EFFECTS OF HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEMS IN INDIA AND THE UNITED KINGDOM
I declare that the dissertation has been composed by me and that the work has not be submitted for any other degree or professional qualification. I confirm that the work
submitted is my own, except where work which has formed part of jointly-authored
publications has been included. Also, all piece of information that has been derived in this work is duly acknowledged and a list of references has been provided.
The research work is focusing on the increased number of Indian students leaving the country for attaining higher education from colleges or universities in the UK. The first chapter of this research work consists of overview of the research that provides insight to the topic. Background of the research work is describing the case that has been chosen for this study. Research rationale is emphasising on the reasons for pursuing research work on this particular topic. The rising number of students migrating to the UK is continuously impacting the economy of India and in order to identify the reason behind such trends the research work is helping. Research questions along with its significance have been provided in the first chapter of the study. In the second chapter literature review of the research work is focused on. It consists of various theories of education that can help to improve Indian education system and prevent Indian students from migrating to the UK for higher studies. Disadvantages and advantages of student migration from India have been discussed in the literature theory as well. Advantages and disadvantages of student migration for the host country United Kingdom is also provided in the literature review of the study.
The methodology of this study is concerned with the ways methods and techniques have been applied for improving the study. The design is that of qualitative method in which case study approach has been applied. For this reason, positivism philosophy, deductive approach and descriptive design have been chosen so that case study analysis can help in giving in-depth information concerning the study. The case studies help in identification and analysis of complicated relationships that co-exist among various variables. The sampling size is of 6 students who are studying in higher educational sector in the UK.
The findings of the research focus on analysing the information gathered. The focus has been given on the students who have competed one year of their studies after coming to the UK. In this data and analysis, the qualitative data is conducted in which the semi-structured interviews have been conducted in which each participant has appeared for two interviews. This has helped in framing recommendations and conclusion in which recommendations have been given relating to elimination of the reservation system in admission process in HEIs. It has been recommended to introduce new part time work opportunities for students pursuing higher education, emphasis on cognitive learning process, reducing theoretical classes and increasing the number of practical classes in the curriculum of higher study courses.
I would like to thank all the people who helped me to complete the dissertation. Firstly, I would like to offer my gratitude to all my professors whose valuable guidance and support have been crucial for completing this dissertation successfully. I would like to thank our module coordinator for providing me with the opportunity to carry out this study.
I would also like to thank my fellow colleagues who supported and helped me greatly during my work. Lastly, I would like to thank all my family members, especially my parents, whose constant care, support, and encouragement have always helped me to achieve the goals in my life.
Chapter 1: Introduction
The project mainly focuses on the higher education system and its quality in India and the United Kingdom. Moreover, the study also focuses on the preference of the students of India for getting higher education in the UK to India. The aim of this study is to find out the reason of this trendin getting quality education and their migration to some other country. Besides the degrading quality of education, India lacks a proper structure required to make individuals educated. Lack of practical knowledge and increased amount of theoretical knowledge gained inside classrooms have not been contributing to provide effective knowledge that students can utilize in their practical life. The focus of the study is to analyse the problems oflow quality education in India which is influencing the students in India to pursue higher education in the UK though the costs of education and living standard is high, students are giving it a chance of getting higher education abroad for fulfilling their aspirations. Students who have already pursued their primary, secondary and higher secondary education in the Indian education systems can effectively help the research work with their personal experience. On the other hand, students with experience of studying in international college or university can help to develop an adequate comparison between the two education systems and help in identifying the factors influencing the high student migration rates. This can help in understanding the underlying differences between both the education systems in the UK and India and preferences for the students for higher education in the UK despite having primary education in their home country. The point of comparison in this context is to understand the difference in quality of education being provided in the UK and India and ways this education is helping in revival of the economy. It is evident that the successful professionals are more produced overseas rather in home country. This aspect also shows the importance of comparative education which helps the students to get a better understanding of the education system of other countries and borrow some aspects for improving their education system in home country. This can help in improving education system in India and preventing brain drain in India. In this context, the theories like Cognitive Theory of Education and Theory of Indian Diaspora have been discussed for understanding this difference.
The research deals with the higher education desires of the Indian students who lookout for good universities and colleges where they can get a good quality education. It is about demands of the students since the UK education is consumerised model of education. There are higher chances for the students to choose from a various range of courses that can help in improving their career prospects. Since the costs of education are more in the UK comparatively to that of India, high income elite class students can shop around in this market. They have the chances of enrolling into advanced courses which are not provided or have lower number of faculties in countries like India. Moreover, a huge number of students are leaving the country land of India to other countries mainly the United Kingdom from where the students would be gaining good quality education (Fernando and Cohen, 2016). It has been the current scenario that the students from all over the world migrate to the United Kingdom to get a good quality education. The students nowadays are not satisfied with the education quality that they are receiving in their counties and are aiming towards getting higher education in terms of quality education from some other countries where the quality of study is much higher than that of the education quality in India. This is definitely a global phenomenon since students from not only in India but also from other nations prefer to get education in the UK. The research from the universities, global ranking institutions and other reports show that the UK is one of the topmost nations which the students prefer to get higher education than their home country. The option of getting this higher education is available to all the students who prefer to take higher education in the UK rather in India. The main focus is to get quality education so that the students can become employable graduates. It is more found in elite class but the middle income groups also prefer to send their students abroad for getting higher education. This is done for fulfilling either their aspirations or the dreams of their children in getting high pay package in top notch companies. Moreover, it is found that the students opting for higher education in the UK face the problem of reservation system in their home country which forces them to opt for higher education overseas.These reservation system defeats the purpose of meritorious students in getting admission to higher education institutions in India.
Hence, the research focuses on the differences of the quality of education and also the motivation that is making the Indian students decide to move to the United Kingdom for studying and not getting admission in their country colleges.There is a perception that the education in the UK is more attractive to the students than that of others. This is true in the sense that the country attracts more global students which is evident from its stress on diverse culture in colleges and universities. It has been found that the number of Indian students for studying in the UK have increased to 100% which shows its increased popularity among the students. The narrative is true to the reality since the influx of Indian students have been increasing yearly. The thinking of the people in considering education superior in overseas to their own country since they get international exposure and career upliftment after opting for this higher education. There rae myths that higher costs in education turns colleges and universities into business institutions where the students can purchase it at their will. However, it is contradicted since merit plays an important role in getting into these acclaimed institutions. The neo-liberalism is found in the higher education sector since higher costs of this education are attributed to the functioning of the universities as the business institutions. Quality Assurance has been focussed by the state governments which symbolises the aspects of excellence. However, global capitalism involves that there is a direct relationship between economic growth and adaptability of the universities in responding to capitalism. Thus, the education sector in the UK is oriented in a model that can help in responding to the rapid changes in the economy. This is the reason of attraction of the students in opting for higher education in the UK. Education is commodified as it can be traded in a free marketplace where the seats of higher education institutes are given to those persons who can pay the “sticker price”. When it is left for the market forces then it results in monetisation and commodification since there are no or little intervention of the government.
Education systems of India have been degrading day by day which have been deteriorating the quality of education in India. Students work hard throughout the year for their studies and the students who do not even bother to study all get passed in the examination. This has contributed to an increased number of graduates as compared to the reducing numbers of job opportunities. Average employment rate of India is around 48.76 percent which is far below than that of the UK(Tradingeconomics.com, 2020). It is not the concern that the quality of the education in India is not up to the mark but students pursuing education in this country do not get employment opportunities necessarily. However, in the UK the employment rates are around 76.3% which have been attracting an increased number of students from developing countries like India (Ons.gov.uk, 2020).The stark contrast of these employment rates is the reason of presence for the Indian students to opt for higher education in the UK. The increased number of job opportunities and global exposure is forcing the students to opt for higher education in overseas as compared to their own country. Moreover, some students are driven for higher ambition of research and development activities which gives higher scope of exploring opportunities of high education overseas.
The focus of the study is toanalyse the drivers and factors that motivate the students in India to opt for education in the UK.The study stresses on the fact that high quality education drive their aspirations of opting for higher education in the UK than in their home country.The reason behind the increased number of Indian students applying for foreign colleges and universities based in the United Kingdom have to be analysed in the research work. Through this research work the factors that affect the departure of a student from India to study abroad can be identified. Based on the viewpoint of King and Sondhi (2018), it is quite evident that not only economically privileged people; students who belong from a middle income group are also interested to study abroad. The rise of globalization and the technologies that are driving the world towards urbanization has proved a greater exposure to the foreign countries and also in their universities that are not available in an adequate way in the country like India (Beech, 2018). Therefore, the machinery, equipment, laboratories and other factors make the United Kingdom education quality to rank in a higher position that of India. Hence, it can be said that the purpose of the project has been to find out the reasons of the above-stated facts and also to find out the values of living of the middle-class Indian people and how they are changing with time and with improved technology. The study has focussedon social class, globalisation, employment patterns, structures and so on that are inter-related in understanding preference of the Indian students for higher education in the UK. It is evident that the students are driven by the above number of factors like getting HE overseas helps in enhancing their social prestige while globalisation helps in improving cross-cultural tolerance while studying with diverse classes under one roof. The education structures of HE in the UK is quite different from that of India so getting this exposure helps the students to analyse the flaws in education system of their home country. These students on becoming faculties can suggest some constructive changes for preventing this migration and attracting other global students to study in India for higher education. Most important it is important for employment patterns as it is quite known that the UK has a huge prestige in global market relating to giving more jobs to its students. Moreover, the students get practical experiences since education is based on practical implications rather than theories.
Research questions help to establish the objective of the research work. The result of the research work has to be able to provide answers to the research questions. The differences in the quality of higher education in the UK and India and factors of globalisation and marketisation in this aspect have been framed as the research questions.It also focuses on the factors that influence the middle class families in sending their children for higher education in the UK.The research questions help to identify the reason behind the increased number of Indian students operating for pursuing their higher education in educational institutions situated in the United Kingdom. The research questions of the organisation have played a very important role in conducting the research and the questions that have driven the research are: –
- How are the differences in the quality of higher education in India and the United Kingdom play a major role for motivation among the Indian students for completing their higher education from the UK?
