ANALYSIS OF LEADERSHIP STYLES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTES
Leadership is required in every front so that the people can effectively manage their resources in order to achieve the desired results or output. It becomes a more vital prospect whenever educational institutes are considered. Hence, the leadership style of the leaders plays an important role in the upkeep of social justice in educational institutes. The social justice leadership in the educational institutes requires a notion of belief that all the students irrespective of their background shall be able to get equitable learning from these educational institutes. These institutes shall specify each and every social injustice practice and their outcomes that might occur within the educational premises(Zembylas and Iasonos, 2017). The social leaders with their leadership skills shall not look into serving only a definite social group of students but shall address all the learning needs of these students.The social leadership clarifies that how the social prospects of the society such as religion, caste, creed, race, and income shall be addressed so that the design of the educational system can be drafted.
The context of leadership for social injustices in the educational institutes refers to the ideas and areas that must be followed and looked upon while delivering the best facilities to the students in the form of education regarding various fields. The leaders shall decide on the fields that must be followed for delivering the educational requirements. Such leadership traits for the educational institutes are dependent on the various social prospects such as teachers from various social groups, students from different social backgrounds, and the attitude of the parents towards their wards(Zembylas and Iasonos, 2017). It plays a vital role when the graduate level educational prospects are considered. However, inclusion within the educational institutescalls for some of the special programs for the students who require special needs in the form of social learning. This will allow the students to have a better mix with the other students and enhance the level of interaction within them.
The organization which has been chosen for this research is the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), India, and is headquartered in New Delhi. NCERT has been the main governing body for the government in order to formulate the policies and regulations for the Central and State government educational institutes so that the quality education is provided to all the students at different educational levels (Ncert.nic.in, 2020). This organization does not carry out any sort of partiality within any social group of the educational institutes. These policies and regulations for quality education at different levels play a vital role in the upkeep of students from various social groups. This organization has continuously tried and carried out research in the fields of school education, prepare the models, textbooks, and learning syllabus for various educational and training institutes. They have also tried to research in the fields of bilateral cultural programs for the enhancement of social and economic prospects of the students.
The NCERT has been an autonomous organization carrying out all the processes of drafting the policies and regulations which would govern the educational standards of the country. However, the prospects of social learnings within these educational institutes have been inclusive. Hence, the need for delivering social learning within these educational institutes becomes one of the prime objectives of NCERT. The communities it serves have a varied cultural and social prospect to follow and hence, NCERT has to include the policies and syllabus for the institutes while having these things in mind (Ncert.nic.in, 2020). For the social learning and social justices to be followed, it has set a number of governing bodies that will ensure that some of the policies in the protocol book of NCERT are amended according to the community-based roots. The students at different educational levels are from various social backgrounds and hence, these major constituents play a major role in the inclusion processes of education.
Figure 1: Management structure of NCERT
The Union Minister of the HR department is the head of the entire governing body of NCERT. The MHRD consists of the education ministers from all the states who take part in the policy-making processes. NCERT has an executive body that acts as the main governing body and is being headed by the Union Minister of HRD (Ncert.nic.in, 2020). This executive committee is being handled by various committees such as the Financial or the treasury committee, Managing committees of all the regional institutes, Academic committee of the NIE, Educational Research and Innovations Committee, and many more.
Leadership plays a vital role while managing the resources of an educational institute. The drafting of policies and regulation have to be made in accordance with the social backgrounds of the students, teachers, and other associated staffs of the educational institute. The problem with the leadership and management skills in an educational institute is regarding the ability of the leadership style to fulfill the inclusive prospects in education. It creates a great problem when some of the students from different social groups are not able to interact with the students of other cultural backgrounds(Truong and Hallinger, 2017). The problem becomes more major when higher educational systems are considered. Moreover, it can be seen that the young female population of the country faces a major issue when it comes to the prospects of higher education. The problem also occurs when the leaders and professors draft the textbooks and assignments of the students. Many a time, it can be seen that social injustices are often becoming a part of these textbooks which creates a sense of conflict within the students and professors.
