion chapter.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

This chapter provides information about different research methods and techniques including research philosophy, approach, design, strategy, data collection methods and sampling in collecting the required data. It provides guidance to the researcher how the research can be conducted in a particular direction. In addition, it also explains the ethical issues to conduct the research ethically.

 (Source: Created by Researcher)

Chapter 4: Data Analysis

This chapter provides the analysis of the collected data through primary and secondary data collection methods. In this chapter, data is presented in tables and graphs and analysed by using specific data analysis method like statistical analysis. In addition, the data findings are also discussed to provide the meaningful outcomes.

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendations

This chapter provides the conclusive statement on the research findings with respect to the research objectives and questions. It also provides recommendations for the involved stakeholders and identifies the opportunities for the future research.

 

1.7

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter gives the brief understanding about the cultural diversity and its impact on the customer buying behaviour in the UAE market. At the same time, it is also determine the issues that are faced by the firms with the cultural diversity of customers in the UAE market while developing the marketing strategies. So in order to manage the issues, there are various strategies and ways will be discuss in this chapter. Thus, this chapter provide the detail knowledge about the cultural diversity and effects on the marketing strategy of the firms in context of UAE market.  In this literature, a concept of cultural diversity with focus on cultural dimensions is developed along with its impact on consumer buying behaviour. In further section, issues in the marketing strategies due to the cultural diversity of customers are also evaluated with suggestions.

2.2 Concept of Cultural Diversity

In the views of Niebuhr, (2010) cultural diversity is the emerging concept that is present in every field whether it is small firm or large business. It is also present among the customer in market. The concept of cultural diversity has emerged after the implementationof globalisation as with theglobalisationpeople getthe chances to work beyond their boundaries in order to grab more opportunities. Thus, cultural diversity becoming the broad concept day by day and it is not limit up to the workforces only but cultural diversity also extend to customer also. Likewise Stahl, et al., (2010) stated that customer diversity is also become the rising concept in current market scenario. Similarly, in UAE market, customer’s cultural diversity exist that impact the company regarding to develop the product according to them. Thus, because of customers having different cultural background, age groups and different perceptions then in that case it is quite difficult for the company to cater the needs of every segment group.

In the views of the Elmroth, the main dimension is power distance. In cultures with low power distance, people are likely to expect that power is distributed rather equally, and are furthermore also likely to accept that power is distributed to less powerful individuals. On the other hand, high power distance cultures will likely both expect and accept inequality and steep hierarchies. Likewise, El-Amouri and O’Neill, (2011) explained that in today’s both workforces and customers are made up of a diverse population of individual from every part of the world. The case of workforces diversity consider as a benefit for the companies as well as for the country and economic development. It is because cultural diversity workforces help the company to bring the innovation through contributing their skills, abilities and experiences (Schwartz, et al., 2010). Due to increasing workforces diversity in the companies, it become easy for the companies to deal with the diversify customers and serve the products/ services as per their demands. Likewise, with the hiring of the diverse workforces in the companies at UAE then itbecome easy for the companies to communicate their product information to the target market by contacting and persuading them to buy the product/ services (Crabtree, et al., 2016). Thus, this indicates that the cultural diversify workforces is the current necessity in every market especially in case of UAE market.

The research study conducted by Wright, et. al. (2012) analysed uncertainty avoidance as the dimension. In this, it identified that uncertainty avoidance is concerning to a lack of tolerance for equivocalness and a need for formal rules and policies. This proportion assesses the extent to which people feel imperilled by ambiguous positions. These uncertainties and ambiguities may e.g. be covered by an introduction of formal rules or policies, or by a general acceptance of ambiguity in the organizational life. In the research of Al-Jenaibi, (2012) it is identified that in UAE market, there is growing high cultural diversified consumer market and this increases the pressure on the local firms of the UAE for catering different needs of the customers. But at the same time, the diversity creates the various opportunities for the overseas companies to tap the UAE market through fulfilling the demands of the different customers. It is also estimated that in the upcoming years, the UAE is the growing market as it is expected that 20% population will be increase that could give various opportunity to the companies in across the globe (Zafer et al., 2010).

Furthermore, Musaev (2013) determined the concept of the Masculinity vs. Femininity where it is concluded that These values concern the extent on emphasis on masculine work related goals and assertiveness (earnings, advancement, title, respect et.), as opposed to more personal and humanistic goals (friendly working climate, cooperation, nurturance etc.) According to Riefler, et al., (2012) the UAE shows the mixed picture of culture diversity as in the UAE, westerner’s culture people used more drinks and pub to hangout in Dubai while Muslims population in the UAE is more prefer to watch the movies in cinema with no alcoholic drinks. Therefore, the different industries in the country such as supermarkets, hotels and restaurants etc that offers the customised goods and services in order to specifically satisfy the needs of customer who belong to different cultural backgrounds. Thus, this indicates that the UAE gives various opportunities to the firms due to country having the diversified consumer market base that allows the different industry to make their profit. Hence cultural diversity is the important concept for the companies as well as for the country as it is the biggest sourcesthrough which various international firms are invited into theparticular country.

The research study findings of Levesque, et. al. (2012) posit that in individualistic cultures people are awaited to portray themselves as individuals, who seek to achieve individual goals and needs. In collectivistic cultures, people have bigger stress on the benefit of the entire group to which the individual belongs, where individual wants, needs and dreams are often set aside for the common good. Thisplatform also helps the companies to grab various opportunities regarding increasing their profit margin by attracting the particular market. Thus, the workforce’s diversity proves to be beneficial for the UAE to become the leading market in across the globe. In support of this,Hornerand Swarbrooke, (2016) depicted that the success of the company is largely depend upon the diversified consumer market as in that place, they get the opportunity to explore their business into multiple segment. At the same time, the chances of profitability are also high due to the involvement of high workplace diversity. For instances, it is find that most of the business leader believes that if they operate their firm in the UAE market then in that case they could earn more revenue as people in UAE is always search for new ideas and new benchmarks.

At the same time, Kervyn, et al. (2010) identified that the importance of the Long vs. Short Term Orientation dimension. In this, Long-Term Orientation is the fifth dimension that is identified after the four dimensions. This dimension was identified by Michael Bond (1991) and was initially called Confucian dynamism. Geert Hofstede(1991) added this dimension to his framework, and labeled this dimension long vs. short term orientation.At the same time, it is also determined that service excellences in the UAE are much better than the other countries of the world. The reason is that in the UAE, there is high number of diversified culture people that together bring services that give the opportunity to the company. Besides that, due to cover more diversified consumer in the UAE market, organisation get more chances to position itself in the new market (Jamal, 2014). Thus, the development of diversify culture plays a significant role for the companies and for the local people of UAE to explore the market and expand new product in a frequently manner.

2.3 Impact of culture diversity on customer buying behaviour

In the finding of Van Doorn, et al., (2010) it is determined that the culture diversity have a massive impact on the consumer buying behaviour and the impact could be negative as well as positive. It is because culture is the factors that consist of set of values and ideologies of a particular community so to understand the particular culture and offer in a same manner is quite difficult for the company in order to cater different needs of the diversified consumer for staying in the market.

In support to this, Lin, and Huang, (2012) estimated that the cultural factors have a significant effect on the consumer buying behaviour as every individual posse’s different mind-sets, habits and beliefs that influences the people perception towards buying particular product. In like manner, in case of UAE, companies find it little difficult to sustain in the local market as UAE country have diversified culture consumer. So, in that case to fulfil needs of each segment is quite complexactivity for the company due to people having different background and mindset towards the products and services.

But in the research of Kim, et al., (2011) it is observed that in the country like UAE, there is high influences of Islamic, Arabian and Persian culture as these religion having different architecture, music, attire, cuisine and lifestyle. Thus, to incorporate these features into the offering is considering tedious job for the company. For instances, the Muslim culture people in Dubai always pursue towards the religious place or for entertainment, they prefer movie.

