A critical analysis on the technology adoption for converting the non-racism to anti-racism in social studies teacher education and to find how it will improve the quality of the educational system followed in the country racism
In this age of extreme advancement and technological changes, racial discrimination and race-related issues exist and also influence each and every social institution. And such a type of issue is becoming predominant and systematic over a decade. The prime cause behind this curse of society is improper behaviour, discourse and improper thinking ability of a certain individual. As a result of this, it emphasizes racial structures and also accepts varied types of indecent activities against racism thereby remaining inactive and silent towards it.
As a result, a small section of the society become more powerful and tries to work against the entire civilization that presents a positive impact. In regard to this, the concept of racial discrimination gears more strength and tries to create a barrier within the entire group of the humanity of the nation. Due to this, conflicts and divergence increase within the individual and therefore, the scenario becomes extremely disturbing for the entire class.
Thus, as per the statements of Gillborn, (2019), it can be mentioned that multicultural education is the most effective part of any educational institute. It helps to ignore any sort of racial discrimination and differences and harnessing equality among all. Doing so could prove effective and advantageous for not only social studies class also for the entire economy at large. Since education or knowledge is not embedded within whites or blacks but within the expert and proficient individuals.
According to the ideas of Fahd and Venkatraman (2019) racism includes not only economic but also spiritual, material and psychological consequences over the society. To restrict the effect of racism over the sectors of the economy, anti-racism is implemented that devised various strategies to resists and fight against the racial discriminations that deny human efficiency.
It also tries to challenge back the false statement of dominance as well as the unearned power of the whites. Apart from this, for the leaner of the current era, it is evident to understand the policies of anti-racism and this could be fruitful for the people in recent times. Considering this, it can be mentioned that anti-racism is the common area of concern for the educational people or learners and it could be helpful for the generation of this time.
The aim of the paper is to critically analyse the ways by which technology altered non-racism to anti-racism in the social studies teacher education field thereby improving the level of quality. Along with this, it also helped in gearing inventive beliefs, ideas and notions within the individual of the society.
A comprehensive assessment of the literature has been performed to obtain a detailed explanation of the essay report. A critical analysis of the literature review provides a summary of a particular issue or topic which is further researched, evaluated and synthesize the sources appropriate for the dissertation report. In the previous section different aspects of non-racism is introduced and the framework of non-racist involves disassociation with any racist individual or not influenced by an individual’s race.
Non-racism is a form of ideology that rejects racial practices in society but in the other case, anti-racism is a human practice to oppose racism in society and also promotes the practice of racial tolerance in many countries (Tanner, 2019). Anti-racist individual involves in the movements, beliefs and course of action that highly opposes racism. It is true that innovative technology draws a significant change in converting non-racist to anti-racist and brings out different beliefs in non-racist at the public horizon.
In the time of digital innovation, a tremendous increase in anti-racist movement and intellectual thoughts have taken place and this addresses the central issue of debates in different locations of the society. Social education may offer some change in racial discrimination and racial differences which flows from part of the society to the other part (Flintoff and Dowling, 2019). Hence, it can be remarked that the united effort of all the people of the economy is better for sustaining in the long run. Failure to do so can lead to the downfall of the nation in this economic disturbance and it could be shattered into pieces.
So, it is better to understand and acknowledge the needs and wants of the migrants as well as the natives to remain uniquely. Otherwise, it can result in a big problem for all the citizens of the regions and it could not regain its dominance and position in this ever-changing market again. So, the united hold is highly entertained in this scenario to remain alive.
In this research section, the current topic of discussion is to convert non-racism into anti-racism in the context of the social studies teacher learning system. This issue implies that the social studies education system is rooted in an environment of non-racist philosophy for many centuries, so non-racism behaviour like an extreme rejection of racism, non-racist ideology has a slight role to transform the collective ideology about the race system (Eckert, 2019).
The non-racist values can be explained as a radically non-liberal approach towards race and favour good ideologies, passive behaviours and all such acts that discards racism from the society. The concept of non-racism accepts the fact of colour blindness and neutralizes racialism which is the basics of non-prejudiced intentions and also assumes some ideas, policies related to racism are totally biased.
On the contrary, anti-racist believers actively reject the aspects of racial discrimination in any institutional organisation. Anti-racist learners directly address racism and give attention to the cognitive aspect. It is based on the framework that unless and until students recognize the basic characteristics of racial barriers, all resources of social studies related to anti-racial education will remain stuck to the educational institutions (Flintoff and Dowling, 2019).