- What kind of leadership is required to curb social injustices from the educational institutes?
- How shall these leadership styles be implemented in educational organizations?
- What are the benefits of these leadership styles in the educational institutes?
- What are the requirements of the policies and regulations regarding these leadership styles?
- What will be the structure of the leadership style?
- What are the issues that could occur while practicing such leadership qualities in educational institutes?
- What are the other alternative leadership approaches that could be inherited for a better educational system at educational institutes?
Leadership qualities have a tendency to face a lot of issues and challenges while executing the plans and decisions as per the requirements of the hour. Such challenges might sometime disrupt the all-around developing ability of the leadership trait. Such issues shall be identified at the earliest. The leaders shall implement a set of plans so that these issues are tackled with great care and are curbed at the earliest. Such issues are given as follows:
- Leading a team: Leadership often becomes a difficult task when the individuals of the team are from different social and cultural backgrounds. Educational systems are where this is more likely to happen because the system is having a lot of students, professors, and other associated staffs from various cultural backgrounds(Truong and Hallinger, 2017). Hence, it becomes a tough task while framing the policies and syllabus for the students.
- Guiding the requirement for acquiring changes: The need for changes in the educational system is the modern trend because of digital learning and other prospects. Hence, it becomes a difficult job in deciding the changing prospects and what all things must be imposed in the new syllabus for the students(Truong and Hallinger, 2017).
- Managing the sponsors and other stakeholders: The stakeholders and sponsors of an educational institute plays a vital role in funding the activities and other associated programs.Hence, identifying the stakeholders and sponsors is a difficult task.
The leadership qualities are required to fulfill the desired results as desired in a meeting of the managers and other associated executives. The managers and other associated executives are responsible for drafting the policies and regulations of the educational institutes. This shall be carried out while having the thoughts of social groups in the mindset. They must have a notion that the students and professors in all the educational institutes are from a different cultural background(Truong and Hallinger, 2017). Hence, the rules and policies shall not disturb or hurt the feelings of any specific community. The syllabus of the students at various educational levels shall be given great care. Along with this, the leadership qualities shall be capable enough of conducting various social exhibitions and programs so that the inclusion in the education is met and all the students from various social backgrounds are able to interact with each other. The objective of having a quality leadership trait is to have the proper welfare of the students at various educational levels and curb out the issues of social injustices within the educational institutes.
For educational purposes, recent studies reveal that district-level leadership is the key to success for reforming the initiatives taken at the school levels. With gradual development and changing perspectives of the people, the educational system requires amendments, in order to instill the pupils with social values (Shields, 2018). If the past experiences are considered, experts believe that in the absence of central office support, the efforts to bring in reforms will eventually fade away, and collapse. Strong district leadership is the need of the hour, bit research on effective leadership strategies remain to be extremely limited.
Figure 2: Instructional Leadership
To form a perfect structure of leadership, that helps to address the social concerns among the students, instructional leadership must be the way forward. It is an effective way of establishing the perspectives of the students (Shields, 2018). There is an administrator who must prioritize the learning of the students. Such a structure can be effective in inculcating students about social justice and inclusion.
It is generally considered as the management of curriculum and instructions by a principal. Such a term was first coined during the 1980s, while the effective school movement began. The principal plays a significant role in making the students aware of social justice and inclusion. When it comes to the approach to such a structure of leadership, it can well possibly be divided into an exclusive and inclusive approach. The people who consider the exclusive approach to such a system, regard the principal as the person solely responsible for the activities that the educational institutions account for (Zembylas and Iasonos, 2017). He is the one who sets the goals of the institution and helps to excel in the academic arena. With this concept, it only recognizes the principal as the institutional leader. But, for those, who wish to take the inclusive approach, greatly consider the efforts of the other staff as well, towards the betterment of the students. Experts have addressed the collaborative efforts of the principal and the staff members, which eventually helps to develop the curriculum for enhancing the performance of the pupils.