Besides that, western culture people in Dubai prefer to go to pubs and alcoholic drinks. So this indicates that diverse culture people have different preferences in regards to the industry, restro& bars, nightlife’s  have high western culture customer base while movie halls and religion places have more Muslim people customers. Thus, this indicates that different cultural people have different choices and preferences. So to identify the differences preferences and likes of the target customers is consider quite challenging for the companies.

On the other side, Crabtree, et al., (2016) argued that cultural diversity also provide positive influences on the consumer buying behaviour as with the culture diversity, companies get the opportunity to select any target market for catering their products and services. At the same time, consumers also get wide variety of choices from the company.In context to UAE, the people gets various benefit as UAE consider as a cultural diversified consumer market that attracts various foreign companies to their market. With this, different culture people get their own choice of product/ services. This increases their satisfaction level.

In support to this,Holtbrügge and Mohr (2010) estimated that the cultural diversity also plays a significant role in terms to influences the customer perception and buying behaviour, culture diversity attracts various companies and that allows to offering of various new products. This leads to improve the standards of living of the society. At the same time, the culture diversity also proves to be beneficial for the economic development and enhancement of the status of society. Likewise, in the UAE country, the western culture people are also increasing day by day. So in that case, the western companies get the opportunities to enter into the UAE market as they able to fulfil the needs of the target people.

In addition to this, Karout, et al., (2013) illustrated that people in Saudi Arabia or UAE believe that religion plays an active role in the buying behaviour as UAE consumer prefer to buy those products that has some linked with their religion or that product which is promoted on the names of their religion. So the religion is considered as crucial sourcesofinfluencing the people buying behaviour. But the young age people of UAE prefer big shopping malls and pay less attention to the religion. This also indicates that the western companies also have opportunities in the UAE market and they also could able to influences the local consumer buying behaviour.

In addition to this, sociological model also prove to be beneficial for the companies for studying the buying behaviour of the consumers in the UAE market. In the views of Al-Jenaibi, (2011) sociological model is consider as an important model for understanding the people taste and preferences as it focuses more on the different needs of society groups. According to this model, the consumer buying decision is influenced by the groups within which the individual stays at. In that case, the individual behaviour towards the purchasing the particular product is guiding by the society, culture in which he/ she lives in. Likewise in the case of UAE, companies to influences the consumer buying behaviour in a positive manner.

Then it is required that companies before to move into the Arabian market firstly need to study about the different culture by conducting the research or observe the viewpoint and perception, attitude of the local people towards the products offering. Moreover, company should also need to look at the lifestyle and dressing style of people in order to influence them for buying the products that is as per their lifestyle (Jamal, 2014). In a similar manner, it is estimated that the people of Arab country prefer more religious clothes as compare to wear western clothes. In such situation, international brands by studying about the lifestyle or their culture can develop their products range and at the same time it is also accepted by the people of the Arab country. Therefore, as per this study the sociological model is the best suited model for the companies to estimate the impact of culture, religions diversity on the consumer buying behaviour (Tsetsura, 2011).

2.4 Issues in the marketing strategies due to the cultural diversity of customers: In the context of hospitality/tourism sector in the U.A.E

In the views of Crisp and Turner, (2011) there are various types of problems that hospitality industry faced in developing their marketing strategy in the UAE due to presences of diversified consumers in the market. The main problem that is occur UAE culture as people of Arabia is attached to their religion and their culture. So then it becomes the complex activity for the hospitality industry to incorporate all these religion activities into their marketing strategies services. Such practices challenge their effective to serve better to customers.

At the same time, hotels faced problems in designing their marketing strategies as in the Arab culture; there is absenceof websites, social media sites and digitalplatforms etc. It creates difficulties’ for the firm to develop their marketingstrategy for making customer aware about product. In addition to this, Niebuhr, (2010) stated that because of limited using of the digital platform by the people of Arabian country, it creates the problematic situation for the hospitality industry to understand perception and changing needs of the people. Therefore, the, various industries in UAE country follow the cultural specificity into their offerings.

In the research of Chen, et al., (2012) it is determined that in the united Arab emirates or hospitality industry in Arab all are using or adapt the websites, fun, games that is related to cultural specifically or religion because Muslim people are more attached towards their lifestyle. Thus, Muslim people are always adhere rules of their community before accepting any product and services offerings. So to make them convinces about the accepting the product offering is quite tedious task for the company.

In the survey study of Cooke, and Saini, (2010) it is finding that there was a significant difference in the culture of Arabs and other culture. As in the surveys of united emirates and hospitality in UAE, it is revealed that culture consider as a vital elements for influencing the people towards accepting their offerings. Likewise in case of Arabs, culture heavily influences the marketing strategies of the companies.

Generally, the marketers of the tourism/ hospitality industry consider the social norms and customs in their promotional tool. They also try to avoid using such marketing strategy that is not supported by Arab people. Likewise, Arab people are not favouring the ads that using the animals and women have to advertise the male commodities. So in that situation, the tourism and hospitality industry develop their marketing strategies by only studying the culture of Arab people because other factors does not include in the Arab that provides benefit to the company in their development of marketing strategy. As per their norms, hotels and tourism tries toincorporate all the factors that make people relate to them.

But at the same time, Dinnie, (2015) depicted that the young citizen of Arab are preferring more the western culture that reflect in their purchasing like they purchase the stuff that is fancy, they also use the nightclubs and restaurants etc. thus, Such changing scenarios makes the marketers confuse and create problem and complexities for the marketers while designing the marketing strategy. Thus, to design the appropriate strategy in the Arab market consider a complex task for the company that’s why company focuses high on the survey method to understand the changing need of the people in Arab (Ramalu, Rose, Kumar, &Uli, 2010).

Moreover, hotel and tourism industry find a problems in deciding the way to promote their products and services information to the target customers (Al-Jenaibi, 2012). It is because people of Arab are not much following the social sites and does not often visited at the shopping malls. So in that case, it becomes critical for the marketers to use which promotional tool for creating awareness about their services in front of consumers.

In the findings of Ashencaen Crabtree, (2010) it is determined that both the concept like marketing strategy and culture are interrelated process as culture diversity plays an significant role in the designing of marketing strategy. Similarly the marketers in the Arab countries also consider the culture factor in the preparation of marketing strategy as culture is the vital elements that consist of religion, language, values and customs that influences human behaviour (Jamal, 2014).

Likewise, in that case, to successfully operate their business in Arab area through develops the marketing strategy is considering a tedious process for the marketers. It is because; Arab culture is so restricted that does not provide support to the digital platform or any type of hoarding that ruined the image of the women. Thus that limits the innovation of the marketers that they can perform in their marketing strategies. Also according to Golder and Macy, (2011),religion of Arab is also making narrow the strategies of the industries like hotels and airlines industry. This is because, the strongly religious people like Arabian does not ready to accept each and everything that offer to them even, they does not accept the innovation whichis not accordingly to their culture and religion.

At the same time, Shi and Wang, (2011) also mentioned that the religion also impact on the consumption pattern as custom-oriented people often relates to the restriction of certain foods and beverages in case of hotels. Such practices stop the hotel industry to bring the innovation in their cuisines. In such situation, the marketers are find difficulties to find the best to which they get the attention of the target consumer and they make pursued the consumer to buy the product (Schwartz, 2009).