- How the factors of globalization and marketization have played their role in motivating the Indian students for completing their higher education in the UK to make changes in their professional and personal decisions in India?
- What are the factors that influence even people belonging from the middle class income group apart from the elite class to pursue their higher studies in the United Kingdom in spite of being aware of the amount of resources required for it?
The research work has been depending on the issue of students leaving Indian to the United Kingdom for attaining superior quality education for developing their future in an enhanced way. The main objective of this research work has been to identify the factors that influence Indian students to get into United Kingdom’s colleges and universities. The structure of the universities is made in way for attracting overseas students taking admission in them. Significance of the research work is to provide a comparison between the education systems of both the countries. The aspects of the education system which India has been lacking and can be identified with the help of this comparison with the help of the research data. According to Abbott and Silles (2016), it can be stated that an increasing number of students migrating to the UK have been contributing to the economy of that country. It can be said that the country is exploiting foreign students for gaining profits.However, it cannot be denied that the HE in the UK is more focussed on giving more opportunities to the students that are not available in their home country,However, Indian economy has been negatively affected because of the student migration process.Besides, India has been failing to provide quality education to the students and work opportunities to the newly graduates. The students have been opting for moving into developed nations. Labour market of the UK provides various work opportunities to the newly graduates and even part time work opportunities to the students so that they can bear their cost by their own providing financial indeed dependence to the students (Crisp and Powell, 2017).
However, India has no such policy for the students. After graduation also students seek employment opportunities and fail to find any suitable work opportunity even make adjustments for improving its framework. The conventional framework of Indian education system can be changed with the help of this research work. It can help in giving students the required employment opportunities so that they can work in multinational companies and augment their career prospects.Imitating an education system that is popular and preferable among the students can be imitated by India. Reflecting on the education system that exists in India and comparing it with the education system of the UK can help in this process (Fernando and Cohen, 2016). Besides this, the external factors of a country that attracts migrants can be analysed through this research work. The historical aspects of the United Kingdom that increase the interest of Indian students can be identified with the help of this research work.
Providing the students superior quality education and work opportunities by the Indian government can be an effective way to encourage the students to stay in India. The reservation system for the public services can be considered as the main influencer of the students leaving India and opting for foreign colleges and universities. United Kingdom provides fair opportunity to the students irrespective of their race and caste. However, Indian education systems depend on the reservation systems that reserve the majority of the job positions for the students belonging to lower caste students. These reservation systems have been completing the students to study in foreign universities. Attaining improvements in the educational systems and work opportunities can improve the condition of India and encourage the students to stay in India and pursue their higher studies in India. The research has the significance to develop an improved education system in India and take necessary actions for preventing the current brain drain. Talented students are pursuing their higher education in developed countries like the UK and stay there forever as the UK government has improved governance in the country.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
2.0 Conceptual framework
2.1 Theories of education
2.1.1 Cognitive Theory of Education
The cognitive Theory of Education focuses on the thoughts of an individual and knowledge, individual ideas and the related environment. As per Jenkinset al. (2018), the cognitive theory of education enables people to learn from the present environment in which the people are residing and helps them to use the learning from the environment to have a constructive thought process like using it as a memory or practice it. The theory mainly focuses on the mental processes and the motivation one has towards learning that leads to internal thoughts of the two different factors like the internal factor and the external factor. An effective cognitive theory makes an individual experience positive learning through the analysis of the mental condition by making the learning easier. However, an ineffective Cognitive theory would lead to the difficulties that can let the individual learning difficulties in adapting and learning anything from the current environment. Therefore, mental satisfaction performs the role of motivation for a successful cognitive theory.
- Elements of cognitive learning
Difference between conventional learning process and cognitive learning according to the “Cognitive Theory of Education ” is that it does not focus on learners memorizing the lessons (Turiet al. 2019). This learning process focuses on a practical way of learning where the lear attain expertise regarding the subject of learning with practical experience. The various elements that drive this type of learning process are as follows,
The first element of cognitive learning is comprehension which enables the ability of the learner to understand the requirement of the learning. As stated by Lehmann and Seufert (2019), the reason behind attaining knowledge about any particular lesson or subject is explained to the learner at first. Role of knowledge in the practical or professional world is also explained for better comprehension.
The importance of memory in cognitive learning is to understand the concept or subject rather than just memorizing or cramming it for the sake of examination. This is the reason that learning attained through cognitive processes is more likely to stay in the mind and the learner becomes able to recall it and play it in practical instances. Learners even effectively related new learning to the past attained knowledge.
Learners understand to reflect on the learning outcomes and identify the practical instances where the knowledge can be applied. This helps in the development process of various management and leadership skills that helps in professional development as well (Bakar et al. 2019). Cognitive learning allows the learner to scrutinise practical situations in a enhanced way by applying their knowledge.
- Benefits of cognitive learning
Improve the ability to understand
Through cognitive learning, rather than cramping lessons, students gain knowledge from actually participating in activities that can effectively provide an enhanced level of knowledge (Veliz, 2017). This contributes in improving the ability of the learner to understand the concept or subject in a more insightful way. Lerner becomes capable of understanding any concept because of the already existing knowledge that has been acquired in the past. This improvement of ability to understand helps learners in professional development as well.
Knowledge attained through practical experience or practical participation it reduces the hesitation of the learners and enhances the confidence level as well. Learners become capable of performing well in challenging situations as well. Enhanced level of confidence is one of the major benefits of cognitive learning. This confidence level increases due to practical application of theoretical knowledge and lack of cramming up lessons (Scherer et al. 2019). Learners establish proper understanding of the lessons they learn which can be recalled very easily and makes the learners confident about their level of knowledge.
Develops problem solving skills
Cognitive learning allows learners to develop many practical skills along with proactive learning. Applying the learning for practical instances helps the learners to develop problems by thinking critically. As influenced by the ideas of Simamoraet al. (2017), it can be stated that problem solving skills can be developed in the cognitive learners because of the proper understanding of the concept of lesion which enables the learners to develop solutions for arising issues. This helps the learners to become an effective ladder in the future in their professional life.
Creates continuous learning environment
Cognitive learning creates the ability to relate new learning with the already attained knowledge. This creates an active learning environment for the learners. The learners become able to attain increased amount of knowledge as compared to the traditional learning process. They attain knowledge from practical experiences rather than attending lectures and classes. These experiences provide practical knowledge and enables active memory of the learners which helps in maintaining continuous learning for the cognitive learners (Thiessen et al. 2016). Merging new and old information together helps in beer understanding and development of professional suits.
This theory focuses on the behaviour and attitude of the Indian towards the inclination of having a better education. A large scale of Indians migrates to other countries mainly the United Kingdom after realizing that the up-gradation of technology can lead to a better environment and motivation for the students to learn better from the upgraded universities. Therefore, migration or settlement of the Indian in foreign countries has been a trend that has been noticed by the Indian government in the late 1970s. According to the theory, the representatives from the Indian government move to the UK to tell that the Indians reaching need to be proud of their culture and heritage (Tyagi, 2017). However, when the situation and the question come to the real understanding of the problems of the migrators and also to support them in true terms, the Indian government may not be that much successful in helping them. It has the same scenario since the very beginning of the migration and also today. As per Tyagi (2017), it can be said that the Theory of Indian Diaspora explains the scenario of migrating and learning better and also explains the reason of why the people who once migrate to some foreign countries find it difficult to settle back in India. This is due to the facilities and the technologies that they have experienced in those countries like the UK as it has offered them a better meaning of life and education.
- Causes of Indian Diaspora
During the 1970s the Middle Eastern countries required an increased number of workers for managing their oil refineries (Gupta, 2017). The countries started to open their gates for attracting an increased number of skilled and hard working migrants to their countries. Due to poverty and lack of employment opportunities Indians rushed to the Middle East and grabbed the work opportunities for betterment of their future. These countries were paying well which increased more migrants. Based on the statements of O’Connor (2016), it is quite evident that gradually western countries such as the UK, USA, Canada and Australia also started to attract migrants from third world nations which lack employment opportunities as compared to their huge populations. This made it easy to attain labourers in reduced wage rates. This is the cause of Indian Diasporas. However, in the past people preferred to migrate for work but in the current times Indians prefer to attain higher education from reputed colleges and universities especially in the United Kingdom. As stated by Peng (2016), the internet has provided exposure to the students in India who desire for quality education. Students are becoming more conscious about the quality of the education they are attaining. This requirement has been influencing an increased number of students to migrate to foreign countries like the UK.
- Factor influencing Indian Diaspora
Around 21.9% of the total population of India lives below the poverty line which is almost 40 million people (Economictimes.indiatimes.com, 2020). Lack of education and economic condition has been contributing to the issue. This is one of the major factors of Indian Diaspora. Increased poverty is the main reason that Indian Diasporas tend to settle in foreign countries and face difficulty to settle again in India.
Low quality education
Conventional framework of education in India is not up to the mark. Students are compelled to focus on theoretical knowledge rather than attaining practical knowledge. Besides the way of learning, there are not adequate facilities including labs, equipment, libraries for providing effective knowledge to the students (Jambo and Pilz, 2018). Students tend to apply for their higher studies in foreign colleges and universities for attaining effective and superior quality education that can help in getting employed in the future years.
The arising unemployment rates have been contributing to the migration as well. Lack of employment opportunities to the new graduates have been making the students bitter towards the government and its policies. Students who have been studying for governmental job opportunities wait for years for the result of the examination as the government takes years for putting up results of job vacancies. According to Hanna and Wang (2017), corruption and dishonesty among the employment systems of public services have been contributing to the Indian Diaspora. Besides the public sector, the private sector has been failing to provide enough employment opportunities to the newly graduates because of the huge population.