If the role of the leaders is considered with respect to instructional leadership, it can have three major dimensions to it. It must be able to define the mission or goals of the institution, it must have a clear idea of managing the instructional program, and finally, it must provide the students with a learning climate within the institution (Wachiraet al. 2017). But, in each of the proposed three dimensions, the principal might find distinct roles. While framing the missions of the institution, the principal must be clear about the goals of the institution and must communicate with other institutions to get a clear picture. While managing the instructional structure of leadership within an institution, the principal must supervise and evaluate the instructions, and check on the progress of the students (Truong and Hallinger, 2017). Lastly, in regards to promoting a positive climate within the institution, the principal must promote professional development, and provide incentives for learning.
Instructional leadership is never really a static term, but it may not be applied universally as well. It is quite evident that for an instructional leader of a small institution, he might be hands-on, but, when compared to a larger institution, the leader would be looking towards building greater leadership capacities (Swanwick and McKimm, 2017). The instructional form of leadership is not just limited to educational institutes, but may also be applied to any system that influences learning outcomes.
Instructional leadership has been around for some time, but people have made several interpretations of it. The instructional leaders must never feel like working in isolation. They must be realistic or practical in their approach. Success depends on the collaborative effort of individuals in an organization (Shields, 2018). For the institutions following the instructional leadership must understand, that it is the success of the students that matters the most. Therefore, there are certain policies that such leaders must govern, in order to address social justice and inclusion.
In order to have perfect rules and regulations within an organization that helps the people progress, policies are enforced upon. With policies, it helps to determine the procedures, required to attain the goals of the organization. Institutions must look into matters, and formulate policies that help to create a safe learning environment for the students. It is not just the physical safety that one requires, but the institution must consider that mental side of it as well. There must be certain goals with respect to productivity, in order to encourage higher learning, in regards to social justice and inclusion. Such a policy must hold educators to be accountable to the public (Shields, 2017). Accountability can play a major role in ensuring that students receive a valuable education. Without such policies, the educational institutions may lack the structure required to function in an intended manner, and fulfill the goals of the institution.
Inclusion and inclusiveness are a major part of the modern educational culture. It refers to the idea of everybody being educated, which is their right after all. Many a time, inclusion is associated with disabled students, but it may also refer to bilingual learners or marginalized students (Salehzadeh, 2017). When it comes to social justice, it is more often considered as a buzz word, rather than a substantial core. It finds various interpretations, and the policies associated with it do not refer to the oppressive structures of education and its practices.
Professional leadership is regarded to have the greatest impacts on the development of students in educational institutes. It helps to determine the outcomes of the students and the quality of teaching. With professional leadership, it focuses greatly on developing a leadership team within the institutions, who are well aware of the methodologies and strategies involved in teaching, strategic resource management, and inculcating values and culture within the students (Rodela and Bertrand, 2018). They tend to set the vision of the institutions and help develop a culture of learning within the system. The achievements expected of the students are estimated, according to which, the activities of the institutions are set, and discuss the instructional matters on how the students may achieve the predetermined goals.
Building leadership capacity within an organization involves the establishment of competency models, which helps to identify the skill sets and the behaviors of the leaders. This is no different when it comes to leadership in educational institutions. It requires self-estimation tools for the leaders to identify the areas that they lack behind (Rahimet al. 2018). There must be workshops and seminars that determine the role of the hierarchy within the structure of the institutions, and that helps to make sure that the staff members develop their knowledge about the students. Mastery must be enabled at every level of work. This is an effective way of defining the standards required in the organization, and make an assessment of their own capacities. Feedback can be another important aspect of professional leadership (Popeet al. 2019). The performance of the leaders can be measured with a feedback mechanism. With the results achieved, it can help improve decision making and communication within the organization.