In the study of Randeree and Ghaffar (2012),it is found that for the marketers in their marketing strategy development, there is one big issue that generally occur in the Muslim country. The issue is related to the masculinity and feminist as in the UAE, the marketers does not allow including the females in their promotional plans as in their culture, it is not allowed that females sell the male commodities. In that case, the marketers are become more conscious about the development of marketing strategy due to involvement of various guidelines and restriction in the UAE country that limits the boundaries and technology advancement. Thus, the above mention study clearly signifies that developing the appropriate marketing strategy in  the cultural diversity is consider a critical issue for the hotel and tourism industry especially in the UAE marketwhere different cultural group exist who are in different in taste and likes (Neal, 2010). So in that case, for the marketers to fulfil every needs of each group is becoming tedious activity.

2.5 Ways to manage the culture diversity of customers in the hospitality/tourism sector under the U.A.E.

According to Skok and Tahir, (2010) the marketers should need to adopt various strategies and ways to manage the culture diversity of consumer in UAE. Likewise, firstly the marketers of hotel and tourism industry should need to identify the different culture norms and their needs that exist in the Arabians area so that accordingly they decide their target market. The analysis of the culture also helps the company to successfully make their position in the market and it also allows getting the high acceptances of the consumers. Besides that, Al-Jenaibi(2012) recommended that marketers should need to incorporate new techniques in order to make influences on the consumer buying behaviour. For that, United Arab Emirates who is the UAE airlines can develop the websites that includes fun games and these all are need to adopt as per the cultural specificity of consumers. Thus, such ways helps the airlines industry to successfully attract the local people of UAE. Moreover, it is also suggested by study of Tian& Borges (2011) that the hotels industry under the Arab areas should need to perform firstly in-depth analysis of cultural elements so that firm could able to get the better understanding about their customs and religion. With such understanding, they easily develop the offerings for the target market and they also get high attention of the consumers on the same time. Thus, the marketers should need to conduct the proper survey for understanding the current needs of particular area.

In addition to this, Elbanna, (2010) estimated that the UAE culture is very conservative and it is also found that Arab culture restrict the choices of consumer whilepurchasing products as they are bind with the culture that is adhere to the norms of community and society. While on the other side, western culture are not having such restrictions while purchasing the particular products as their culture is quite open in terms of consumption meat and drinks. So, by understanding such differences among the culture, hotels could able to cater the needs of every culture properly. Besides that, on that basis, hotel can also able to select their target market without making any confusion about the target need and Wants.

Furthermore, McFarlin and Sweeney, (2014) illustrated that the hotels and tourism industries to successfully develop their marketing strategy. In that case, it is recommended that companies should need to create the content in such manner that is related to the particular cultural group of UAE market so that companies easily develop their consumer base in particular area. In support to this,Ashencaen Crabtree (2010) also mentioned that firms should also incorporate the culturally specific messages in the websites. Company should also involve the images and visually presentation of the products. Because of all these activities assist the company to building trust of the customer and able to make customer loyal towards the company offerings. Moreover, incorporating cultural specific offering could assist in attracting the large cultural diversity consumers as consumers easily relate towards the product and become loyal towards the brand. On the other side, it is recommended by research of Yakup, Mücahit&Reyhan (2011) that especially hotel industries should tries to focus on the young age population in the UAE as the young-aged people are more follow or consider less culture as compare to old population. In that case, it is easy for the hotel industry to grab new the young market by catering them the innovative services. At the same time, the companies should also need to follow the hofstede’s concept as this concept will be prove beneficial for the company in terms to study about the cultural dimensions. Likewise, with this concept, company could able to identify that culture is support the individualism or collectivism or how much culture give emphasis on feminism and masculinity. Thus, on this basis, marketers can able to take appropriate decision in the marketing strategy. Decision related to what should be included that support their culture like which strategy will be taken at the time of developing the marketing design for grabbing the attention of target market (Tian, and Borges, 2011).

In support to this, Crisp and Turner, (2011) explained that for getting successes in particular market; in that case hotels should need to design their websites by including the visual presentation of the rooms and infrastructure of the hotels and it allows to attain customer attention. But in the UAE market, marketers should design their websites in such a manner that reflects their cultural values, specific motives and communication styles etc. all these activities plays acrucial role for influencing the target customers (Niebuhr, 2010). Thus, all these mention recommendation helps the hospitality industry to successfully design their marketing strategy and able to influences the consumer buying behaviour in the UAE.

2.6 Government Data: Ethnic and Religious Groups in UAE

Ethnic and Religious Groups in UAE

(Source: Randeree and Ghaffar, 2012)

From the above figure, it can be analysed that most of the percentage of UAE is of South and South-East Asian culture people and they comprise 60% of overall percentage of the UAE population percentage (Randeree and Ghaffar, 2012). However, 21% citizens belong to Arabs and others culture and 19% people are UAE Emirate citizens. So, from the above government data, it can be analysed that UAE is the country where there is huge cultural diversity. People from different culture have different perceptions, ideas and opinions, which directly impact the buying behaviour.

2.7 Conclusion

From the literature review, it can be summarized that cultural diversity of consumer is the key factor that is growing day by day due to increasing rates of cooperation and acquisition between the different countries. Similarly, the cultural diversity factors have a both positive as well as negative impact on the UAE firms like hotels and tourism industry. There are various issues are address such as differences in perception, attitudes, viewpoint of different cultural group and at the same time, the ways to manage such issues have also discussed.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

3.1 Introduction

In this chapter of research study, research methodology plays a crucial role in conducting an in-depth study related to Cultural diversity in the UAE market. Research Methodology is an effective and systematic method which helps in collecting data and information in efficient manner by conducting various activities. In context to it, researcher uses different research strategy, research method, research philosophy, and approach & data collection method (O’Leary, 2017). These all research activities play a significant role for researcher as it assist to get ensure about the reliability and validity of the research study. The research methodology and its essential elements help in solving the research issue in the efficient and effective manner. In addition, researcher required to select the appropriate methodology which help in conducting research successfully as well as also provide justification for selected research methodology.

3.2 Research Philosophy

In research study, the research philosophy plays an essential role in which it help researcher in understanding and demonstrating the general ideas and views related to research topic. The research philosophy is meant for setting principles, value and belief that help researcher in doing investigation. This research philosophy is of three types i.e., positivism, realism and interpretive philosophies which help in identifying and collecting the required data by analyzing it so that collected data can be used in this research study. In concern to it, Smith (2015) stated that positivism philosophy is based on objective and on natural phenomena which is fixed in nature whereas in realism philosophy, researcher collects the data on the basis of assumption and perception of people towards natural realities. On the other hand, interpretivism philosophy helps the researchers in completing its research study by developing a theoretical and subjective understanding of the research problem (Denzin and Lincoln, 2011). But, for this research study, interpretivism philosophy is very effective and useful for researcher in order to conduct a proper study related to cultural diversity. The main aim of this research study is to understand the cultural diversity and its impact on customer buying behavior and for this, interpretivism philosophy will help in collecting data from customers directly. Thus, this philosophy help in developing the subjective understanding about the cultural diversity impact on consumer buying behaviour. The other remaining philosophies i.e., realism and positivism philosophies will not be used by the researcher as they both are not suitable for this research study.

3.3 Research Approach

The research approach is very useful for researcher as it helps in developing or improving the research design according to the research aims and objectives which are to be achieved. In respect of this, there are two types of research approaches i.e., inductive approach and deductive approach. In deductive research approach, researcher develops a new idea by testing the hypothesis with the help of existing theory (Knobe and Nichols, 2013). At the same time, inductive research approach is an approach which collects the data initially and then analysis it for developing a new theory according to the research topic.

For this research study, inductive approach is used by researcher over the deductive research approach. This approach provides detailed understanding related to research topic by collecting a reliable data for completing the research effectively. This inductive approach also provides researcher to support in terms of performing research from specific to general (Johnson and Christensen, 2010). In support of this, researcher also focuses on adopting an effective method for this research study which help researcher in exploring the new ideas and views of respondents towards the cultural diversity and their impact on consumer buying behavior. This helps in successful achievement of research aim as inductive approach is best suitable for this study. Thus, this inductive approach helps the researcher in doing observation and also to draw out the conclusion on the basis of defined observation.