Unstable economic condition
Trillion Dollar GDP has not provided stability to the economy of the country. The GDP growth rate is not adequate as compared to the population of the country. The economic condition also enables migrants to shift to developed countries like the United Kingdom from this developing country. Attaining education from the UK helps the migrant students to apply for employment opportunities in that country which is one of the major reasons of Indian Diaspora.
Social Learning Theory is also referred as the Observational Learning as it focuses on the ability of an individual to learn from the environment and also to stress the ability to learn through various observation of what has been happening in the environment. It would also focus on the ability of some people who also learns from the other people who have just been narrating a story or just saying anything (Akers and Jennings, 2016). There are four different processes that are associated with the Social Learning Theory and the processes are named as Attention process, Retention process, Reinforcement process and Motor Reproduction Process. Attention Process refers to the model in which people learn from the environment by paying attention to different critical features. The attentiveness defines the ability of the learner and it also helps in figuring out whether the learner is interested in learning or not. Therefore, it indicates that if the learner does not pay proper attention to learning, then the individual would not be able to learn. On the other hand, the retention process indicates the interests of the learner as it tests the learner about how long the learner can memorize the points when the actual model is no longer available for learning. Therefore, it can be said that the interests of the learner pay the most important role for the education system and also to determine whether the learners are able to identify and memorise the events that occur in the learning model.
According to the motor reproduction process, the new behaviour of the students is analysed when the learner converts the watching of something into performing that particular thing. After the performance of the action, it is noted whether the behaviour and learning from the environment has been matching as per the requirement or not. The reinforcement process, on the other hand, says that the motivation of the individual is dependent on the exhibition of the behaviour according to the awards or incentives provided to the learners. Social learning theory is therefore considered as a function of a large number of consequences (Akers, and Jennings, 2016). Therefore, according to this theory, the person who would target the kind of behaviour need to select the proper model who would be creating a favourable environment for learning and also is required to observe the model for better results.
- Major elements of social learning
Social learning has four elements which state the total princess of this type of learning. Through following these four elements, a learning environment can be established easily and conveniently which can contribute in improving the performance of the learner or the organisation as a whole. The elements are as follows,
In social learning, learners first observe the proper way of executing a task and then imitating it. This can be done by simply observing anyone doing the task or following the steps or procedures from any secondary resource (Jufferet al. 2017). However, learners have to be motivated to apply to learning obtained from observation in practical instances for proper learning. Through this process learners can be provided with an increased number of opportunities so that they can observe and attain knowledge effectively and maintain a continuous learning environment.
In order to attain knowledge through the social learning process learners need to be reciprocal and mutually participate in the learning process. This can help them to attain knowledge in a reduced amount of time and even evaluate each other’s performance which can help in creating a learning environment. This determines the efficiency of the learning outcomes received from social learning. In the viewpoint of Devi et al. (2017), it is quite evident that learners help each other to practice and apply the learning and collaboratively attain positive learning outcomes of the social learning process.
Self-regulation is the only way to improve own performance and application of learning outcomes. As stated by Williams et al. (2019), establishing goals for the learning process helps to attain discipline in the social learning process which helps in improving the performance of the learners and ensures development through knowledge obtained from observations. In some instances it has been seen that learners determine goals according to their requirements and the aspects they need to work on. However, teachers of social learning process also help the learners by providing suggestions on the aspects in which learners need to focus. Setting accurate goals is very important as it helps in improving the performance of the learner.
In order to ensure self-efficacy learners are usually provided with small goals or tasks and after successful completion of the tasks the learners gain confidence from the success. This helps to encourage the learners for further learning. Small achievements encourage learners to attain more knowledge (Lu et al. 2018). This process of small goals helps to maintain the motivation level of the learners. The learner has to work on his own motivation and the teacher usually helps in the process of motivation. The motivation process has to be two sided for attaining positive results.
Benefits of social learning
Theory of social learning provides effective ways of training and development of learners. This learning process has several benefits. The benefits are as follows,
Attaining work skills
One of the major benefits of social learning is attaining knowledge about work skills that cannot be useful for professional life. Incorporating social knowledge to the learning provides a new dimension to the knowledge that has been provided to the learners which results in attaining work skills (Callinanet al. 2018). Knowledge about practical and social issues is usually incorporated in this type of learning. Understanding the impact of the learning on society helps to provide effective knowledge and learning to the learner through social learning process. It helps in developing secondary skills including critical thinking skills through this process as it is a pretty informal way of teaching through observation.
Increasing collaborative skills
Theory of social learning discusses a learning process that helps in enhancing collaborative skills of the learners. Rather than applying learning outcomes and working on any task individually the learners understand the ways of working in teams (Yousuf and Craig, 2018). This increases the productivity of the learner and helps to adapt in a new environment. Attaining knowledge and being able to apply that in practical instances by own does not qualify learners for their professional life. During professional work learners have to work collaboratively which requires development of collaborative skills. Social learning enables the team working ability to the learner and makes them prepared for professional life.
Knowledge about social issues
This learning process allows learners to gain knowledge about the social condition for better understanding of the learning setting. This allows the learners to attain knowledge by themselves by observing the conventional ways of the society or the organisational setting. Learners have not been dependent on the lessons provided to them and can attain knowledge from observations by their own.
The importance of communication is unavoidable and this skill has to be developed by the learners no matter which learning process is being followed. However, the social learning process helps in the development proceeds of communication skills. As influenced by Moronyet al. (2018), it can be stated that collaboratively attaining knowledge is the first step of establishing a superior communication among the learners. Understanding others point of view and then communicating with them is the benefits that can be obtained through social learning. This contributes to the professional development process as communication skills are the most important skills to get employed.
Increased amount of learner engagement
Social learning is an active learning process that enhances the learner’s engagement. Praising the learners for their engagement and providing those tasks helps in enhancing the engagement and attain positive outcomes from the learning process. Especially during the online learning process, learners seem to disengage from the learning process. However, this process helps in neglecting the management levels and provides them with effective knowledge.
- Limitations of social learning
Social learning theory has several benefits in terms of attaining positive outcomes but there is an aspect that puts limitations on social learning. It indicates that the learning totally depends on the nature and personality of the observer or the learner. Certain behaviours of the learner are rewarded or punished for motivating the learner. However, the reason behind rewarding particular behaviour and punishing others has not been employed in the theory which creates a limitation for applying the social learning theory.
Talented students who are sharp enough to score superior marks in their studies are the future of their nation. These students develop a better future for the country. However, the Indian education system has been failing to provide superior education and knowledge to the students. Besides lack of quality education, lack of job opportunities for new graduates has been contributing to the migration of the students as well. Due to the increased number of students leaving India for attaining higher education from the United Kingdom Brain Drain have been taking place. This issue has not been raised even if the students will choose to come back to their country of origin after completing their studies. Rather, they prefer to get employed and stay in the United Kingdom. Being a developed country, the United Kingdom provides superior facilities to the students which influences the students or newly graduates to settle down there. Through this migration highly educated and talented individuals leave India and become assets for the United Kingdom (Bhandari, 2019). Brain Drain is a term used for describing this type of situation which has been adversely affecting the growth of developing countries like India.
Confidence in the Indian economy has been reducing due to the increasing number of students leaving the country for attaining better education facilities in developing countries like the UK. Students take up employment opportunities in the public sector and provide stability to the economy of their country. However, as the students are leaving their country of origin for pursuing higher studies in other countries they tend to stay there after completion of their courses which creates a gap in the country of origin. Based on the views of Moskal (2017), it is quite evident that these migrant students face several difficulties in the UK while adjusting in the new environment. However, they struggle for developing a better future which is difficult to achieve in India even after years of struggling. The talented and educated Indians who tend to migrate to the UK for higher studies rarely come back to India after their completion of study. Even if the students come back to India after completion of their studies, India fails to provide employment opportunities to the students and the students face difficulty to adjust in India. Besides lack of employment opportunities, students who manage to get employed after coming back to India, the standard of living and wage rate fails to satisfy the newly graduates (Choudhury, 2016). All these reasons contribute to the negative effect of Indian student migration to the United Kingdom during academic years.
Reduced social capital
An Increasing number of students leaving India for attaining quality education in colleges and universities situated in the United Kingdom have been contributing to the education of social capital in India. The students who have left India and went to the UK create a gap in the society which deteriorates the functioning of the society. People tend to work collaboratively and contribute to the proper functioning of the society (Hotchkiss and Rupasingha, 2018). Leaving the country directly impacts on the social capital of a country. Besides social capital, financial and human capital also gets transferred to the developed country which further delays the development process of the developing country. Students who migrate to the UK and take admission in any reputed college or university pay a fortune. This contributes to the economy of the UK and negatively impacts on the economy of India as a form of reduced financial capital. According to Raut (2017), students pursuing higher education in Indian education institutions tend to work for the country and contribute to the growth of the country. However, migration to the UK deteriorates that too and creates a gap in the total amount of human capital of the country.
For a country like India its rising population has been putting a toll on the government and the overall budget of the country. Several initiatives for controlling the population explosions have been failing. During this crisis, when the nation is struggling to provide public facilities to the citizens because of the dense population, students migrating to the United Kingdom have been helping in the reduction of the population of India. According to Aalbers and Bernt (2019), a reduced population has been creating a gap and saving financial public resources that can be used for improving the facilities provided by the government. Reduced population can help the country India to attain improvement in various sectors and attain growth.
Reduced population emotes that the government can save governmental resources for improving the public facilities such as health care and education systems. Improved public facilities can help in improving the lifestyle of Indian citizens. This can even contribute to reduced migration rates. Improved infrastructure will prevent an increased number of students from leaving their country for higher studies in the United Kingdom (Mottaleb, 2019). Improved and advanced infrastructure will encourage people to stay in India while contributing to its economy as well.