Leadership is one of the most vital things which makes every organization able to work. If someone trying to get the real meaning of the leadership, then it is easy to say that the leadership is the way that is used to show the path to the fellow personal in order to make sure everything is going in the right way (Oplatka and Arar, 2017). When the leadership things are talked on the behalf of the educational institutions or the national bodies who have the responsibility to make sure that the students of the national can get the best education in all possible fields and become educated. To get an education is ever personals right no matter what is the condition. Only a good education to the students makes our world a better place m. When a job of such a responsibility is given to any organization or the bodies then the importance of the leadership in them becomes very important. The NCERT is the educational body that is mainly responsible for providing a great education to the students of the whole nation. They are one of the main governing body who looks after the things which have to conclude in the course of every student. So, they are able to learn about every aspect which is important (Miller, 2017). So, it is very important that the leadership which is used in the governing body and the educational institutions are best, in order to make sure the decisions made by them are best. Mainly we are talking about the two main types of leadership which are used by the educational institutions and the governing body.
- Instructional leadership:
In this type of leadership, there are two types also inclusive and exclusive. In the exclusive type, the principal or the head of the body has the whole right to make the decision according to them in all regards (Mifsud, 2017). But in the inclusive types, the staff members and other important personals also help the principal or head to make a decision in every possible field.
- Professional leadership:
This type of leadership is one of the most common leadership which is used by the organization and the institution because in this type of leadership the leader is mainly focused on every macro thing which is happening on the place (Lovettet al. 2018). The leader makes sure that there is proper communication among everyone. This type of leadership makes things easier to speak up and solved this type of leadership is not hierarchical.
The PIECEMEAL approach of leadership refers to the process of handling the situations one by one. It states that the leadership qualities shall be shown and the prospects of social injustices within the educational institutes shall be managed gradually by a degree at a time, that is, managing one piece of the injustice at a time (Hutchison, 2018). However, in an educational organization or institute, the management of injustices and other social matters calls for a holistic approach. The holistic approach refers to the process of handling many prospects of social injustices and the welfare of the students at a time. The leaders of these organizations shall be having the capability to handle all the aspects of the educational systems at a time. This is because when the leadership qualities are busy in managing and settling down one issue at a time, then, the other issues have the tendency to rise and expand with every passing day (Hijaziet al. 2017). This might call for a drastic situation in the educational premises. Moreover, the time taken for such an approach is also very huge. Hence, as a result of which, all the aspects of the social injustices are not settled at the earliest. The PIECEMEAL approach of leadership consists of two components namely, Ergonomic style of assessment and continuous improvement, and behavioral safety. Both the components specify the fact that the leaders must focus on all the steps at a time for continuous improvement of the welfare of the students and other associated professionals. However, one of the major disadvantages, as specified in this model of approach, is its inability to solve all the matters at a single time and is a very time-consuming process (Harling, 2018). Hence, the PIECEMEAL approach of leadership cannot be implemented in the educational institutes. Rather, the holistic leadership approach shall be incorporated by the leaders of the educational institutes.
When the use of the instructional leadership is used in the educational institutions or the schools there are several issues that can create the problems. Mainly the use of the instructional leadership is done in the schools. The principal of the school is the person who is going to set everything and provides the instructions to do things and arrange different things in this type of leadership. The issues related to this type of leadership are as follows:
- When the principal is only the sole in charge of everything then there be chances that something is left in every strategy or plan which is for the students’ benefits (Hallinger, 2018).
- When there is the only authority to make all decisions then it is not possible for the person that they can counteract every front by own (Hallinger, 2018).
- Which causes lagging in the things which are more important for the students.
- If the principal is having the in charge of making every possible decision then, there may be the chances that he decided which are taken by the principal are wrong (Hallinger, 2018). This is because in an educational institution there are different scenarios and the situations can come so this type of leadership causes problems.
- It can also be possible that the principal is incompetent for that post and if only he is making the decision it can causes problems (Hallinger, 2018).