3.4 Research Strategy & Design

Research strategy is general research plan which helps researcher to ensure that this research study will have large amount of availability of data. The research strategies include literature review, survey, questionnaire and many more which help in collecting the reliable information (Austin and Pinkleton, 2015). With the help of survey (questionnaire), research is able to collect data and understand their perception towards the cultural diversity. Apart from this, research designs are used by the researcher to ensure the adequate collection and analysis of data for successfully completing the study by accomplishing research aim and objectives. Qualitative and quantitative are two research designs that are used by researchers to ensure the proper data collection and analysis. Quantitative research design is associated with the use of statistical techniques for collecting and analyzing data. Therefore, this research design is appropriate for collecting numerical data and analyzes such data to propose valid research outcomes. In contrast, qualitative research design is associated with the collection of in-depth data by assessing various previous research studies, which discuss the research issue(Sekaran&Bougie, 2010). This study is based on the mix use of both qualitative and quantitative research designs. Qualitative research design is selected because it supports the researcher to collect in-depth qualitative data. At the same time, quantitative design is selected because it assists the researcher to analyze survey responses effectively to produce valid research outcomes. Thus, it shows that to enhance the validity of proposed research outcomes, by aligning both primary and secondary findings both research designs were selected by the researcher (Johnson and Christensen, 2010).

3.5 Data Collection Methods

For research study, there are two types of data collection sources i.e., primary data and secondary data (Olsen, 2011). Primary data is collected first time by the researchers while secondary data is collected by the already available data sources by some other researchers for different purposes. Primary data collection helps to increase validity and reliability of the gathered data.  But, primary data collection method may take time that may delay the research. The advantage of secondary data collection method is that the researcher can collect the needed information within given time and budget. But at the same time, the negative aspect is that sometimes, it becomes difficult to collect exact information with the use of secondary sources. It shows that both data collection methods have their own advantages and disadvantages that can affect the research outcomes. It is the reason that to enhance the effectiveness of outcomes of this study, a mixed approach was followed by the researcher.

For this research study, primary data is collected through survey method in which questionnaire will be designed for respondents. This method is selected over focus group and observation methods because it supports in collecting data from many sources in limited time period and make data comparable and bias free. Additionally, for the questionnaire, close ended questions were included so that collected data in terms of opinion of respondents can be made comparable (Sekaran&Bougie, 2010). At the same time, through e-mail, questionnaire was distributed to the selected respondents for collecting their responses. In addition, interview method was also considered by the researcher to develop in-depth understanding of the topic and get the qualitative data to increase the validity and reliability of the research findings. At the same time, for gathering secondary data, different previous research studies were explored by getting access of journal articles, books, and other authentic websites.

Sampling Strategy: There are two sampling methods including probability and non-probability that the researcher can apply with the suitability of the research problem. From the population being sampled, the selection of a random sample is considered under the probability sampling. On the other hand, in non-probability sampling method, samples are selected through quota, snowball, and judgmental sampling, or which are not suggested by probability sampling theory. For this study, simple random strategy with probability sampling strategy was used for selecting an appropriate sample size. To overcome the issue of biasness in the sample size selection process, this strategy was used by the researcher.

The population for this study is the managers from marketing department and customer service, who lie in UAE to know about their opinions about the impact of cultural diversity on the marketing practices of the firms. At the same time, managers from marketing department and customer serviceare also selected because they can provide better opinions to explain how cultural differences of the UAE may impact their marketing practices. In addition, from this population an appropriate sample size was selected by using simple random strategy under probability sampling technique (Sekaran&Bougie, 2010). The researcher approached 70 respondents in hotels in Dubai, 18 in hotels in Abu Dhabi, 5 in Dubai Malls, 2 in Abu Dhabi Malls and 7 in Theme and water parks. The researcher selected the sample for further analysis after getting positive responses and completely filled questionnaire. For this, researcher got good responses for hotels, but for malls and theme parks, he did not get any response because respondents were too busy and entertaining at there. For survey, 78 respondents were considered, while for interview 10 informants were considered. This sample size was suitable for this study to attain main research aim and objectives because it was supportive to collect both quantitative and qualitative information and make the analysis of data easy and time and cost efficient.

3.6 Data Analysis Plan

In this research study, data analysis helps the researcher in analyzing the data which is collected from different data collection sources in order to achieve the accurate and relevant data in more effective manner. In general term, data analysis assists the researcher in accomplishing the research aim and objectives on time with the help of efficient analysis method (Miller, et al., 2012). In concern to this, there are various effective data analysis methods such as statistical method, disclosure analysis, thematic analysis and conversational analysis which help researcher in generating reliable and valuable research outcomes. In concern to this, graphical analysis method is used by researcher in which it involves both Ms-Excel (Larson and Csikszentmihalyi, 2014). The use of this method helps the researcher to present the data in effective manner i.e., in form of graph, table and chart. However, this method help in understanding the respondent views easily as well as also helps the researcher in achievement of research aim and objectives.

3.7 Ethical Consideration

While conducting a research study, researcher is complied with various rules and regulations which are to be followed in order to achieve research aim & objective effectively and successfully. In research study, it is required that researcher should collect data and interpret it in his/her own language i.e., words. In research study, there are various ethical issues like manipulated data, security issues and authenticated data sources and so on. During data collection process, researcher should focus on using the authentic resources in order to generate an effective and valuable outcome (Hair, et al., 2015). The ethical issues which are involved with the secondary data collection are copyright, plagiarism and violation whereas in primary data, ethical issues involved is security to respondent’s personal information. However, in this research, researcher requires to avoid the plagiarism and also provide assurance to respondents that there provided information will be confidential(Sekaran&Bougie, 2010). At the same time, collected data should be collected from different authentic sources such as websites, books, annual reports and articles. Thus, this ethical consideration helps in eliminating the ethical issues from the research study by maintaining confidentiality and privacy.

3.8 Accessibility issues

While conducting any research, there are some limitations which creates problem for researcher in completing the research study effectively and efficiently. The limitation of collected data is cost efficiency and time constraint. According to Groves  , et al., (2011), time and cost are major factor or limitation of effective research study. In like manner, researcher requires an efficient financial support for proper completion of research because for collecting large amount of data related to research issue, there is requirement of large amount through which data can be collected easily. Similarly, researcher also need proper time sale for completing and achievement of research aim successfully. At the same time, researcher also faces problem while collecting data from respondents because collecting data directly from customer (respondent) develops limitation as customers provide only limited data which may be artificial facts rather than reality(Sekaran&Bougie, 2010). These limitations somewhere develop difficulty for the researcher to complete the research study on time and successfully by achieving the research aim and objective.

3.9 Validity, Reliability &Generalizability

In this research, there may be generalizability issue because this study is based on UAE and hotel sector as there may be differences in the research outcomes on considering different countries and sectors. It is because marketing strategies may vary according to the cultural differences in particular country with respect to specific sector. So, this study cannot be generalized for other countries and sectors.At the same time, the secondary data sources and improper responses by the respondents may affect the validity and reliability of the research outcomes. For this, researcher used the latest secondary data sources and obtained the full consent of the participants to get their proper responses.

 

Chapter 4: Data Analysis

4.1 Introduction

In this section of the research, researcher has critically analysed the data to explore the relevant and reliable research outcome. For the primary findings, researcher has taken 70 respondents in hotels in Dubai, 18 in hotels in Abu Dhabi, 5 in Dubai Malls, 2 in Abu Dhabi Malls and 7 in Theme and water parks. The researcher selected the sample for further analysis after getting positive responses and completely filled questionnaire. However it is identified that the respondents of hotels have given good responses, but the respondents of malls and theme park have not shown much response and sufficient responses are not collected from them. The researcher has not any evidence regarding this, but in general it can be interpreted that they are too busy due to which they do not have shown any interest.In like manner, due to season, they were highly busy towards creation in the theme parks and malls. Moreover, they were seemed less professional as compared to hotel managers.