Reduced unemployment rate
Reduced population directly enhances the employment opportunities. Less population will allow people seeking employment opportunities to choose from a wide range of jobs in various sectors. As the labour market of India is comparatively small according to the huge population so reduction in population directly impacts the unemployment rates and helps to reduce it. People of India will get better work opportunities with adequate wage rates. As influenced by the ideas of Chen and Hou (2019), it can be stated that reduced unemployment rates indicated increased job opportunities for the citizens of India and enhanced living standard which can help in preventing students for higher education so that they can get work opportunities. Increased employment opportunities can help in attracting students to India after completion of their course.
Indian students performing well in their higher academic years in reputed colleges and universities contribute to the exposure of the country India. Students performing well on a n international level can help India to attain exposure. People get to know about the country of origin of the student who attends excellence. Even after completion of higher education, Indian migrants performing well on a global level provide a positive impact to the country. An Increasing number of sponsors from all over the world are trying to invest in new talent emerging from India (King and Sondhi, 2018). Students, sports persons and people in various sectors of India effectively attract investors which contribute in their growth and an advanced position of India on the global level.
Students migrating to the United Kingdom from India have been contributing to the multicultural population of the UK. This multicultural population helps to create a society where various cultures and its aspects are respected and valued at the same time. As stated by Alnajiet al. (2016), people from various countries and cultural backgrounds, helps to develop a multicultural society which is rich and provides knowledge and values of different cultures and society from all over the world to the residents. On the other hand, diverse culture helps in promoting innovation and creativity within the various aspects of society including educational institutions and business institutions. Adapting and accepting other cultures helps in eliminating racism, culture based discrimination from the society of the UK while making cultural diversity a social norm.
Reduced labour shortage
Increased number of students migrating to the United Kingdom reduces the issue of labour shortage within the country. Due to the limited population of the United Kingdom, having migrant students helps by providing an increased workforce for the labour market. This even makes labour availability easy and budget friendly. Students are usually in search of part time work opportunities which help the business owners to employ an increased amount of workforce in reduced wage rate. This enables functioning of society in a proper and hassle free way (Liu‐Farrer and Tran, 2019). Migrant students also help in work related to the college or university as well. The back office tasks or organisational tasks with the educational institution can be managed with the help of the extra labour attained in the form of migrant students.
Increased number of international students applying for colleges and universities in the United Kingdom provides economic stability to the country’s economy. The educational institutions take an increased amount of fees from the international students as compared to the local students which have been contributing to the increased revenue generation of the education system of the country (Hall et al. 2017). Privately owned educational institutions have to pay taxes to the government of the UK which further attains growth with the increasing number of migrant students from developing countries like India. Besides, educational expenses, other expenses including living expenses, accommodation expenses, food cost of the migrant students also helps the country by providing economic stability. The total amount of resources a student spends during pursuing higher education in UK based colleges and universities directly affect the economy of the country positively.
Increased budget for health care and education
Migrant students contribute to the increasing population of the United Kingdom. Increasing population contributes to the increasing budget of the country. Based on the statements of Hajela and Sumption (2017), it is quite evident that expenses regarding the education system and health care directly get affected because of the increased number of Indian migrant students migrating to the UK. This increased budget puts a toll on the country. Though migrant students pay for their expenses still the UK government has to provide them superior healthcare and educational facilities similar to the local students so that migrant students do not feel discriminated against. This is one of the major disadvantages of increased numbers of migration to host countries like the UK. Besides that, after completion of the higher educational courses students expect job opportunities in the country and tend to stay there because of standard of living (Bijwaard and Wang, 2016). The UK government has to provide work opportunities to the migrants in various sectors who have completed their studies in colleges and universities of the UK.
In Spite of having superior quality infrastructure an increased number of Indian students migrating to the UK have been resulting in overcrowding in various major cities of the UK including London, Manchester, Birmingham, Leicester, Sandwell. In the viewpoints of Rao and Chou (2019), it is quite evident that overcrowding has been contributing to the reduced number of accommodations available. Though students tend to live in shared spaces, the large number of migrant students has been putting an impact on the functioning of the big cities and resulting in overcrowding. People are compelled to live in congested buildings and efficient living conditions which has been negatively impacting the living standards of citizens of the UK. The cities have been becoming more and more congested while availability of labourers has been contributing to lowered wage rates. Migrant students tend to agree for working in reduced wages due to desperacy for attaining financial independence.
Cultural difference related conflicts
Conflicts in the society start to increase due to the increased number of migrant students staying in major cities of the UK. Students have to face racism from their fellow classmates or other peoples in the society which contributes to conflicts related to cultural differences. Besides racism, when cultural values and ethics clash among the permanent residents of the UK and the migrant students it also results in conflicts in various aspects of the society. This deteriorates the harmony of the society. In order to control these issues related to cultural diversity educational institutions have been educating the students for becoming more culturally appropriate.
- Challenges faced by Indian migrant students in UK
Culture shock is the first challenge students who migrate to the UK from India encounter (Sondhi and King, 2017). Culture of a country impacts its food, lifestyle and other various social aspects. Students feel difficulty to adapt to the new culture and adjust with the new culture.
Access to local services
Students face difficulty during the times of illness or in times of emergency as the local services are limited for the citizens of the UK. In the views of Riañoet al. (2018), international students migrated to the United Kingdom have to pay for every local service they attain. This puts a toll on the financial condition of the students pursuing their studies in the UK.
High living costs
The living expenses of the UK are much higher as compared to India. This affected the students and they felt difficult to adjust to limited resources and had to struggle at first. Gradually as they arrange part time jobs for earning some money students start to adjust in the new country.
The theories that have been discussed here focus on the ways through which the education can be engulfed or achieved by a person who is willing to learn. The literature gap of the theories lies with the motivation factor of learning and the ways in which the people feel motivated or demotivated towards learning more. Moreover, the theories do not focus on the factors that motivate the Indians to migrate to other countries like the United Kingdom. Hence, it can be said that the literature gap would only allow individuals to know the ways of learning and in what environment learning can be better. The theories have discussed the superior ways of attaining education and by which students will be able to get employed in a superior and reputed organisation. However, the literature does not dictate the reason behind migration of the students for educational purposes in the current times. This has created a gap in the literature. The literature that has been discussed have provided effective ways of learning that can contribute to the increased amount of motivation among the students to attain knowledge which denotes that Indian educational system can be improved according to the literature. As stated by Bhandari (2019), it is quite evident that making adjustments in the educational structure can help to prevent the brain drain. Developed countries like the United Kingdom have been following the learning theories to develop a superior education system which has been attracting the Indian students in increased numbers to their countries. Data collected for the research work can help in establishing a proper understanding about the matter. Primary data can help to mitigate the issue of the literature gap.
Methodology is important in any study as it helps in analysing tools and techniques that can help in gathering information and data effectively. In this context, qualitative data collection method had been done for which positivism philosophy, deductive approach and descriptive design was considered. The interview was conducted on 6 students through semi-structured questionnaire. Thus, stratified sampling technique was chosen for analysing diverse set of views from cross-section students. Methodology helps to attain data from citation resources through a certain method. Collecting data from reliable and authentic resources is the main task of establishing methodology for any research work. The Research work has been established focusing on the data collected from primary data resources. The data resources are the six chosen students who are opting for migrating to the United Kingdom for attaining higher studies. Data collected from the students will allow us to get an insight to the current situation in student migration to the United Kingdom from India. The factors that have been influencing the students to migrate to foreign countries for batting education has been analysed with the help of the data collected through qualitative data collection method. According to Gerring (2017), qualitative methods allow us to collect data through interviews or any observational resources. The non-mathematical and non-statistical data collected through qualitative methods have helped to understand the point of view of the students who have completed one year and pursuing their higher studies in the UK. Underlying reasons, motivation and opinions of the six students can be identified with the help of the data collected from first hand resources.The advantages and disadvantages of the education systems of their country of origin India and the country they have been residing in for pursuing their higher education can be identified with data collected from the six students.
The research onion of this research work provides all the states that have been covered while developing the research strategy. As influenced by the ideas of Sahay (2016), it can be stated that each layer of the research onion from the outside states every step in a more detailed version. The first layer states about the research philosophy that has been chosen for this research work. Positivism has been chosen. The second layer of the research onion have talked about the research approach which has been chosen as deductive or the research. The third layer emphasizes on the research strategy for collecting data. In this research qualitative primary data collection method has been chosen to collect first hand data from six of the students who have both the experiences of studying in Indian and United Kingdom. Semi-structured interview questionnaires have helped in the process. The fourth layer states about the choices made for the method of data collection which is in this case qualitative. Then the research onion focuses on time horizons and techniques and procedures that have been used in the research work regarding the increased number of student migration to the UK from India.
3.2 Research philosophy
The research philosophy states an accurate way of gathering information, analysing it and finally using it for the research work. Choosing positivism as the research philosophy has helped the researchers to use factual information for the research work rather than focusing on information that is unnecessary for the research work. Positivism philosophy was chosen in this study as it helped in analysing information and data through reason and logic. It helped in analysing the differences of higher education system between the UK and India and the reason for Indian students to study abroad. It helped in gathering quantifiable and observable facts for observing the elements and analysing them effectively. The data collected through this philosophy have helped to establish a proper understanding about the reason that has been influencing the migration of Indian students to developed countries like the United Kingdom. The aspects that have been lacking in the Indian education system have been identified with the help of the factual data collected from the six student participants. Besides trusting the data, the body language and attitude of the participants have been observed too. Positivism has allowed researchers to focus on proofs that directly indicate the solution (Ryan, 2018). The attitude of the students has been compelling them towards applying for foreign colleges and universities so their attitudes have been analysed during the interview sessions. Researchers have analysed the economic condition of the students as which have helped to identify whether the students have been struggling to collect the funding required for the abroad education or it’s easy for the Indian students to apply for higher studies in the United Kingdom. The research philosophy has allowed us to gain data that is true to its nature and can enhance the quality of the research work. Six of the participants that have been chosen for the research work have completed their studies in Indian education system and have completed one year of their higher academic year in the United Kingdom. This makes these students perfect for the research work as they have experience of studying in both the countries. Positivism is the research philosophy chosen for this particular research work which has utilised the information provided by the participants about their experience effectively (Žukauskaset al. 2018).