It is good to resist racial practices in society but without proper calling for the complete abolishment of racism, non-racist becomes problematic. In other words, without a proper course of action non-racism creates an outcome that may lead to racist activities. Hence, the main purpose of this review is to simplify non-racist behaviour and encourage more anti-racist background in the social studies teacher learning system (Gillborn, 2019).
This literature review describes anti-racism as a critical knowledge and understanding that rejects common sense related to racial practices like ideologies that accepted racial norms, racial values believed in the society. This research review advised 4 principles in the education system which involves acknowledgement of real experiences of racism, rejecting false conception of racial differences, learning from different areas of facts and experiences and lastly, challenging aspect of social inequality in the society (Fahd and Venkatraman, 2019).
Anti-racism is a dynamic policy against racism that continuously seeking paths to abolish the racism practices within the education system and analysis the experiences of racism on common people. The literature research topic explains a new context of knowledge system that focuses on how social studies teacher learning program can offer a curriculum that includes a complete anti-racism ideology using racial pedagogical content knowledge that helps to understand several principles of anti-racism.
This RPCK method allows social studies teachers to construct a good and valuable education curriculum that provides basic racial understanding from the starting level of racism. The model of RPCK is based on the theoretical base of critical race theory (CRT) which suggests the social studies teachers and educators apply a code of belief of CRT in lectures of social studies that help to recognise the basic thing that race is naturally present in the social studies education system(Horton, 2019).
Therefore, it is concluded in this review part that the RPCK method is most important in the social studies education system and helps to identify the challenging aspects of human difference.
The new framework in social studies teaching education gives importance to developing questions and other planning enquires which help to analyse better the important social studies questions that particularly address race and racism in the different groups of society. Some of the anti-racist questions are:
- What is racism?
- How and when any person gets racial thoughts?
- How racism is understood in the social studies teacher education system?
- How did thoughts of race impact dissimilar groups of students in society?
- How do we obtain anti-racist aims or objectives?
- How racial theories did make an impact on top developing countries?
- How do teachers develop a curriculum which supports a healthy environment?
- How do social studies teachers teach about race?
- Should students study the impact of race and racism?
- When it is appropriate to teach the students about racial injustice?
- How do social studies teacher emphasise their students to adopt anti-racist ideology?
- From where do teachers get good resources of social studies study material that included racial practices?
- How racism can be critiqued and exposed in society?
Both non-racism and anti-racism have different fundamental objectives and practices that lead to different perceptions of race and racism in the environment of social studies learning practices (Eckert, 2019). The aim of this essay is to provide a critical framework about the different chains of anti-racism in the world and give them a shape of strong action in the context of digital technology.
The objective of multicultural education is to develop satisfaction in historical heritage, abilities to recognize the difference between non-racism and anti-racism, judging people on inner attributes rather than outer and also accepting dissimilar ways of living which is totally valid for every group in the society. The key objective of the social studies teacher education is to fill the bridge between diverse cultures, ethics, ideology and socioeconomic structure of the society (Flintoff and Dowling, 2019).
This section also discusses the importance of anti-racism background in teaching education which is unpinned by various social justice philosophy that aims to accomplish the goals set among social studies teachers about the problem of racism, gender, class and colour. The purpose of anti-racist education is mainly influenced by cultural and historical, local and national aspects which strongly suggest reducing the different strategies of racial practices in the community.
The main objective of the anti-racist social studies teacher is to correct the steps which promote social studies’ public goals of the society (Bradbury, 2020). Therefore, if the social studies teachers aim to establish a society that is able to discuss racial issues more effectively and understands them it is the utmost necessity for the fellow students who become the future of the society. The other objectives of non-racist and anti-racist in social studies teaching backgrounds are
- Examining and understanding the historical and rational roots of racial practices
- Identifying the business in social study learning materials
- Better dealing with racial conflicts and disagreement
- Identifying the major difference between non-racism and anti-racism objectives that helps to convert anti-racist ideology
- Develop new approaches, assessing hidden chapters in the social studies curriculum that supports knowledge and expertise to implement equality programs in the education system.
- The purpose of anti-racism in social studies teacher education is to deal with the institutional racial practices that consist within structural and the educational system.