In this context, researcher has analysed the primary findings on the basis of survey questionnaires. Primary analysis has taken place on the basis of survey questionnaires which has taken place on the managers of different hotels. Survey questionnaires have supported to analyse the views, perceptions, suggestions and perceptive of the managers regarding the consumer cultural diversity and its impact on the firm operations and functions. For the survey questionnaire, researcher has taken70 respondents of hotels in Dubai and 8 respondents of hotels in Abu Dhabi. Furthermore, for the purpose of interview, researcher has taken 10 managers from the hotels in Abu Dhabi. Furthermore, primary findings have correlated with the literature review which has supported to analyse the research data in an effective manner.

4.2 Findings and Discussion of Survey Questionnaire

To analyse the point of view of the managers of different hotels and to analyse their perceptive on consumer cultural diversity, following survey findings and discussion can be evaluated. This section has also supported to analyse the impact of firms operations and functions in an effective manner.

4.2.1 Cultural Diversity and formulating the marketing strategy

Table 1: Cultural Diversity and formulating the marketing strategy

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
Yes4658.97
No3241.03
Total78100

From the above table, it can be analysed that most of the respondents have shown consensus with the statement and their percentage is 59% however 41% respondents have shown denial from the above statement. It reflects that cultural diversity is becoming a major issue in the context of formulating the marketing strategy. Most of the respondents agreed to this statement so, from this, it can be interpreted that cultural diversity impacts the marketing strategy. Above findings has shown similarity with the outcome of Crisp and Turner, (2011) that there are various problems faced by the firms related to hospitality industry while developing the marketing strategy due to cultural diversity. In the UAE, the major problem is that UAE people remain attached to their religion and culture which creates complexity for the hospitality industry to incorporate with all these religion activities while designing the marketing strategies. It creates issue towards effectively serving the customers of diversified consumers in the market.

4.2.2 Impact of cultural diversity on consumer behaviour

Table 2: Impact of Cultural Diversity on Consumer Behaviour

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
Strongly Agree2430.77
Agree1823.08
Neutral 33.85
Disagree2126.92
Strongly Disagree 1215.38
Total78100

Figure 2: Impact of Cultural Diversity on Consumer Behaviour

From the above table and graph, it can be identified that (30 + 23) 53% respondents remained agree that cultural diversity significantly impact the consumer behaviour. However, (27 + 15) 42% respondents have shown denial to this statement and 4% respondents remained neutral in the context of above statement. From the above data, it can be interpreted that consumer behaviourget significantly impactedby cultural diversity. Above interpretation has shown similarity with the findings of Van Doorn, et al., (2010) that culture diversity can impact the consumer buying behaviour as culture consist set of values and ideologies of a particular community and it is quite difficult for the firm to understand the needs of different culture and their diversified need. Cultural factors have a significant effect on the consumer buying behaviour as every individual posse’s different mind-sets, habits and beliefs which directly influences the perception of an individual towards buying particular product. At the same time, in the case of UAE, companies find this situation becomes more difficult as UAE has diversified culture consumer and it becomes difficult to fulfil the needs of each segment as people have different background and mindset towards the products and services.

4.2.3 Concern about issues faced by the firm due to cultural diversity in the marketing strategy

Differences in perception

Table 3: Differences in Perception

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
Strongly Agree2633.33
Agree2228.21
Neutral 45.13
Disagree1823.08
Strongly Disagree 810.26
Total78100.00

Figure 3: Differences in Perception

Above table and graph has supported to analyse that differences in perception is one of the major issues that face by firm due to cultural diversity in the marketing strategy as most of the respondents have shown consensus to this parameter. In this perspective, 33% respondents remained strongly agree and 28% respondents remained agree. In like manner, 33% respondents have shown denial in the context of the statement. From this, it can be interpreted that however, differences in perception is one of the major challenges which is faced by the firm due to cultural diversity but there are many other factors too which impact the marketing strategy.

Consumer’s Religious attachments that leads to restrict the innovation in products

Table 4: Consumer Religious attachments that Leads to Restrict the Innovation in Products

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
Strongly Agree3038.46
Agree2633.33
Neutral 11.28
Disagree1519.23
Strongly Disagree 67.69
Total78100.00

Figure 4: Consumer Religious attachments that Leads to Restrict the Innovation in Products

From the above data, it can be analyzedthat consumer’s religious attachments that leads to restrict the innovation in products create issues due to cultural diversity in the marketing strategy. In this context, 72% respondents have shown consensus and 27% respondents have shown denial to the statement.

Less usage of digital platform in the UAE country

Table 5: Less Usage of Digital platform

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
Strongly Agree3443.59
Agree2228.21
Neutral 11.28
Disagree1417.95
Strongly Disagree 78.97
Total78100.00

Figure 5: Less Usage of Digital platform

From the above data, it can be analyzed that consumer’s religious attachments that leads to restrict the innovation in products create issues due to cultural diversity in the marketing strategy. In this context, 72% respondents have shown consensus and 27% respondents have shown denial to the statement.

Language barriers

Table 6: Language Barriers

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
Strongly Agree2835.90
Agree2430.77
Neutral 22.56
Disagree1519.23
Strongly Disagree 911.54
Total78100.00

Figure 6: Language Barriers

In the context of language barrier, 54 respondents remained agree that it creates issue due to cultural diversity however 24 respondents do not remained agreed from the above statement.

High differentiation in masculine and feminine while designing the marketing strategy

Table 7: High Differentiation in Masculine and Feminine

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
Strongly Agree2633.33
Agree2835.90
Neutral 33.85
Disagree1417.95
Strongly Disagree 78.97
Total78100.00

Figure 7: High Differentiation in Masculine and Feminine

In the context of high differentiation in masculine and feminine in UAE, 69% respondents remained in favour that it creates issue due to cultural diversity which impacts the marketing strategy.

From the above findings, it can be interpreted that above all issues are faced by the firm due to cultural diversity in the marketing strategy. Differences in perception, consumer’s religious attachments, less usage of digital platform in the UAE country, language barriers and high differentiation in masculine and feminine all these issues faced by the hospitality industry in the UAE. Above interpretation has shown consensus with the findings of Niebuhr, (2010) that there is absence of websites, social media sites and digital platforms due to which firm not become able to create public awareness regarding the firm products, services, discounts, features, etc. which is impacting the firm performance. In like manner, from the literature review, it can be analysed that different culture people have different perceptions. In like manner, language is one of the biggest barriers which impacts the company sells. Moreover, in UAE, there is high differentiation in masculine and feminine gender which also creates hurdle towards creating marketing strategies.

4.2.4 Ways and Techniques used by Firms to manage the issues related to Cultural Diversity

 

Conduct survey

Table 8: Conduct Survey

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
Strongly Agree3342.31
Agree2734.62
Neutral 22.56
Disagree1215.38
Strongly Disagree 45.13
Total78100.00

Above data supports to interpret that conducting survey will remain supportive for the firms to manage the issues related to cultural diversity in the marketing strategy as 57 respondents remained agree under this perspective.

Develop such content that support different culture

Table 9: Developing Content

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
Strongly Agree2329.49
Agree1620.51
Neutral 11.28
Disagree2937.18
Strongly Disagree 911.54
Total78100.00

In the context of developing content that support different culture, 50% respondents have shown consensus to this point however 49% have not remained agree from this statement. It reflects that this technique will not remain more effective.From this, it can be interpreted that developing the context for marketing that supports to define different religion will remain less supportive to attract the consumers of diversified culture.