Deductive approach was chosen as it helped in analysing the reason of Indian students preferring to study in UK and the ways its culture has an impact on them. Kumar (2019) stated that deductive approach helps in deducing facts and information for a specific area from a large and generalised area. In this study, it helped in understanding experience of Indian students which promotes a chain among the students to study in the UK. Based on the statements of Woiceshyn and Daellenbach (2018), it can be stated that the deductive research approach is focused on the application of aimed and tested theories or hypotheses. The hypotheses that have been mentioned in the literature review including “Cognitive Theory of Education ”, “Theory of Indian Diaspora”, “Social Learning Theory ”all are theories of education. These theories have helped to establish an understanding of appropriate and high-quality education systems. As Indian education system has been lacking in the quality of education students have been opting for foreign colleges and universities for pursuing their higher studies. The students have also spent one year of their higher education curriculum in the UK colleges and universities which have helped the overall research work to develop a proper understanding of both the education systems. Pros and cons of Indian as well as UK education system can be identified with the chosen research approach which is deductive.
Applying the educational theory or hypothesis to the current situation of Indian education systems will help to identify the aspects that have been lacking in the Indian education system. The hypothesis of this research work has been developed based on the educational theory as it is executed through deductive approach. The current situation has contributed to the migration of the Indian students towards the United Kingdom. The requirement of good quality education has been attracting students from developing countries to developed countries. The data collected from the participants will help to identify whether there are any other reasons behind the migration or not. Interview sessions that have been arranged to question the six chosen students who have participated in the research work have provided adequate data. In the data the participants have revealed their desperation for escaping from Indian education systems that lack practical knowledge. The deductive research approach has also helped to identify the opinions of the participants towards the education systems they have gained since their childhood and the education systems they are willing to explore during their higher education years.
This study had chosen descriptive design since it followed a case study approach which helped in analysing barriers and innovations that the students faced during their higher education in the UK. Fletcher (2017) commented that it is the method which helps in describing and observing behaviour of a subject without making any impact. In this study, this design was chosen as it involves case study research through qualitative data without impacting normal behaviour of the subjects. Research design of this research work that has been used is the descriptive design. Descriptive design has enabled a vast and broader insight to the issue of student migration that has been rising in the current years (Vijayaraniet al. 2016). The research consists of two sets of interviews with the six participants who are students have completed their first year of higher education in United Kingdom already. The first set of interview questions have been arranged with questions that have revealed the opinions and attitude of the participants towards the Indian education system. Their opinions about the knowledge and skills they have been taught thorough Indian education system along with the lessons they have been attaining from the past few years have been analysed. Reason behind choosing descriptive research design is that it does not affect the qualitative data collection method and the quality and authenticity of the data that have been collected. However, the second set of interview questions have been developed in order to establish a proper understanding about the effects of various external factors on the education systems of the United Kingdom that makes it superior to the Indian education system. Semi-structured questionnaires of the primary data collection method have helped the researchers to attain data in descriptive research design. The interview has taken place through the means of telephonic conversation. Descriptive research design has helped to establish association between the various variables for proper understanding.
The method that was chosen for the study was primary method as it helped in collecting raw information and facts regarding effects of globalisation in influencing the students to go for higher education. This method was chosen as it helped in analysing perceptions and opinions of the students regarding India and the UK higher education system. Primary data collection method allows the researchers to obtain data that can be used in the research work through first hand (Chiappero-Martinetti et al. 2018). The first-hand information is essays to interpret and understand. The research is based on the students migrating to the United Kingdom from India for better educational purposes. This is the research that six participants have chosen for the research work who have spent one year in United Kingdom to pursue higher studies in their respective subjects or fields. Researchers have chosen interview as a method of data collected through primary methods. Asking them semi-structured questions has allied to attain data regarding their opinion and attitude towards the education systems of Indian and United Kingdom. This data has helped to establish a comparative understanding behind the main causes that have been contributing to the student migration to the UK from India. Data collected directly from the data resource guarantees the quality and authenticity of the data which enhances the quality of the overall research work too. This data collection method has allowed us to obtain data regarding the education systems of the UK along with its advantages and disadvantages for the students. These advantages and disadvantages have been compared to the education systems of Indian as the students have both the experience.
Qualitative technique was chosen as it helped in analysing complicated factors in both political and social institution which influenced the higher education aspect of the students. This technique used semi-structured interviews for understanding their current decisions regarding higher education. Qualitative data collection techniques have allowed the researchers to explore the factors that affect student’s mentality towards their own government and its education systems and their interest in studying outside their country. This type of data can be obtained through observation and by recording process. Based on the viewpoints of Male (2016), it can be stated that the non-mathematical and non-statistical data that can be collected through qualitative data collection technique have been attained through a semi-structured interview. Six students who have completed one year of their higher education year in the United Kingdom have been approached for collecting effective, authentic and relevant data to the research work. They have experience in studying the education system of the United Kingdom and Indian both. The financial condition of the participants and how they have managed to collect the funding required for the fees of the foreign college or university can be understood by the data collected from the students through open ended interview questions. Open ended questions have helped to establish a proper understanding about the matter. The participants have expressed their views and opinions in a descriptive way with the help of these interview questions developed to collect data through qualitative data collection techniques.
This technique helped in understanding the problems the students faced while undergoing higher education in the UK. Various factors such as the labour market, global image and historical background of the United Kingdom attract an increased number of migrant students in their country. However, students face several difficulties to adapt to the new culture of the country. This data collection method has allowed us to understand the opinion of the students regarding their departure. The doubts and assumptions the participants have regarding the education systems of the UK and the possibilities they can consider for their future in the new country have also been identified. Observing the body language and attitude of the participants is also possible because of this data collection technique (Chu and Ilyas, 2016). Obtaining data from first hand resources have helped to analyse the authenticity of the data that has been collected for the research work. The chosen six participants can help in developing a proper understanding about the migration of Indian students to the United Kingdom for the desire to attain superior quality education as compared to Indian education system. However, besides these requirements Qualitative data collection methods have helped to identify other objectives of the students that they want to fulfil after they complete their higher education in a college or university of the United Kingdom. The future goals have been disclosed because of the data they have provided to the researchers.
The sampling size for this study was 6 students who have the required expertise and knowledge regarding higher education system in the UK and India. The focus was on those students who had already completed one year of their education in the UK. The reason of choosing this sample was that it helped in analysing barriers and innovation that either hinder or initiate progress of education in the UK. The students had been chosen since they had the experience of studying both in India and the UK. The students have provided a comparison of the education system in India and the UK. This comparison has helped to identify the aspects that have been lacking in India. On the other hand, the advantages provided to the students studying in the UK have also been identified effectively. The sample size is adequate to understand the factors that influence the Indian students to pursue their higher education in the United Kingdom even if it is expensive compared to the colleges and Universities in India.
The importance of these participants was that they helped in identification and understanding of effects of globalisation in pursuing their higher education in abroad. These students even provided information that has helped to understand that out of several countries that provides superior education why they have chosen United Kingdom. The significance of the United Kingdom’s history has helped to understand the reason behind the increased number of Indian student’s migrating to the country. As the students have experience of studying in India and abroad they can provide the advantages they have attained after migrating to the United Kingdom. Besides this, the advantages, disadvantages have been identified too. The challenges or barriers that migrated students face during their initial years have also been recognized as the six participants have spent one year in the United Kingdom already. Culture shock faced by the students takes some time to get the student adjusted in the new education system and new social environment. The sample size has effectively provided insight to the labour market of the United Kingdom and the several part time job opportunities available for migrant students which allow them financial independence. The money earned by the students allows them to pay for theory college or university fees and reduces the financial; pressure from their families living in India. However, the Indian education system rarely provides any part time job opportunities to the students pursuing higher education. In some UK universities students can work within the university campuses for the university itself as well. These influencing factors have been identified with the help of the small sample of six interviewees who have already completed one year of their higher education in the United Kingdom.
Ensuring ethical considerations have helped the research work to execute without any obstruction or external barriers. Ethical issues can usually deteriorate the flow of work or sometimes may cause stoppage of the research work.
Identity of the six review participants has been protected through confidentiality. Maintaining anonymity has helped in establishing confidentiality in the research work. Ensuring anonymity has allowed the participants to freely express their opinion about the education system of both the countries without being concerned about any political or external pressure. In the viewpoints of Petrovaet al. (2016), safety of the participants has been ensured with the help of confidentiality. Besides safety concerns the possibilities of providing biased data can be eliminated as well. Students have been able to freely provide their opinions to the researchers regarding the research topic. Interview questions asked to the participants have been answered in a thorough and insightful way by the students which have helped the overall research work to reach to a proper conclusion.
In order to prove that the participants were not forced to take part in the research work and provide data through the interview session informed consent has been attained from the students. The six students have been explained about the objective of the research, the aim of the research and other important aspects of the research work for their proper understanding. After the particles have understood about the research work, the participants have been asked to sign in the consent papers as a proof of their agreement. The consent letter revealed that participants have been informed about the research work and have been willingly participating in the research work (Ahaltet al. 2017). The ethical consideration of ethical consent has helped the researcher to avoid any lawsuits or legal changes from any of the students denying the information about the research work and claiming that unknowingly he or she have participated.