This section describes that how racism is spread throughout the educational system and identifies the effects of racial observation in social studies teaching practices (Hawkman, 2020). The first findings of this section are the racial prejudice persists in the teacher’s education system and the second findings are the location of racial discrimination in education which should be removed gradually by increasing focus on anti-racist non-liberal approach towards any false concept of human differences in the society.
The well-known researchers in social studies propose the use of (RPCK) racial pedagogical content knowledge method in social studies learning system in order to promote the pace of non-racism and goes on the path of pedagogical ideology.
This topic is very argumentative because the social studies education field has always promoted and accepted a collective discourse for non-racism but sometimes favours the other concepts of racism that involve prejudice and acting as a mask of power for institutional racism.
Such a type of approach by the social educational system is totally unacceptable and leads to non-performance of the RPCK method. In the absence of a proper racial pedagogical content knowledge method, the present thinking mode of the teaching education system does not support racial awareness among students and do not serve the teacher’s ability to educate about the race in a more authenticate or meaningful way.
The lack of knowledge of social studies teachers on racism hinders the path of racial learning and teaching in social studies. Due to the absence of proper implementation of RPCK, the current thinking pattern about race in the teacher education system will not serve students better towards awareness on non-racism and authentic ways to adopt anti-racism in the education system (Horton, 2019).
The culture national council for the studies social studies (NCSS) is the excellence body that helps teachers to achieve their goal of implementing valuable social ideas that do not consider any gender, religion, class or ethnicity and know only one expression that is culture is a general practice (Escayg and Daniel, 2019).
Therefore, this social body emphasis on implying commonsense among teachers enacted some philosophical traits in the classroom lectures, race proof phenomena adopted and more importantly protects non-racial ideology for future prospective. Along with this, education acts as great support for the young individual to generate interrogative voices to present social oppressions.
It is done in order to make the legal systems of the nations aware of the curse of racism and to provoke them to develop varied types of policies, collective activities, regulations etc to safeguard the country. Fahd and Venkatraman (2019) depicted that, failure to implement such types of educational thinkings could prove extremely troublesome, as it can disturb human sociability. It is also challenged that racism is a continuous human spirit and is entirely linked with colonialism.
Since it rests in one another and creates an inferior structure within the society. Thus, in order to reduce any sort of negative effects, anti-racism education is introduced. It is used to restrore basic humanity within the society so as to maintain uniformity.
The western education system is highly influenced by the moderate interpretation of various human rights practices and in recent years the human rights becomes the central aspect for many educational institutions (Tanner, 2019). The educationists of social studies background strongly recommend and promote anti-racist culture for social studies learning system which actively opposes every organizational and institutional racism practices.
It suggests a proper social study learning programme which not only deals with the expansion of non-racism policy but also uses anti-racist ideology that understands the historical nature of racism. Such researchers give importance to non-discrimination rules and regulations in the education environment so that non –discrimination and equal rights practices should be implemented in social studies teachers education system.
This literature review suggests a social studies teacher education scheme that deals with not only non-racist views but also with the anti-racist understanding of structural and historical racial practices (Bradbury, 2020). The research writing on anti-racist education suggests a variety of research questions that need to be answered properly by educationists so that the problem of racism in the education system must be investigated in a proper manner. In a survey it is found that racial equality is already implemented in the schools and incorporated small pupil –groups’ analysis to investigate on school level equality model (Fahd and Venkatraman, 2019).
In order to examine race equality in the social studies teaching system closer involvement with the council of social studies is important and discuss on the further opportunities to minimise the barriers of racial discrimination in the education system. Other recommendations for teachers to improve the social studies teaching environment are:
- Inclusion of the concept of racial equality in the curriculum of social studies
- Involving local resources like writings of local black or ethnic writers and history of any local industrialisation must be included in the course matter
- Race-related activities must be evaluated on regular basis especially in the schools
- A review audit of all staff, teachers must be conducted to reflect improved circumstances and be ready to face new challenges in the context of racial discrimination
- Effective analysis of education management provides good results for the attainment of lectures on anti-racism.
Thus, it can be commented that racial discrimination seems to be very absurd but it had its roots within each and every point of society. As per the views of Escayg and Daniel, (2019) race means a specific community that is deprived mainly due to the presence of deep black or brown colour. So, in spite of having high knowledge, talents and inner qualities, accurate opportunities and posts are not at all offered to them.