Include visuals and images of product

Table 10: Including Visuals and Images

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
Strongly Agree3038.46
Agree2228.21
Neutral 33.85
Disagree1721.79
Strongly Disagree 67.69
Total78100.00

From the above table, it can be analysed that including visuals and images of productwill remain supportive for the firm to manage the issues related to cultural diversity in the marketing strategy as 67% respondents have shown consensus to this statement. From this, it can be interpreted that this technique will remain supportive to create brand awareness.

Target young age population

Table 11: Target Young Age Population

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
Strongly Agree2430.77
Agree2532.05
Neutral 11.28
Disagree1924.36
Strongly Disagree 911.54
Total78100.00

Above data reflects that targeting the young age population is a good option that can be used by the firms to manage the issues related to cultural diversity in the marketing strategy. In this context, 63% respondents have shown consensus. From the above findings, it can be interpreted that targeting the young population will remain assistive for the firm to manage the issues related to cultural diversity in the marketing strategy as this population shows less rigidity towards religion and culture and shows eagerness to accept the change.

Develop social games that support the specific culture

Table 12: Developing Social Games

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
Strongly Agree1417.95
Agree1823.08
Neutral 56.41
Disagree2633.33
Strongly Disagree 1519.23
Total78100.00

 

In the context of developing social games that support the specific culture, most of the respondents 53% respondents have shown denial to the above statement which reflects that this technique will not remain effective. From the above finding, it can be interpreted that developing social games for the specific culturewill only remain supportive to influence a particular segment which can adversely impact the firm performance. It will decrease the firm profitability.

From the above data, findings and interpretation, it can be discuss that conducting survey is an effective technique. Moreover, targeting young age population is also a good technique. In like manner, visuals and images of product is the best technique. However developing content that support different culture is not that much effective technique, however, social games that support the specific culture is not effective technique as it can adversely impact the firm in UAE market. So, from this, it can be stated that conducting survey, targeting young age population and visuals and images of product are the techniques which will remain supportive for the firms to manage the issues related to cultural diversity in the marketing strategy.

Above findings have shown similarity with the study of Skok and Tahir, (2010) that to develop effective marketing strategy, it is essential for the UAE firms to adopt various strategies as it remains supportive to manage the culture diversity of the consumers. Moreover, the marketers of hospitality industry need to identify different culture norms and their needs and according to that there is a need of designing the marketing strategies which will remain supportive for the firm to successfully make their position in the UAE. In like manner, there is a need of introducing new techniques to influence the consumer buying behaviour.

4.3 Findings and Discussion of Interview

What is your position in this firm/ department you working for?

In this, most of the respondents stated that they are on the managerial position in the firm. It is because they are only responsible to handle the customers’ services and to provide the better service experience for the customers. At the same time, some of the respondents also stated that they have been working from last so many years in the same firm, while some of the respondents stated that they are new in this position.  So, overall, it can be determined that all respondents were the manager position in the firm located in the Abu Dhabi.

What type of business does your firm runs?

Some of the respondents illustrated that their firm do the hotel service and in this, they provide the different facilities for the customers such as rooms, restaurant, party, etc. But at the same time, some of the respondents also stated that they only provide the room service for the customers and they don’t have the extra facilities in terms of restaurant, etc. It is because they believe that in affects the main core business of the firm and creates the business issues. Because of this, it can be illustrated that there were a contradictory view of the regarding do the business in Abu Dhabi.

What is the major issue that is faced by your firm while operating in diversified cultural consumers?

In this, it is analysed through getting the all responses from the different respondents, there are different issues that are faced by the firm at the time of operating the business (hospitality/tourism) in the diversified culture. At the same time, in the same concern of this, half of the respondents from Dubai and Abu Dhabi stated that identify the need of the customers is one of the major issues that we face in the business. It is because the need and the desire of the customers in the Dubai and the Abu Dhabi are quite different. They stated that we always try to target the local customers of Dubai and the Abu Dhabi. It is because it helped us to effectively manage the business and to overcome the different challenges of diversify culture. But at the same time, one of the respondents stated that my firm faces the religion issue at the time of operating the business in the diversified cultural consumers. I usually feel that Muslim people population is quite high in the Abu Dhabi and Dubai. Their preference regarding use the service such as drink, pubs, movie, etc. is also different form the western people. Because of this, I face so many issues to target the customers and to get competitive advantage in the market. In support of this, in the research of Kim, et al., (2011), it is determined that in Dubai and the Abu Dhabi, there are different religious people Islamic, Arabian and Persian that affect the business operation of the firm. It is because there is high presence of the Muslim people in the Dubai and the Abu Dhabi and their taste and the preference regarding the use of services is different from the western and Asian culture of people. For instance, Dubai always pursues towards the religious place or for entertainment, they prefer movie but at the same time, the western people in Dubai like to use the pubs and alcoholic drinks. Because of this, it can be illustrated that different in the taste, preference, etc arte the major issues for the firm to operate the business in diversified cultural consumers.

How do you prepare for these issues?

There are different ways that are suggested by the managers of the Abu Dhabi and Dubai hotels to manage the issues related to operating the business in diversified cultural consumers. In the same concern of this, one of the respondents stated that our firm always tries to use to identify the different culture norms and need of the customers that exists in the Arabians area and analysis the culture preference. It helps my firm to successfully operate the business and to formulate the marketing and business plan accordingly. On the other way, some of the respondents said that we always try to use the new technology in our services such as making an effective web site, providing some family packs, fun zone, etc that help us to attract the customers and to overcome  the challenges of diversity culture.  But at the same time, one of the respondents also stated that I also prefer to use the survey for managing the business in the diversify culture. It is because it helps me to get the exact idea about the need of the customers and their preference regarding the service of the firm. So, I make my marketing and business plan accordingly and get the competitive advantage. In addition to this, in the research of Al-Jenaibi (2012), it is illustrated that use the best and new techniques, offering different unique offers, etc are the best ways that can also be used by the firm to get the attention of the customers and to successfully manage the business in the diversity culture. It is because these all offers make a unique image of the firm in the customers mind and makes easy the firm to successfully manage the business in the diversify culture.

What type of marketing strategy do you use in UAE market for attracting the cultural diversified customer?                           

In this, it is analysed that there are different marketing strategies that are used by the managers to manage the business in the diversify culture. In the same concern of this, one of the respondents stated that I use the culture management strategy to manage the business in the diversify culture and the customers base. It is because in this we organize or conduct some different ways and the programs related to management of the culture that helps me to successfully manage the business and to manage the issues related to the culture diversity. At the same time, one of the respondents stated that I use the motivational and create the content according to the culture of the people. The reason in this is that the use of motivation and the development of the content assist me to motivate the employees according to the existing culture and develop the same culture content also help to get the understanding about the existing culture value and make easy the firm to successful manage the business. Because of this, I use the motivation and the development of the content marketing strategy in the business at international level.

In like manner, some of the respondents also stated that we make the marketing and business strategy according to the existing need of the customers and the market trend. It helps us to keep safe from different issues that can affect the market and business of the firm and also push the firm to get the success in the market. Because of this, we use or make the marketing and business strategy according to the existing need of the customers and the market trend. In the same concern of this, from the research of Ashencaen Crabtree (2010), it is determined that manage or the formulate the business strategy according to the culture of that country is the only way that can provide the competitive advantage for the firm and also overcome the different issues related to the successful managing the business.

How do these strategies manifest themselves? /how do you achieve those strategies?