Another leadership which is used in the educational institution, whose name is professional leadership. The use of this leadership is basically done in the organization but many institutions are also using this leadership. This leadership also having some issues related to that, which are as follows:
- The principal or the staff who are having the main important work is to manage the whole school or educational institution are not accountable (Graham and Nevarez, 2017).
- They are not giving their full efforts to their works.
- Then the school is not able to become the place where the students can learn new things as well as the discipline because if the staff is not accountable then how they can teach the students to be accountable (Graham and Nevarez, 2017).
- Poor execution and lack of communication in the educational institution can create a great difference and barriers because this is the same thing that the students will be going to learn from them (Graham and Nevarez, 2017).
These are some of the issues which are related to different types of leadership.
The educational institutions and the bodies who are working hard for the welfare of the students have required some sort of the plans and the strategies, which they can implement so they are able to handle all possible situations and take care of the students by all means (Gay, 2018). The main aim of the educational institutions and the governing bodies is that in any possible manner they can make sure that they are able to show the students the right path in their life. The schools and colleges are not only trying to educate the students about their subjects but they are making them learn about their moral duties and make them more disciplined. All of these things are done by implementing different types of methods and the ways to shape the students (Connollyet al. 2019). All of these strategies and plans are mainly made by the leaders of that place. There are different types of leadership that are used by them in order to make sure that they can provide the best of everything to the students. The others form of the leadership which can be used in the educational institutions are the emotional leadership, transformational leadership, and many more.
- Emotional leadership:
This leadership is different from all of the other types of the leadership in this type, the leaders or the bodies who are having the authorities to take care of everything uses the emotional approach towards the students (Clarke and O’Donoghue, 2017).They are concerned about the feelings of the students and try to provide motivation to them. In these types of leadership, the demands with the leaders of these types of institutions and bodies are that they have to use their emotional intelligence and make sure they tap the emotional center of the students and solve their problems as well as motivate them.
- Transformation leadership:
This type of leadership is having different aspects in this leadership every best quality from different leadership is taken and make sure all of them are used in order to make things more fair and good (Castillo and Hallinger, 2018). For the purpose of educational institutions, this type of leadership is very important. It is very helpful in motivating the students.
From all of the study which is presented above, it is very easy to understand that the leadership plays the most vital role in the educational institutions and their governing bodies. The NCERT is the main governing body, to make the polices and the strategy for the educational institution. The body has the whole responsibility in order to make sure that the plans which are made by them are good enough to help the students in the development of their growth and motivation. The strategic plan which was introduced by the governing bodies is implemented by the school principal and the staff. To make all of these things and taking all of the decisions they, all are using the different types of leadership. They have used professional leadership as well as instructional leadership. Both of the leadership has very good importance, which makes things easier and helpful. But it is also important to acknowledge that the professional leadership and the instructional leadership are having a different issue which can cause problems. So, it is important to take care of all of the issues. In this study, the different types of leadership which can also be used in place of the professional and the instructional leadership are given. All of these things are concluded from all of the above which is given in this study.
In the field of education, the personal who are in the places where the main decisions and the strategies are made up in order to provide the necessary requirements to the students to make them educated and confident (Capper, 2018). The governing bodies which are making everything for the better future of the students planned everything in all aspects to develop the qualities of the students. They are using different types of leadership in order to make everything more vibrant and effective in all fields. They are trying to make the attitude of the confidence and the motivation in the whole students. So even they are facing difficult times they are able to hold themselves and fight back in a positive way. When these types of attitudes are developed in the students and they are becoming more active and versatile. These things are the real indication that shows that there is a certain development in leadership and management (Burns, 2017). The management development can also be shown in the strategic planning which is made by the institution. They make things much wider so they can handle all of the students and the make them better day by day.