Antiracism is a source of education that tries to reduce the negative barriers from the minds of the whites. And it helped to engage the people of varied races and social differences as an integral part of education, advancement and development. Eventually, Portelli and Vibert, (2001) mentioned anti-racism as an action-oriented practice to reduce racism as well as interstices of disparity. So, it can be said that any sort of education that sweeps race just below under the carpet is a sort of miseducation of the teacher.
Hence, the race is described as an identity that includes political merits as well as substantial consequences and profound impacts. Due to this, the race offers varied types of changes in the life of the individual. After examining these statements, it can be denoted that race is neither a fantasy nor a myth. But, it is a real and actual fact that is present in every point of racism and is embedded in every field of society and structures.
Thus, it can be agreed that race is a subjective identity that includes natural and scientific knowledge and it can be used for future prospects.
Racism is not only a challenge but also a darkness that is restricting the path to success. To reduce such types of issues, global anti-racism training programs are implemented that enhances the inner level of knowledge of the learners. This acted as a source to identify and understand varied types of questions regarding racism and its influences.
Along with this, in order to reduce the negative effects of racism, the educators of the current scenario try to assist and understand the various complexities of society. Effective communication is presented among the communities so as to maintain mutual trust and coordination among all. This is done in order to sustain the community and living aspects of the human beings in the entire globe (Portelli and Vibert, 2001).
As a result of this, social rights and responsibilities are introduced within people of all races and colours. Similarly, anti-racism is also implemented to minimise the issues related to race, gender, class, sex, creed, ethnicity, language etc. To comprehend such types of barriers, education acts as a basic requirement. Since it helps to impose critical consciousness and responsibility among the individual to deal with such types of problems in an effective way.
Hence, with the help of education and training programs, the disturbances related to racism can be mitigated and this increases the coordination and collaboration among people of all ages and creeds. For example in varied regions such as United States, China, Cuba, Iran etc all tried to utilise the training modules of advanced techniques of varied types that assisted in reducing the issue.
It not only broadened the mentality of the human beings of those regions but also increased the projection of the economy. The range of improvements within the nations also boosted that acted as a boon that amplified the total economic condition. The gross domestic profit and the net income of the economy also amplified with the use of the brains of both whites and blacks.
Therefore, it can be understood that with the use of technical training and educational programs, the mentality of the citizens can be altered. So, the Negros and blacks attained the facility to read and write along with the whites without any sort of inequity (Escayg and Daniel, 2019).
For this reason, it can be observed that education is the only weapon that can be used to improve the level of responsiveness towards society and its development. Despite of the support of the blacks, a nation cannot flourish and thus its up-gradation is the prime obligation of any state. So, it is better to remain in a united manner rather than maintaining conflicts as it could lead to its growth (Portelli and Solomon, 2001).
Discrimination or business on basis of race is one of the most common aspects visualised from ancient times. Although most people in the recent age, believe that racism no longer exists in reality, it is entirely a wrong prediction. Since, in each and every aspect of the society, like education, profession, school college etc includes the issue of racism. Despite the implementation of a wide range of techniques, numerous individuals became unable to remove the problem of racism from antiracism.
For example: In the economy of Australia, racial discrimination can be identified against the indigenous Australians in the sector of education. The blacks are not at all allowed to attend the colleges and institutions of Australia as these are entirely reserved for the native Australians. In spite of including good percentages, numerous students are not allowed to attain admission within those colleges and hence they are widely deprived. Hence, the blacks are not at all allowed to attain high ended education.
Other than this, in China also discrimination regarding disabilities are discriminated against from the high-end education. As a result of which, wide range experts are failed to attain higher educational degrees, Hence the report of 2013 depicts that human right is equal for all sort of citizens despite any sort of disabilities.
Other than this, racial colour is not also a cause of discrimination for the students residing in the region of China. This report or law proved effective for the residents thereby attempting an idea for higher education (Peters et al, 2008)
Apart from this, in Canada, a wide range of Chinese are deprived of social studies education or institutional education. Therefore it created a very distressful situation for the Chinese people and it lowered their area of prospects. In regard to this, a very distressful situation aroused in that economy and so the normal condition of the nation entirely shattered into pieces.