In the respondents of this question, it is determined that there are various ways that are used by the firm to achieve these strategies. But at the same time, one of the respondents stated that I use the employees’ engagement way to successful implement the all strategies. It is because employees are the major assets of the firm and every decision taken by the firm are successfully implement through employees. It is because the involvement of the employees is quite necessary for the firm. That is why, I use the employees engagement way to successful implement the all strategies. In like manner, one of the respondents stated that I use the liberal policy way then mean I use the effective and liberal rules and regulations that make easy the firm to successfully manage the business and for effectively implement the all business and marketing strategy. It also helps the firm to manage the different cross culture issues and to develop a good customer base in the competitive market. Likewise, some of the respondents depicted that we try to identify the need of the customers and it is the only way that help the firm to get the competitive advantage and to successfully implement the all marketing strategies. In support of this, in the findings of Crisp and Turner, (2011), it is determined that employees’ engagement, effective policy implementation, good working environment, etc are the major ways that are used by the firm and helps to successfully implementation of the all marketing strategies that are used to successful implementation of the marketing strategy.

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

From the above study, it can be concluded that it has supported to achieve the research objectives at a greater extent. In this research paper, researcher has utilized primary as well as secondary data collection method. For the purpose of collecting the primary data, researcher has utilized interview as well as survey questionnaire method. In like manner, for the purpose of collecting the secondary data, researcher has referenced various books, novels, magazines, etc. which has supported to understand the point of view of various past researchers. In like manner, researcher has correlated the primary findings with the secondary outcomes to increase the reliability and relevancy of the study. Thus, both the sources primary and secondary assist the researchers to analyze the culture diversity and its impact on the hospitality and tourism sector. It is identified that the issues which arises in cultural diversity is the different perception, viewpoint and different culture background of the individual that guides their purchasing decision. Since, people in UAE are more religious and cultural oriented, they relate each product towards their culture. So for the companies to understand the mindset of the local customers in UAE is quite tedious task. For instances, traditional people of UAE more prefer to spend on the movie halls rather than on pubs and clubs while young generation in UAE country like to spend on clubs and drinks etc. Thus to address the different needs of the local people and then prepare the marketing strategy is prove to be difficult task for the company. Besides that, there are also absences of websites; social media and digital platform in the UAE that become an issue for the company in terms to provide collect the information about target customers. In order to manage the cultural diversity, there are various strategies that marketers need to adopt such as they need to develop the products as per the different culture requirement by adding some feature of their culture. It is because local customer able to relate with product and it influences their buying decision.

In addition to this, United Arab Emirates can develop the websites that includes fun games and these all are need to adopt as per the cultural specificity of consumers. Such ways helps the airlines industry to successfully attract the local people of UAE. Therefore, these factors can provide positive impact to the tourism sector in UAE.

To analyze different dimensions of cultural diversity and consider various marketing strategies and its effect on the hospitality and tourism sector

However, it is prove to be difficult task for the company. Besides that, there are also absences of websites; social media and digital platform in the UAE that become an issue for the company in terms to provide collect the information about target customers. In order to manage the cultural diversity, there are various strategies that marketers need to adopt such as they need to develop the products as per the different culture requirement by adding some feature of their culture. It is because local customer able to relate with product and it influences their buying decision. In addition to this, United Arab Emirates can develop the websites that includes fun games and these all are need to adopt as per the cultural specificity of consumers. Such ways helps the airlines industry to successfully attract the local people of UAE. Therefore, these factors can provide positive impact to the tourism sector in UAE. In this perspective, this study has recommended the ways which will remain quite supportive to handle the cultural diversity while utilizing effective marketing strategies.

To evaluate the link between cultural diversity and marketing strategies within tourism industry

This research has supported to understand that there is a strong relationship between cultural diversity and marketing strategies within tourism industry. In like manner, it is analysed that to address the different needs of the local people, there is a need to understand the cultural diversity and then tourism firm needs to prepare the marketing strategy. In this perspective, this study has enabled to identify the cultural diversity especially in context of UAE. It will remain supportive to focus towards all these parameters while dealing in UAE.

To discuss the factors that affects the tourism sector in the UAE

To achieve this research objective, researcher has given consideration towards analysing the primary as well as secondary findings while correlating them with each other. In this context, this study has supported to conclude that the issues which majorly arises in UAE, in the context of tourism is cultural diversity as there is different perception, viewpoint and different culture background of the individual that guides their purchasing decision. Since, people in UAE are more religious and cultural oriented, they relate each product towards their culture. So for the companies to understand the mindset of the local customers in UAE is quite tedious task. For instances, traditional people of UAE more prefer to spend on the movie halls rather than on pubs and clubs while young generation in UAE country like to spend on clubs and drinks etc.

To critically analyze the marketing issues in the tourism sector

Literature review of the study has supported to critically analyse the marketing issues related to tourism industry. In like manner, the views of respondents, which are collected from primary data has enabled the researcher to understand this perspective from various point of views. It has enabled to achieve this parameter while creating correlation between the findings.

It has supported to achieve the research objectives at a greater extent and has enabled to answer research questions in an effective manner.

5.2 Recommendations

On the basis of above study, it is recommended that UAE tourism or hotel industry should need to develop their respective website through developing the relevant content which highlights their culture background. On the other side, it is also recommended that especially hotel industries should tries to focus on the young age population in the UAE as the young-aged people are more follow or consider less culture as compare to old population. Such practices make easy for the hotel industry to grab new the young market by catering them the innovative services.

Furthermore, firms should also incorporate the culturally specific messages in the websites through including the images and visually presentation of the products. Because of all these activities assist the company to building trust of the customer and able to make customer loyal towards their brand. Moreover, it is also suggested that marketers should conduct the market research through using the survey method as this sources is proved to be useful because it provides the live response of the respondents. So, the chances of collecting the false or biase facts are less. Therefore, all such recommendation will aid the marketers to properly develop the marketing strategy in the UAE market and achieve high customer satisfaction.

5.3 Research Limitations and Future Implications

In this research paper, researcher has taken small sample size which has narrowed the research outcome. Moreover, in the sample, researcher has only involved the managers, which has decreased the affectivity of the research. In like manner, researcher has only included close ended questions. So, in this context, there is an opportunity for the future researcher to focus towards all these parameters to develop more effective research outcome.Apart from this, this study was conducted in limited period of time as there is need to consider longer period to concentrate on malls and theme park for future researches to make the results more conclusive. Additionally, this research study can be implied for academic as well as managerial perspectives as it will support to offer in-depth knowledge regarding cultural diversity, especially in the context of UAE which will remain supportive to develop effective strategy before entering in the market. In like manner, students can use this strategy to get understanding regarding the cultural issues in the context of consumer buying behaviour.

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Appendices

Questionnaires

Questionnaires for managers of different hotels and analysing their perceptive on consumer cultural diversity & its impact on their firms operations and functions:-

Do you think that cultural diversity is becoming a major issue to formulate the marketing strategy?

  • Yes
  • No

 “There is significant impact of cultural diversity on consumer behaviour”? Do you

  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree

Provide your concern about issues that face by firm due to cultural diversity in the marketing strategy. List the below mention issue:-

(1. Strongly Agree 2 Agree 3.Neutral 4. Disagree 5. Strongly disagree)

  • Differences in perception
  • Consumer’s Religious attachments that leads to restrict the innovation in products
  • Less usage of digital platform in the UAE country
  • Language barriers
  • High differentiation in masculine and feminine while designing the marketing strategy

Provide your concern regarding the ways and the techniques that can be used by firms to manage the issues related to cultural diversity in the marketing strategy?

(1.Strongly Agree 2 Agree 3.Neutral 4. Disagree 5. Strongly disagree)

  • Conduct survey
  • Develop such content that support different culture
  • Include visuals and images of product
  • Target young age population
  • Develop social games that support the specific culture

 

Interview Questions

 

NAME OF INTERVIEWER:

NAME OF INTERVIEWEE:

PLACE OF INTERVIEW:

DATE OF INTERVIEW:

  1. What is your position in this firm/ department you working for?

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. What type of business does your firm runs?