Maintaining the privacy of the data obtained from the participants of research work based on primary data is one of the major ethical considerations. In order to maintain the ethics of the research work, the researchers have stored the obtained data in a safe and private storage which has been accessed by authorized personnel including the researchers only (Martin and Murphy, 2017). This has protected the research work from imitation and has effectively maintained the privacy of the participant’s opinions and data provided by them. Ethics has been ensured in the research work which has allowed the researchers to execute the research work properly.
Chapter 4: Findings and analysis
In this study, primary qualitative data technique was chosen in which the interview was to be conducted on a set of 6 students through semi-structured questionnaire. The two set of interviews had been conducted in which the first set contained questions regarding differences of education system in the UL and India and the reasons of their choice while the second set contained the effects of globalisation, labour market, global image and historical significance of the UK education system.
1.1 What are the problems of Indian higher education system?
Student 1: “The teaching quality of the Indian education system is not good as that of other countries. The teachers are not well trained and do not posses adequate qualification. The young graduates are recruited in colleges who have no knowledge and experience.”
Student 2: “The use of quota system in higher education is very controversial and it becomes relatively difficult for a general student to get into higher education just through merit. Even if the student gets admission through merit, he has to compete with those students who are not meritorious but have got admission through quota.”
Student 3: “Political influence is the biggest thing which hampers quality education in India since most of the colleges and universities are ruled by college unions who disrupt classes and interrupt with the quality education system. The parties are concerned of serving their interests rather than the interests of the students.”
Student 4: “The initiation of research and development activities in universities and colleges are scarce as the education is designed only to serve the students with hefty pay package and an attractive job. There is no project oriented learning that can improve cognitive and entrepreneurial skills of younger generation. “
Student 5:“The obsession of getting selected on campus is another problem for the students since they think that getting job is the sole criteria for education system. There is no clear strategy on the part of the government in developing innovative skills of the students. Moreover, the students also are reluctant deliver innovative solutions since they tend to stick to their traditional approach. “
Student 6: “Funding is another problem in higher education system as most institutions and colleges do not have adequate infrastructure like libraries, science equipment and other necessary things. The spending of the government on education is very low and it is required that the government improve its investment in Indian higher education system.”
1.2 What do you prefer to study in the UK to India?
Student 1: “London is considered to be the hub of educational institutions due to its effective infrastructure which caters to establishment of modernised educational institutions. The graduate and post graduate degrees are done keeping in mind needs and wants of younger generations. Moreover, the inter-cultural aspect in higher education aids in giving cultural tolerance among the students.”
Student 2: “The education in the UK is highly valued all across the world with its world-class infrastructure, libraries, new courses and equipment making it an attractive destination for the students. Moreover, it is a multicultural country having diverse faiths, languages and cultures with strong transportation, global sporting events and famous musical events. “
Student 3: “The UK offers over 50,000 courses in more than 28 subject areas, giving wider choices to the students. The students can choose any degree or diploma course. Going to these universities are a new experience as there is a wide range of societies and clubs which enrich the lifestyle of a student.”
Student 4: “The project based work with the experiences of real life projects help in improving the experiences of the students. Quite often the students get to work as a trainee or apprentice during the courses which helps them to improve their both soft and hard skills. This is the reason for attraction of the UK as higher education market.”
Student 5: “The higher education system comprises of highly talented and renowned faculties who are specialised and experts in their fields. The faculties have on-the-filed experiences and some of them are entrepreneurs. It gives a greater scope to the students who are able to build their decision making capabilities and innovative skills.”
Student 6: “The UK is known for its upgraded technology and improved system along with its business friendly environment making it an attractive destination for all the people. The experiences of the previous students make a deep impact on current younger generations to study abroad and earn recognition. It is well known for its students that the degrees and the courses that are offered by the UK higher educational institutions have huge prestige and importance all round the world. “
1.3 What are the differences of quality of higher education in the UK and India?
Student 1: “The main difference in the higher education of the UK and India is that of their approaches as Indian oriented education is more theoretical and lacks creativity while the UK based education is more of practical oriented learning. Here the students are taught either to become Engineers or Medical professionals. It makes the education system in India very degree oriented. However, in the UK, it is more of a learning process where the students get to develop both their soft and hard skills.”
Student 2: “The difference lies in the way students are being trained of taking education. This means the students are taught from the early age that they are required to get good jobs so they should take courses for fulfilling that purpose rather than the subjects of their interest. This is the reason the courses are designed to specifically meet needs of the students which results in low enrolment of the students in other courses. The students also do not get required faculties and experts in those subjects. It is not in the case of the UK where the students can pursue their subjects of interest and they can get experts in required fields.”
Student 3: “The main difference lies in practical implementation of the courses means what we learn we can apply. However, in Indian education it is not so since the learning is confined to books only. Though India is progressing in its education sector, it is not as progressive as that of the UK. Besides this, the students in the UK get to enjoy social life which is not so popular in India. The mindset of India is confined to only good education not quality education.”
Student 4: “The education system of the UK permits working while studying which is difficult in India. In the UK, most of the foreign students work in a placement or internship, part-time job which helps in developing their skills but in India it is not easy. The scope of doing part-time jobs, or internship in the UK is limited as compared to the UK. As a result, when the students pass-out, they find difficult in getting jobs since they do not have the required skills. If they get jobs, then they are not happy with it.”
Student 5: “The social life is one of the top attractions for the students in the UK as it helps them to balance their studies and social activities. Here the students get an opportunity to interact with multi-cultural students which further improves their cultural tolerance. However, it is very limited in India where it is expected that the students will remain confine to courses and education which gives limited opportunities to the students to enjoy their social life. Besides this, international student societies help in resolving problems of the students so that they can fit in their culture. Outings, activities and events can help in studying user-friendly environment for global students.”
Student 6: “Funding in the research in foreign universities is done by largest companies like Microsoft and Google which helps in offering effective initiatives. Moreover, the UK universities offer innumerable scholarships for the global students that are limited in India. It adds to the prestige and reputation of the students when they pursue education from the UK due to its global standards of education. The UK system of education is taught in English Language unlike Indian system of education where there are vernacular languages.”
1.4 How do you perceive the brand image of the UK’s education system?
Student 1: “The difference between Indian and the UK education sector is that the latter has a more practical approach than the former. The higher education system in the UK is rapidly transforming themselves into organisations that can be competitive in the world. It shows that the students are given practical experiences of a workplace that can help them to become active workforce without having any prior experiences. I have found that it is having a more market oriented approach that makes students acquiring skills and potentialities as required in global market. The HEIs or Higher Educational Institutions are facing the pressures of improving strategic balance for creating this brand image.”
Student 2: “It is known to the students that the London is the hub of financial and technological institutions which make the students skilled and technical experts. This increases fascination of the students in getting accessibility to world class institutions. Globally, the prestige of HEIs in the UK is more than some other countries, which makes them attractive for the students. The concept of branding is evident from HEIs since those HEIs having low reputation are required to build themselves as brands for targeting specific groups while the highly reputed HEIs are not required to differentiate themselves for they can build their reputation. This branding helps to differentiate between high and low reputed HEIs.”
Student 3: “The brand reputation of the UK education sector is related to the number of skilled and productive youth that it delivers every year. The HEIs are known for its superb infrastructure, world class educational facilities and renowned faculties that paves way for its brand image. The investment of the government in its educational policies has further paved the way for global brand image of these educational institutions. Currently, the country is best known for education and it is also known for its 5th rank in 2019. This is one of the reasons of its brand image in HEIs. Its top 10 universities are also having global ranks among top class educational institutions. For this, the UK is considered as popular destination for the students to pursue higher education.”
Student 4: “The promises of branding in higher education in the UK focus on quality which results in both aspirational identities and positional advantages. This helps in giving more opportunities and higher status in this globally competitive market. We are optimistic that seeking higher education in the UK will help them in getting high paid jobs in MNCs. This will further help in improving our position and securing our lifestyle. While for others, the brand image of the UK education sector is related to its exposure of the students in various areas which can improve their innovation and entrepreneurial skills.”
Student 5: “The Education in the UK has been perceived as the brand in relation to its competitors like the USA and Australia. It is perceived as high quality and elite class though less friendly and expensive than Australia. The improved collaboration of the government with the overseas governments has further paved its brand image. It is noted that this increased number of students in HEIs are ruled by this perception of brand. For example, I have taken admission in the university after considering its ranking in the world reports, its success rates and its popularity among the students. I have also scrolled down the number of courses offered by them, most popular courses and fees before considering it.”
Student 6: “My perception of brand image is the reputation of the college and university in international ranking and whether it provides required courses as per my topic of interest. My conception of brand image is oriented in whether the institution is able to meet my expectations though I have found costs to be higher. However, this does not concern me as long the educational institution is fulfilling my requirements. Its reputation for the high quality education has been my key influential factor for choosing my current university. I have found that the concept of brand is synonymous with new class of alumini and increased resources for ensuring that the students display market oriented skills and knowledge”.
The education system of India and the United Kingdom has been explored through these thematic interview questions. The aspects of Indian education system that had been lacking and compelling students to take admission in UK universities for attaining quality education have been identified through the interview session. The first question asks students about the problems they have been facing while attaining education within Indian education system. It has been identified that the quality of the education provided to the students are not up to the market as the teachers are not properly trained or educated. The reservation system for lower caste students in higher education in India have been creating challenges for general cast students to attain admission in leading educational institutions. Political influences on the admission system of Indian education system, lack of research and development initiative within the universities and lack of proper educational infrastructure can be considered as some of the major barriers of quality education. The reasons behind choosing the UK over India in terms of higher education have been analysed as well. Leading research institutions in the United Kingdom have proper educational infrastructure and variety of courses have attracted international students from India. Leading readers and technology instituted situated in London which has created it as an educational hub preferred by students from all over the world. The faculty members are highly educated in the UK and utilize technological advancement within the education system for providing high quality education. Major differences among the education system have been identified with the help of the third interview question under this theme. Indian education system is dependent on theoretical knowledge and does not prioritized practical knowledge whereas the UK education system emphasizes cognitive learning. The purpose of attaining education in both the countries is fodder. UK students are taught to choose their subject of interest whereas Indian students are compelled to take up the course that will provide those jobs and a source of income. This has contributed to the brand image of the UK education system which attracts an increased number of students from India each year.