Hence, laws are enforced so as to reduce any sort of racial discrimination. Along with this, equality is introduced within the nation of Canada so as to maintain justice and unity in every sphere of life. Not only education but also unity is enforced in professional departments, institutions, courts etc. These laws acted as a standpoint for the development of the nation in this competitive scenario as compared to many other rival nations.
In addition to this, racial discrimination is witnessed in diverse parts of Cuba. Since it is a multicultural society so the intensity of discrimination is quite higher in this nation as compared to many others. The education system of Cuba is suffering from racial discrimination and it is mainly from Afro-Cubans. These Afro-Cubans are the natives of the black African community and so they are entirely restricted from any sort of educational benefits.
This created a situation of disturbance within the economy and hence the scenario of riot took place. Due to this, the entire economic development of the nation lowered and the level of poverty boosted significantly. Hence, to control such types of situations, varied types of laws and regulations are introduced and then the issue of racism is reduced. Therefore, numerous racial discriminators altered into anti-racist and this helped the nation in its growth and development in the future scenario (Omi and Winant, 1993).
Additionally, another nation, where racism is witnessed is the United States. Educational discrimination is not only performed by a single individual but also by the bid institutions as well. The teacher responsible for the teaching offers higher advantages to the American natives rather than the migrants. As a result of which there arises vast discrimination and the blacks fail to attain higher marks in the class even of making correct sums or assignments. Moreover, the students including higher income status are also offered higher attention rather than others.
This shows that the teachers are extremely partial in their teaching habits and eventually provoke the issue of racism among the students. In lieu of this statement, Mundy and Manion (2008) figured that day to day conversation stating real-life examples proved effective in reducing racial injustice. The coordination among the black, white students and the teacher in social education classes enacted justice and equality among all.
Through these conversations, varied types of misconceptions and untruths, as well as discriminations, can be easily mitigated. This became possible only by effective discussion among people of diverse colour among others. By doing so, the students of white colour may become able to understand and be aware of the people of blacks.
As a result of which the rate of discrimination lowers within the minds of the whites and a very effective situation can be created. Hence, it proved quite worthy (Kaye, 1992).
Thus, in most of the places in the current situation, varied types of training programs are introduced specifying the importance of blacks within the society. And the ways by which, it can enhance the society of the economy. This means that with the use of the knowledge and talent of numerous blacks, technological advancement can be easily welcomed.
Moreover, combined efforts of both black and white proved effective in augmenting varied types of inventive products and services. This could be useful in resolving the changing requirements of the target customers that could increase the total sales of the companies. And with the use of the brains of both white and black people, the economic condition can be boosted in a considerable manner.
Furthermore, in the case of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the education system is mainly retained for the male generation of the nation rather than both. At the same time, racial discrimination is also viewed as it does not prefer the whites within their community. Hence, a very strong rejection is presented over the whites and so very high distress in lieu of colour arouse in the economy.
With the help of advanced techniques such as guidance and presentations, the negative effects of discrimination can be shown. As a result of which, the issue of racism slowly and gradually changed to anti-racism and this approach confirmed quite advantageous.
Racism and its effects on education
Education is a means to eliminate and retain inequality. Because it can serve two different purposes, it can have different results. Education can strengthen or reduce inequality. An effective government strategy to alleviate the shortage, for example, is “the family’s social, cultural and economic position is so educational that the gun is so expensive that any child can escape”.
Display the choices you’ve made by depicting variety as irreversible inequality. The ban on global inequality has been achieved, but the responsibility to eradicate greed is not one. Some of the compulsions are accepted by the government, others reject it and – where obtained – effectively in various ways. With the goal of enjoying human rights, the obligation extends beyond the personal and structural level and will certainly create controversy (Golmohamad, 2018).
Strategies intended to eliminate caste discrimination in education are an exception rather than a universal rule. Several countries have seen competition across statistics. In fact, many have moved away from this national expectation that this will never happen again, but never will. Optimization that makes a country irrelevant to statistics will make it socially and politically irrelevant, but meaningless.
However, the prerequisites for statistical observation strategies for the elimination of racial discrimination on the basis of caste, creed, caste or creed are not yet part of the statistics of international comparative education. This reflects the continuing ‘denial’ in many countries, which rejects the principles of eliminating caste discrimination.
The reality of the right to education is a continuous process (Fanon, 2014). Progress can be illustrated by two overlapping and wide central circles, the first showing the growing number of people excluded before education and the second showing the expansion of the right to education and the gradual transformation of rights-based education.