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. What is the major issue that is faced by your firm while operating in diversified cultural consumers?

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. How do you prepare for these issues?

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. What type of marketing strategy do you use in UAE market for attracting the cultural diversified customer?

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. How do these strategies manifest themselves? /how do you achieve those strategies?

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Responses of the Respondents

Respondent 1

Taken 10 managers from the hotels in Abu Dhabi

  1. I am marketing manager
  2. I am working from last three years
  3. We are a hotel service and in this, we provide the different facilities for the customers such as rooms, restaurant, party, etc
  4. Identify the need of the customers is one of the major issues that we face in the business. It is because the need and the desire of the customers in the Dubai and the Abu Dhabi are quite different.
  5. We always try to use to identify the different culture norms and need of the customers that exists in the Arabians area and analysis the culture preference. It helps my firm to successfully operate the business and to formulate the marketing and business plan accordingly
  6. I use the culture management strategy to manage the business in the diversify culture and the customers base. It is because in this we organize or conduct some different ways and the programs related to management of the culture that helps me to successfully manage the business and to manage the issues related to the culture diversity
  7. I use the employees’ engagement way to successful implement the all strategies. It is because employees are the major assets of the firm and every decision taken by the firm are successfully implement through employees

Respondent 2

  1. I am senior marketing manager
  2. I am working here from last five years
  3. We are the service firm and provide the hotel service for the customers. As well as, to get the competitive advantages in the market we also provide customized service
  4. We operate the business in Dubai and the Abu Dhabi, there are different religious people Islamic, Arabian and Persian that affect the business operation of the firm. It is because there is high presence of the Muslim people in the Dubai and the Abu Dhabi and their taste and the preference regarding the use of services is different from the western and Asian culture of people
  5. We always try to use the new technology in our services such as making an effective web site, providing some family packs, fun zone, etc that help us to attract the customers and to overcome the challenges of diversity culture
  6. I use the motivational programs and create the content according to the culture of the people. The reason in this is that the use of motivation and the development of the content assist me to motivate the employees according to the existing culture
  7. I use the liberal policy way then mean I use the effective and liberal rules and regulations that make easy the firm to successfully manage the business and for effectively implement the all business and marketing strategy

Respondent 3

  1. I am here as a business development manager and handle the entire business operation
  2. I am working here Last 4 years
  3. Basically, we are the hotel service firm and additionally we also provide the some other facilities for the customers such as organize the party, restaurant, etc that assist us to get the competitive advantages
  4. I can say that high Muslim population is one of the major issues because I personally feel that Muslim people population is quite high in the Abu Dhabi and Dubai. Their preference regarding use the service such as drink, pubs, movie, etc. is also different form the western people that creates the issue for us to successfully manage the business
  5. We use the best and new techniques, offering different unique offers, etc are the best ways that can also be used by the firm to get the attention of the customers and to successfully manage the business in the diversity culture
  6. We use or make the marketing and business strategy according to the existing need of the customers and the market trend
  7. We try to identify the need of the customers and it is the only way that help the firm to get the competitive advantage and to successfully implement the all marketing strategies

Respondent 4

  1. I am here as a senior manager
  2. I am working here from last 6 years
  3. We are the service firm like Hotel and Restaurant and provide the service as per the need of the customers
  4. I think difference in the taste, preference, etc are the major issue for us to manage the business and to develop a good customer base
  5. Use new techniques, offering different unique offers, etc are the best ways that we use to get the attention of the customers and to successfully manage the business in the diversity culture
  6. We make effective and competitive marketing strategy according to the need of the customers
  7. Employees’ engagement, effective policy implementation, good working environment, etc are the major ways that we use for successfully implementation of the marketing strategy

Respondent 5

  1. I am here as a senior sales manager
  2. I am working here from last 2.5 years
  3. Our business is directly related to the service industry we are a big and leading hotel group
  4. Basally, there are different issues that are faced by us in the business but at the same time, difference in the culture is one of the major issues that create the big business issue for the firm
  5. We always try to use to identify the different culture norms and need of the customers that exists in the recent market
  6. I use the motivational programs and create the content according to the culture of the people
  7. We try to increase the involvement of the employees that is quite necessary for the firm to successful manage the all business strategy

Respondent 6

  1. I am a marketing manager
  2. I am here from last 4 years
  3. We are a hotel firm and to get the competitive advantages in the market we also provide customized service
  4. We operate the business in Dubai and the Abu Dhabi, there are different religious people Islamic, Arabian and Persian that affect the business operation of the firm. It is because there is high presence of the Muslim people in the Dubai and the Abu Dhabi and their taste and the preference regarding the use of services is different from the western and Asian culture of people
  5. We always try to use the new technology in our services such as making an effective web site, providing some family packs, fun zone, etc that help us to attract the customers and to overcome the challenges of diversity culture
  6. I use the motivational programs and create the content according to the culture of the people. The reason in this is that the use of motivation and the development of the content assist me to motivate the employees according to the existing culture
  7. I use the liberal policy way then mean I use the effective and liberal rules and regulations that make easy the firm to successfully manage the business and for effectively implement the all business and marketing strategy.

Respondent 7

  1. My post is business development manager
  2. I am working from last 6 years
  3. We are operating our business in hospitality sector and for this, we have different hotels and restaurant
  4. Changing view of the customers and the need of the customers are the major issues that are face by us in our business and affect the business of my firm
  5. Make a better plan, employees’ engagement, etc are the best and effective ways that are used by the firm and help us to manage the issues and the challenges
  6. Use of economical marketing strategy, use of new technology, etc are the strategies that are used by us to manage the issues
  7. Good working environment, employees’ engagement, motivation, culture diversity programs, etc are the major approaches that are used by me and help to effectively implement the all business and marketing strategy

Respondent 8

  1. I am here as a manager of the firm
  2. I am working here from last 3 years
  3. We are the service firm i.e. Hotel and also provide the customized service for the customers
  4. I think difference in the preference and the couture in the Arabian and some other different countries people like Asian, Western, etc are the major issues in our business process or the progress
  5. Conducts some diversity management programs, I also prefer to use the survey for managing the business in the diversify culture. It is because it helps me to get the exact idea about the need of the customers and their preference regarding the service of the firm
  6. we organize or conduct some different ways and the programs related to management of the culture that helps me to successfully manage the business and to manage the issues related to the culture diversity
  7. I use the efficient and sensible rules and regulations that make easy the firm to successfully run the business and for effectively implement the all business and marketing strategy.

Respondent 9

  1. I am here as a senior sales and marketing manager
  2. I am working here from last 3.5 years
  3. We basically deals in the hotel service as well as we also have some motels and the restaurant
  4. High Muslim pollution and follow the Shaira law are the major issues that affect the business of the firm
  5. Conducts some diversity management programs, motivational programs, etc are the ways that I use to manage this issue
  6. I use the culture management strategy to manage the business in the diversify culture and the customers base. It is because in this we organize or conduct some different ways and the programs related to management of the culture that helps me to successfully manage the business and to manage the issues related to the culture diversity.
  7. I use the employees’ engagement way to successful implement the all strategies. It is because employees are the major assets of the firm and every decision taken by the firm are successfully implement through employees.

Respondent 10

  1. I am marketing Head
  2. I am working from last two years
  3. Our business is related to the service industry and we deal in hotel group
  4. High Muslim pollution, fear of people to visit the Arabian countries, local violence, etc are the major issue that creates the business hurdle for us.
  5. Use of modern technology, effective rules and the regulations, identify the different culture norms, etc are the major ways that are used by us to manage the issues.
  6. New technology adoption, providing some family packs, fun zone, etc in the hotel for the customers that assist me to manage the culture diversity issues.
  7. Use of effective policy, identify the need of the customers, good working environment, etc are the major ways that are used by us to manage the business.

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