2.1 What are the aspects that have limited or encouraged your decision to study abroad?
Student 1: “I have always been influenced by quality of education standards since I think that quality education is important to become skilled employees. I hope pursuing education in the UK will help me to get employment in top-notch organisations and MNCs with hefty package. I will also get to roam around the world and get to know various cultures. It will enrich my knowledge and skills and help me in meeting challenges.”
Student 2: “The aspect of English Language in foreign universities has limited my decision in studying abroad since I am not well-acquainted with their accents. I have to take special class for improving my English communication skills and my friends have also helped me to improve my accent. Besides this, the cost of foreign education is very high though I have got good scholarships. I think the students opting for foreign education should be well-acquainted with this language so that they do not face any problems in their learning process.”
Student 3: “I have interest in entrepreneurship as I seek to open a company in future. For this, I need to build both my hard and soft skills. I prefer UK for my education as the country offers best opportunities for practical learning. I think internship and part-time job will further help me in getting required entrepreneurship skills. Though my parents have been initially reluctant for sending to the UK, I have convinced them since I think it is the best place to realise my career. My interest in learning new things is also one of the reasons for this decision.”
Student 4: “I have heard a lot from my friends regarding education system of foreign countries. I have been amassed by their infrastructure, high technical equipment and renowned faculties. I have been encouraged my friends and since I have got opportunity to study in best college so I have taken this opportunity. To me, getting education from top reputed colleges helps in improving prestige and giving immense opportunities to work in my areas of interest. I am hoping to return my country after finishing my degree since I seek to work in MNCs in domestic country.”
Student 5: “The problem of Indian education is that it has not been able to internationalise its education for attracting students from other countries. This has encouraged me to pursue higher studies in abroad. I consider it important to have international recognition as it will help me to get good exposure anywhere in the world. Moreover, I have interest in research as I hope to continue my studies further that can help in my research work. They update their curriculum after few years which will help me to remain upgraded with the latest changes. The initiatives for research are more in the UK.”
Student 6: “Initially I have been quite apprehensive about getting higher education abroad since I am new to its culture and environment. I have conveyed my apprehensions to my tutors who have encouraged me to go ahead with this foreign education. They have also told me that few students get opportunity to study abroad as they seek for quality students and the education is also very expensive. I have got scholarship and I am very happy that I have taken the right decision since I have been able to learn many new things. I hope that this will help me to improve my skills and provide innumerable opportunities.”
2.2 What is the historical importance, according to you, is attached to the UK’s education sector in Indian society?
Student 1: “High education in the UK has a greater historical importance to the Indian students since Britains have ruled the country at a time. It can be said that the Indian education has started its practice from this UK education practices. The use of English Language goes back to pre-independence era where the English has been taught to the people so that they can serve the English companies. The English has initiated the development of schools and colleges in the country which have further helped in improving education scenario of the country. Britsih education is considered as the instrument of upward social mobility based on the historical context that only powerful, rich and affluent families can send their children to British institutions. Thus, there is a connection between India and the UK regarding this quality of education.”
Student 2: “The linkage of education to the productive workforce and adopting of new technologies along with low rates of crime is found in the UK education sector. The prevalence of English as the first language in Indian schools helps the students to opt for higher education in the UK. Moreover, the role of English education in building and framing Constitution has also paved the role of historical importance to UK education sector. The role of Woods Dispatch in framing education in India shows that both the countries can relate one another in education sector. The Western values are considered to be superior by the Britains and for this reason many students still prefer to enrol in UK institutions.”
Student 3: “The UK boasts of a multicultural society which paves the way for growth and learning opportunities for various students. For instance, the Muslims feel less discriminated in the UK. The change to the Western education from indigenous education has paved greater progressive ideas and rapid technological transformation. I have found that the students seeking for education in the UK find similarities in these ideas and thinking. They do not feel alienated and are easily able to get integrated in its cultural and social aspects. It is found that the freedom struggle of Indians have drawn influence from this Britain mode of education so this historical influence dates back to pre-independence era. Moreover, some courses in Indian educational system are influenced by this Western education. Overall, it can be said that the influence of this UK education has generated further interest among the students for pursuing higher education in the UK.”
Student 4: “Education and culture are denoted as “chicken or the egg” which helps in establishing their causal relationship. The historical influence is found in the ways interactions among the ideas and cultural groups that can form strategies of social changes. The Indian society perceives education in the UK as most progressive and influential as it paves the ways for technological transformation and scientific revolution. For instance, the Industrial Revolution has first started in England which has made the country gain importance as a progressive nation. This has passed through generations with the younger generations still perceive the country as the hub of quality education.”
Student 5: “I have found that the cultures of the UK and India are almost similar and the students in the UK are broad-minded. They are more open to various cultures and almost all of them the past relations of both countries. The history relating to humanity is concerned with the interactions that have paved ways for forming civilisations. The range of conversation among the students is concerned with the civilisations and the political influences in framing policies of education from ancient times, showing increased importance of historical context.”
Student 6: “Some people in Indian society are not in favour of getting education in the UK since they think that the country has done more harm than good. The Britains have ruled Indian society physically for 200 years and it is continuing to do so psychologically by influencing students to run after their education system. Due to this, the students are forgetting their culture and language. However, some others view that the progressive education system in the UK is helping the students to bring rapid technological, social, economical, and environmental changes which are transforming lives of people into sustainable living standards. It is bringing positive changes in the societies and communities.”
2.3 What is the impact of globalisation in higher education sector?
Student 1: “It has become important to analyse the threats and opportunities for higher education sector which shows the importance of globalisation in education sector. Globalisation helps in facing global challenges through collaborative effort as the international students implement innovative skills which can bring improved technologies. Globalisation helps us in understanding demands and requirements of businesses in employing right set of people. It helps in increasing demand of education among global students.”
Student 2: “Globalisation helps the students to choose from a range of courses and areas that help in building both hard skills and soft skills. It helps in overcoming the barriers of getting education which can make positive impact on the world. For instance, “Education for All” by the UNESCO has been implemented for ensuring that all human beings are having quality education. It has also made the leading educational institutions to provide right environment where students can learn and develop their knowledge and skills.”
Student 3: “Though globalisation has helped in improving various aspects of education, it has increased costs and living expenditure of the students. For instance, the costs of higher education in the UK are higher than that of India. Moreover, the students have to take part-time jobs or find other alternate jobs to meet their daily expenses. The students also face language barriers if they do not have expertise in English language since it is the medium of teaching in the UK.”
Student 4: “The trend for better life and opportunities has begun to dominate curriculums and policies of colleges, schools and universities for giving all-round initiatives to all the students. With reference to “Global Village”, this aspect of globalisation has helped in easy processes of admission, setting of the foreign universities and online educational opportunities. However, the problems of globalisation in education sector are that it removes the domestic educational pattern, paving way for a different learning pattern and culture which the students are required to learn and adopt. Though globalisation has helped in easy accessibility for the students in getting desired education, the students often forget their roots and try to imitate other culture.”
Student 5: “Globalisation has also helped in paving brand image of the education sector since the universities and colleges now strive for improved education that can help them to get good ranking in global market. The recent rise of the reports from global institutions in which the universities and colleges are given rankings as per their quality and standards, have generated a lot of interest among them. The universities and colleges are upgrading their systems, infrastructure and teaching faculty that can help in producing expert students. It has also helped in increasing entrepreneurial skills in students as they get to attend the seminars of industry experts and leaders of various organisations.”
Student 6: “The shifting of the focus relating to education role in globalisation has modified the conditions of structural adjustment concerning policies of global organisations and the World Bank for low-income and underdeveloped countries. It helps in preventing interference of the political players in disrupting the education since the policies and the framework have to be adjusted as per international standards. High quality education has become face of an economy as it helps in growing reputation of that economy in global market. It is a general perception that the country having higher educational prospects help in generating good business environment.”
The factors that influence students to invest their resources for attaining quality education in the UK have been identified through the interview questions in this theme. The quality of education provided by UK universities is the main factor that influenced students to apply for foreign universities. However, the British accents can be considered as a communication barrier for the international students going there from India. The cultural and social aspects have also created a curiosity among the students and the desire to explore the country and its country has also attracted students towards the country. As India was ruled by British rules for almost 200 years, modern students have the desire to know more about the British culture and advancements within their society. Additionally, globalization has provided exposure to the foreign culture in India which has again attracted students. They have utilized the benefits of globalization and chooses their preferred education course in the UK if not available in India.
3.1 Do you consider that this increased trend of Indian students going abroad for higher education will have adverse effect on Indian economy?
Student 1: “No, I do not think so as pursuing education abroad gives a broader exposure which helps the students to serve their home country better. The purpose of getting education is to contribute positive attributes that can bring improvement in humanity. Foreign education helps in growing both in professional and personal terms so the students returning after getting foreign degrees can serve their country effectively. I consider it as the greatest platform to hone my knowledge and skills so that I can contribute for betterment of domestic country.”
Student 2: “It is the dream of the students to get higher education from foreign country which gives them better exposure and knowledge. However, the students after pursuing their degrees get so much engrossed in foreign culture that they forget their own. This is one of the reasons of this brain-drain as the students start to seek jobs in MNCs where they can get hefty amount and live a lavish lifestyle. Yes, this is definitely a worrying situation but it is also required for the government to improve quality of education so that it can match to global standards.”
Student 3: “Since I have an innate desire of opening a company, I will be doing it in my home country since it will give me an opportunity to serve my country. I have seen students coming in foreign country for pursuing education end up living here as living standards of this country is high. Moreover, it gives immense opportunities to enrich their knowledge so they think that rather than serving their domestic country if they serve the foreign country then they will be in a better position. I am against this mindset so I am hoping to serve my country.”