Human rights compensation policy requires continuity of education with human rights demands. Thus, government rights obligations include education, access, acceptance, and adaptation. Access to education is not just a right to education. However, in order to achieve all human rights through education, it requires individual rights related to education, protection of human rights, education and ‘mechanization of education. In the previous section, there have been four stages of increasing educational rights.
The first victory over institutional exclusion and formal education was an important feature of pre-human-education law and an important feature of colonial colonialism regarding racial exclusion. The second stage involves the first step in spreading isolated educational institutions.
The third involves the transition from the integration of education to a transition to integration, a process that is slowly restoring human rights in education and in classes that are not included through education. Fourth, the promotion, adaptation and ‘mechanization of equal rights education for all diverse students’ through education at the most challenging level (Delgado and Stefancic, 2012).
Besides that, recognition of first education as a right does not necessarily imply a guarantee of rights. Race and sexuality often do not include criteria in domestic law. Today, citizens are often unclear and the omission of tribal or logical profiles is often a matter of deep concern, even if not recorded or observed.
Registered domestic workers or children may be explicitly excluded, especially in the documents required for school registration. Whether or not racist profiling is ethnically profiled is not officially recorded or statistically observed, so it does not inform study strategies.
Conclusively, it should be noted again that the often significant results of anti-apartheid strategies are so low that there is no way to express the long-term benefits of participating in the antiracist training. Moreover, this is not shocking that the small volume of research that has been completed as well as has not always seen long-term results.
Along with that, prejudice reduction programs attention to the individual and often ignore serious power related issues. Therefore, racism has the potential to be addressed from different angles. Sensitive differences are important in anti-apartheid strategies, as discussed earlier. But social structures that affect sensitive factors are also important.
Also, considering that socio-economic variants such as education are often associated with superstition, the move requires not only grassroots individuals, but also individuals with the ability to address issues such as education. Research shows that anti-caste tactics can further strengthen the similarities between cultural groups.
Especially after the sandblasts in the bombings, where different cultures are repeated in the media, the Australian public should enjoy interacting with a group of marginalization, and it is more difficult for it to present itself as a member of an exotic species. Having said that, it is important to avoid merging all cultural groups, so these should make them “all the same” in the coming time. Some hostile attitudes towards people who want to treat all people in Australia. The difference between “equality” and “justice” is uncertain.
When applying anti-racism tactics, it is important to note that it would not be fair to treat all people the same, except on the playing field. Thus, it seems necessary to strike a balance between “difference” and “unity”. In conclusion, it is clear that more research, especially long-term research, is needed before a definitive answer to this dilemma can be found, although lessons learned from international strategies have specific topics to explore in Australia.
When applying sincere strategies, it is important to examine what appears in the larger context. The concentration of many cultures before 1920 and the practice of influence, including inequality and segregation, changed at the turn of the century. Moreover, issues related to racism in one context may not be the same in another. I have said before that the nature of racism varies with fluidity and time and context.
In short, there is no easy solution to the issues of racism, discrimination, and prejudice. If anything, it will be discovered now. The first demand is that no change strategy will succeed without significant political determination. Besides, this is not clear whether every person wants to decrease racism and prejudice, or whether it will be considered a substantial investment in community resources and time.
In fact, it may be contended that a significant portion of society has benefited from today’s tensions and parties. If some part of the community has lost what it believes or believes it has lost, there will be an attempt to reduce prejudice and racism. The second principle is to give moral advice that it is better not to work for each other; Originally three times the group-specific group was not tried to be described as ‘different but great, especially the climate in conventional Australia, who have seen population divisions in recent years that matter as important as mainland titles, refuge and terrorism.
Fourth, the strategies that can be used successfully include social, structural, and political change. The fifth attempt to reduce prejudice and racism has very few similarities. These efforts can generally be drawn to meet local needs and should focus on specific issues and specific sub-populations. The best intervention for the lower class may not be the best in the workplace; Sixth, no strategy should expect immediate results.
Superstition and racism did not go away. Along with that, they will not immediately disappear from the community discussion. In addition, the strategies must address varied aspects of racism and prejudice separately in a continuous program. While attitudes do not have a direct and strong effect on behaviour, it is important to address them as pioneers in trying to identify fundamental structural or structural changes. The current report will address all of these issues.