When the term values came in any field of work then these things are mainly concerned about all of the efforts and effects put by someone in their field. I have chosen the field of education in order to do work. I have the thinking that education is the only way by which someone can really change the future of their country (Berkovich, 2017). With the help of education, I always want to make sure that the students who are the main stand of any nation can get the best education. Education is the only key for them to remove all of the bad things and the crimes which are happening in this world. To make the world a much better and beautiful place to live in. I have made up my mind to give every effective effort for the work which I am doing in the field of education. I always follow some values and principles which made me more motivated and stronger. My values are my key to work in the best ways. I always follow the values like honesty with the work (Beach, 2018). As I know my work is very critical because if I have done any mistakes of any kind it can change someone’s life because good education makes the people, as well as any bad things, can affect them badly. This is because it is well known that bad habits can come very easily to anyone and when we talk about students’ things can go worst. The other values which I always try do are becoming ethically right means, I did not want to do any work which is ethically wrong and the students can learn that. The other value which I possess is hard working which makes me more effective and gives a positive motivation to the students (Barnes, 2019). The other professionals are also using these kinds of values who are in this educational field.
As it is well known I am working in the educational sector, which is one of the most important work, I think. My contribution to my work is maximum and I always try to improve myself so that I am able to provide more effort. To do this it is very important to always evaluate myself and make sure that I can make much more effective (Baltaci and Balcı, 2017). Therefore, I have evaluated myself and makes some objective for my future leadership development. Theseobjectives are very important in the development of my skill of leadership, which is going to use by me in the field of the educational sector. The following objectives which I have made for my future leadership development are as follows:
- I have to improve my skills in strategic thinking in order to see the bigger picture which will help the students and the educational institutions where I am going to work (Agosto and Roland, 2018).
- I have to develop my abilities in coaching; this ability helps me in order to coach the students and the staff who are working under me (Agosto and Roland, 2018). The students are the main two required proper coaching so they are able to get the things which they want to achieve in their life.
- While working with the students I have realized that it is important for me to improve my skills of listening in order to understand what the students are trying to say and solve their problems (Agosto and Roland, 2018).
These are some objectives that I have to develop in the future.
The whole team of management who are working with me in order to make sure that they can do every possible thing to provide the best education to the students, which is very important to make their future bright (Afshariet al. 2017). With this idea, I and my organization are working very hard to achieve this. To make sure that we are going in the right way we used the methods of the self-evaluation which helps us to know about our process of management. It provides us the answer that we are doing the right things or not. After the evaluations, we have made some objectives in order to enhance the management skills of my organization in the future. The enhancement of skills like a mutual understanding between the organization helps us to achieve much more stability and success in our work. The increase in mutual trust and the increase in the feelings of cooperation make our organization stronger and we are able to implement every plan and the strategies very easily (Adseriaset al. 2017). If all of these objectives are completed by us then the effectiveness of our work increases very much and which basically helps the educational institutions. Therefore, we are pushing us to enhance ourselves as the organization.
Adserias, R.P., Charleston, L.J. and Jackson, J.F., 2017. What style of leadership is best suited to direct organizational change to fuel institutional diversity in higher education?. Race ethnicity and education, 20(3), pp.315-331.
Afshari, J., Moein, Z., Afshari, F., Sharifi-Rad, J., Balouchi, A. and Afshari, A., 2017. A comparison of leadership styles with respect to biographical characteristics. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 15(1), pp.1-7.
Agosto, V. and Roland, E., 2018. Intersectionality and educational leadership: A critical review. Review of Research in Education, 42(1), pp.255-285.
Baltaci, A. and Balcı, A., 2017. Complexity leadership: A theorical perspective. International Journal of Educational Leadership and Management, 5(1), pp.30-58.
Barnes, A., 2019. Social justice theory and practice: Pākehā, Kaupapa Māori and educational leadership. WINHEC JOURNAL, p.23.
Beach, D., 2018. Structural Injustices in Swedish Education: Academic Selection and Educational Inequalities. Springer.
Berkovich, I., 2017. Reflections on leadership preparation programs and social justice. Journal of Educational Administration.