Flintoff, A. and Dowling, F., 2019. ‘I just treat them all the same, really’: teachers, whiteness and (anti) racism in physical education. Sport, Education and Society, 24(2), pp.121-133.
Fahd, K. and Venkatraman, S., 2019. Racial Inclusion in Education: An Australian Context. Economies, 7(2), p.27.
Tanner, S.J., 2019. Whiteness is a white problem: Whiteness in English Education. English Education, 51(2), pp.182-199.
Gillborn, D., 2019. Hiding in Plain Sight: Understanding and Addressing Whiteness and Color-Blind Ideology in Education. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 55(3), pp.112-117.
Bartz, D.E. and Kritsonis, W.A., 2019. Racism, the White Power Structure, and the Tragic History of the Education of African American Children in the United States.
Escayg, K.A. and Daniel, B.J.J., 2019. Introduction: Children, Race, and Racism: Global Perspectives. Journal of Curriculum, Teaching, Learning and Leadership in Education, 4(2), p.1.
Eckert, C.L., 2019. Asian American Teachers in Predominantly White Education Systems.
Hawkman, A.M., 2020. Swimming in and through whiteness: Antiracism in social studies teacher education. Theory & Research in Social Education, pp.1-28.
Dryden-Peterson, S., Adelman, E., Bellino, M.J. and Chopra, V., 2019. The Purposes of Refugee Education: Policy and Practice of Including Refugees in National Education Systems. Sociology of Education, 92(4), pp.346-366.
Ukpokodu, O.N., 2020. Marginalization of Social Studies Teacher Preparation for Global Competence and Global Perspectives Pedagogy: A Call for Change. Journal of International Social Studies, 10(1), pp.3-34.
Meghji, A., 2019. Contesting racism: how do the black middle-class use cultural consumption for anti-racism?. Identities, pp.1-19.
Horton, M., 2019. Working Against Racism From White Subject Positions: White Anti-Racism, New Abolitionism & Intersectional Anti-White Irish Diasporic Nationalism (Doctoral dissertation, UC Berkeley).
Delgado, R., and Stefancic, J. (2012). Critical race theory: An introduction. New York: NYU Stefancic, J. (2012). Critical race theory: An introduction. New York: NYU Press.
Fanon, F. (2014). Black skin, white masks. New York, NY: Grove Press.
Golmohamad, M. (2018). Global citizenship: From theory to practice, unlocking hearts and minds. In M. A. Peters, A. Britton, & H. Blee (Eds.), Global citizenship education: Philosophy, theory and pedagogy (pp. 519-533). Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense Publishers
Kaye, H. J. (1992). Education and democracy: Should the fact that we live in a democratic society make a difference in what our schools are like? In J. L. Kincheloe & S. R. Steinberg (Eds.), Thirteen questions: Reframing education’s conversation (pp. 125-134). New York, NY: Peter Lang.
Mundy, K., and Stefancic, J. (2012). Critical race theory: An introduction. New York: NYU Manion, C. (2008). Global education in Canadian elementary schools: An exploratory study. Canadian Journal of Education, 31(4), 941-974.
Omi, M., and Stefancic, J. (2012). Critical race theory: An introduction. New York: NYU Winant, H. (1993). On the theoretical concept of race. In C. McCarthy & W. Crichlow (Eds.), Race identity and representation in education (pp. 3-10). New York, NY: Routledge.
Peters, M. A., Britton, A., and Stefancic, J. (2012). Critical race theory: An introduction. New York: NYU Blee, H. (Eds.). (2008). Global citizenship education: Philosophy, theory and pedagogy. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
Portelli, J. P., and Stefancic, J. (2012). Critical race theory: An introduction. New York: NYU Solomon, R. P. (2001). Introduction. In J. P. Portelli & R. P. Solomon (Eds.), The erosion of democracy in education: From critique to possibilities (pp. 15-28). Calgary, AB: Detselig Enterprises, Ltd.
Portelli, J. P., and Stefancic, J. (2012). Critical race theory: An introduction. New York: NYU Vibert, A. B. (2001). Beyond common educational standards: Towards a curriculum of life. In J. P. Portelli & R. P. Solomon (Eds.), The erosion of democracy in education: From critique to possibilities (pp. 63-82). Calgary, AB: Detselig Enterprises, Ltd.
Academic Research Writing Arm of Global Research Services.