Burns, W.A., 2017. A descriptive literature review of harmful leadership styles: Definitions, commonalities, measurements, negative impacts, and ways to improve these harmful leadership styles. Creighton Journal of Interdisciplinary Leadership, 3(1), pp.33-52.
Capper, C.A., 2018. Organizational theory for equity and diversity: Leading integrated, socially just education. Routledge.
Castillo, F.A. and Hallinger, P., 2018. Systematic review of research on educational leadership and management in Latin America, 1991–2017. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 46(2), pp.207-225.
Clarke, S. and O’Donoghue, T., 2017. Educational leadership and context: A rendering of an inseparable relationship. British Journal of Educational Studies, 65(2), pp.167-182.
Connolly, M., James, C. and Fertig, M., 2019. The difference between educational management and educational leadership and the importance of educational responsibility. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 47(4), pp.504-519.
Gay, G., 2018. Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. Teachers College Press.
Graham, S. and Nevarez, C., 2017. Transformative leadership: A multicultural platform for advancing African American male student success. Journal of African American Males in Education, 8(2).
Hallinger, P., 2018. Surfacing a hidden literature: A systematic review of research on educational leadership and management in Africa. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 46(3), pp.362-384.
Harling, P. ed., 2018. New directions in educational leadership. Routledge.
Hijazi, S., Kasim, A.L. and Daud, Y., 2017. Leadership styles and their relationship with the private university employees’ job satisfaction in United Arab Emirates. Journal of Public Administration and Governance, 6(4), pp.110-124.
Hutchison, E.D., 2018. Dimensions of human behavior: Person and environment. Sage Publications.
Lovett, T., Clarke, C. and Kilmurray, A., 2018. Adult education and community action: Adult education and popular social movements. Routledge.
Mifsud, D., 2017. Distributed leadership in a Maltese college: The voices of those among whom leadership is ‘distributed’and who concurrently narrate themselves as leadership ‘distributors’.
Miller, P., 2017. Cultures of educational leadership: Researching and theorising common issues in different world contexts. In Cultures of Educational Leadership (pp. 1-23). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
Ncert.nic.in, 2020, About the organization. Available at: http://www.ncert.nic.in/index.html, [Accessed on: 14.05.2020].
Oplatka, I. and Arar, K., 2017. The research on educational leadership and management in the Arab world since the 1990s: A systematic review. Review of Education, 5(3), pp.267-307.
Pope, R.L., Reynolds, A.L. and Mueller, J.A., 2019. Multicultural competence in student affairs: Advancing social justice and inclusion. John Wiley & Sons.
Rahim, A., Civelek, I. and Liang, F.H., 2018. A process model of social intelligence and problem-solving style for conflict management. International Journal of Conflict Management.
Rodela, K.C. and Bertrand, M., 2018. Rethinking educational leadership in the margins: Youth, parent, and community leadership for equity and social justice.
Salehzadeh, R., 2017. Which types of leadership styles do followers prefer? A decision tree approach. International Journal of Educational Management.
Shields, C.M., 2017. Transformative leadership in education: Equitable and socially just change in an uncertain and complex world. Routledge.
Shields, C.M., 2018. Transformative Leadership Primer. Journal of Transformative Leadership & Policy Studies, 7(2), pp.67-72.
Swanwick, T. and McKimm, J., 2017. ABC of clinical leadership. John Wiley & Sons.
Truong, T.D. and Hallinger, P., 2017. Exploring cultural context and school leadership: Conceptualizing an indigenous model of có uy school leadership in Vietnam. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 20(5), pp.539-561.
Wachira, F.M., Gitumu, M. and Mbugua, Z., 2017. Effect of principals’ leadership styles on teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Kieni West Sub-County.
Zembylas, M. and Iasonos, S., 2017. Social justice leadership in multicultural schools: The case of an ethnically divided society. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 20(1), pp.1-25.