Student 4: “Indians studying abroad is good for the country because ultimately the students will be serving their home country. Even if they work in a foreign country, they will be sending money to their relatives and families residing in home country so it will be an added advantage for the country.”
Student 5: “In my perspective, it depends upon the students whether they want to return to their country or live in foreign country. The behaviour and perception of the students influence their decisions. Precisely, it is not equal for all the students since I have seen that some students return their country after getting their degrees. They return due to their homesickness and I do not think that a mere course of some months or years can make a student reside and serve in foreign country. Since the culture and tradition is ingrained in a student from his or her origin, it is not possible to change it overnight.”
Student 6: “It is true that the students are exploring better opportunities abroad so they generally seek for those areas where they can improve their career. Most of the cases, they do not find required areas in domestic market since it cannot offer them required prospects. This going to damage the economy in the long-run since the foreign country is benefitting from these skills and qualities. They are offering abundant opportunities which attracts the students and they shift to these countries for better future.”
4.1 What is the impact of competition in the labour market?
Student 1: “Greater competition helps in creation of effective jobs since organisations drive in building creative and improved workforce that can help in improving their productivity. I think making industry open to global competition for driving labour helps in creation of more productive employment. When the jobs are made more productive then it helps the employees to get good wages. Competition helps in better creation of jobs which also helps in removing problems of unemployment.”
Student 2: “Progress concerning better jobs results in disappearance concerning low-productivity jobs though it results in creation of productive employment in short-term. Competition helps in dynamism by which the firms can exit and entry with minimal in hording of labour in those firms that have been enjoying strong market power. For instance, competitive bidding process in those sectors that employs large number of employees help in improving job position in those sectors.”
Student 3: “Students seek higher education for improving their knowledge and skills so that they can become productive in the organisations. Competition in labour market helps in creation of a healthy competition among the employees where they can deliver innovative solutions. However, greater competition in labour industry can also result in narrowing gap in earnings of the genders. It helps in long-term gains that help in minimising barriers of foreign and trade investment that helps in shaping costs of adjustment and domestic competition.”
Student 4: “With the help of integration of global value chains and improving exposure to this global competition helps in improving economies by gaining robust growth and improved productivity. When the students are given improved workplace, then we get to know various cultures and working practices which help in improving our tolerance and developing further skills. I have also found that the costs of mobility of labour in developing countries are twice more high than those of developed economies.”
Student 5: “Competition in labour market helps in removing negative perceptions of the people regarding vulnerabilities of the companies in global competition. The liberalisation of private markets has given the scope of building of global MNCs which paves the way for strong working practices. Creation of jobs on a massive scale helps in developing shared prosperity and finishing extreme poverty in each economy. The recent formation of international agreements, treaties and bilateral agreements show that global competition helps in building improved relations. It also helps in sharing of knowledge and skills that brings better collaboration with the teams.”
Student 6: “Competition in this era in the labour market is encouraged as it is preferred by younger generations. Our younger generations seek for competitive environment, challenging tasks and multitasking activities that can drive their interests. We seek for a workplace where we can grow and improve our careers which also helps in improving productivity and growth. It also helps in bringing creating values for mankind and creation of environment that can bring sustainable practices. This creates a global economy and harmony paves the way for development.”
From the above analysis of the statements from the students,with the advent of competition in the labour market, a greater drive has been achieved towards productive employment. It has impacted by improving on the level of productivity of the firms, and has helped in the right allocation of labour forces towards being productive within an industry. The students also have been affected by the steep competition in the labour markets. Although students look out for such opportunities to excel, but it tends to create a confusion, whether to opt for higher education, or be content with the current degrees. It has brought about terms such as over qualified and under qualified, within the minds of the students. The capabilities needed to be possessed by the students have been subjected to various types of questions (Fowler-Watt and Jukes, 2019). It is not just the educational qualifications, that have come under the scanner, but the skill sets required for a particular job can also be questioned. When the skill sets of the students are weighed against their educational qualifications, the results can be of a major concern. A qualified student may not possess the skill sets required for a job, and vice versa. This is what competition in the labour markets have done to the students. A greater emphasis is laid on achieving better grades, which can make them available for a particular post. Cognitive skills do require the attention, that it has lacked in the present day and age, in the United Kingdom. Apart from the impacts on the students, due to the labour markets, it is the educational systems that need to adapt to the same.
5.1What are the barriers do you think Indian students can face while going for the UK’s education sector?
Student 1: “For an average Indian student, getting education in the UK can be expensive since educational costs are much higher in this country than any other countries. Adding with it is the living costs since the living standard of the country is higher than India. I have experienced such difficulty which forced me to take part-time job in a restaurant. Most often, some students have also taken part-time job in various sectors.”
Student 2: “Students who do not know English face greatest problem since English is the major language in the country. Though there are diverse set of students, most of them prefer to communicate in English. The number of Europeans in the classrooms may be greater but communication is confined only in the classrooms. Once they get out of the classrooms, the foreign students have to initiate conversation with them.”
Student 3: “Sometimes, the students feel homesickness since they miss their friends and family which results in regret of their decisions. One of my classmates has been sad since her father has not been in good health for some days. She has not been able to communicate with her family due to some technical errors. I have found that this is the major problem and the students have to push themselves to boundaries for getting acquainted in this environment. I have never experienced this problem since skype and google have helped me to overcome this problem.”
Student 4: “Cultural shock is another problem since the students find it difficult to get along with their classmates. The food culture is also different which further creates problems since Indians rely on various dishes and ingredients which are not available in the country. Eating in a restaurant is expensive for a student. We have to do everything on our own which is though at times difficult but help in making one self-independent. Starting from cooking to washing clothes, everything needs to be done on own. ”
Student 5: “Since students come from diverse backgrounds, it is evident that there will be cost inequalities and lifestyle differences. It makes a student feels depressed of he thinks that other students lead a better lifestyle than him. It creates depression so it is advisable to be focussed on one’s goal. Moreover, the courses of the UK are more practical oriented rather than theoretical as found in India which creates problem for the Indian students during their initial years. They require more time and effort to improve their skills and knowledge for understanding the courses effectively.”
Student 6: “The problem of Brexit has resulted in change of immigration policies which can be a major hurdle for getting education in the UK. Even after completing their study, the students may have wait longer for getting Visa and settling in the UK. Moreover, the rapid political changes in the country can create hurdles in getting admission within stipulated time.”
After an analysis of the above statements from the students, in the very first thought, staying and studying abroad would fill the minds of the students with imageries of exploring the new place, getting to know people around and having a time of their lives. But, in actuality, the rude can be a bumpy one. There are various adjustments that needs to be made. From the perspective of an Indian student, the problems might double themselves, as in the United Kingdom, everybody requires to do their own things. The Indian students might find that to be a little worrisome. In general, the Indian kids tend to be protected, more than required, who are raised being pampered much. Cooking and the household activities, are not what they actually prefer doing on their own. Most of the houses have servants to take care of such activities. With the advent of tuition classes in the homelands, students find it difficult to concentrate more on self-studies. All these aspects see a dynamic change on the foreign land (Grady, 2019). They must acclimatize to the conditions and culture. They must look forward to leading an independent life, which would not only include getting the groceries, but also budgeting the monthly expenses. On top of all these, the studies require special attention, none the less. Moreover, the educational system of the UK can also present the Indian students with some sort of concern. The Asian students are greatly inclined towards a lecture-based classroom environment, whereas, the classroom environment of the United Kingdom encourages active participation and animated discussions. Patience and perseverance, it what it may take, in order to cope up with the life in the UK.
Chapter 5: Recommendation and Conclusion
It can be concluded that there are huge differences between education system in India and the UK which has forced the students to consider for higher education in the UK. Though the students face some barriers and problems during their education in the UK, they prefer to study due to its world class infrastructure and varied range of courses. It is required for the education system in India to deliver effective strategies that can help in improving its education quality. The study has helped in analysing potential barriers and advantages of getting education in the UK and the reason of preferences of the students for studying abroad. It is to be noted that the UK education system has been able to maintain its quality and standards which has helped to attract students from various nations and classes. The study gives an overview of the education practices in both the countries and the ways education sector should be upgraded for meeting emerging needs of these younger generations. Thus, the study has paved the way for improved practices and strategies in analysing the perceptions of students. The research has helped in understanding the point of view of the student and their requirements to pursue their higher studies in international colleges or universities especially in the UK. In search of quality education that can help to establish bright future Indian students tend to migrate to the United Kingdom. Bring an educational hub, United Kingdom provides advanced education inducing current trends and techniques which attracts an increased number of students from a global level. Educational institutions in the UK provide various courses to the students which are also difficult to find in India. Indian education system requires up gradation and has been following a curriculum that is irrelevant to the current society and condition.
The research work has helped to identify the aspects of the Indian education systems that have been lacking. These lacking aspects have been failing to provide good quality education to the students and the employment systems in the country have been failing to provide work opportunities to the newly graduates. Unlike UK students have not been provided with part time job opportunities that can provide them financial stability and make them capable of bearing their educational expenses (Ploner, 2017). All these factors of Indian education systems have been compelling the students to migrate to the United Kingdom to pursue their higher education. This has been affecting the economy of India negatively. In order to cope up with the situation and prevent an increased number of students from migrating to the United Kingdom to pursue their higher education several initiatives can be taken. These initiatives can be taken by the Indian government for training improvement in the conventional framework of the education system of India. The relevant and effective initiatives that can be recommended are as follows,
|SMART||Indian education system can emphasize on cognitive learning process|
|S-Specific||Making changes in the conventional framework of the Indian Education System can help in encouraging the students to pursue their higher studies in India rather than migrating to the United Kingdom for educational purposes.|
|M-Measurable||Effectiveness of the recommendation can be measured with the reducing number of student migrants leaving India for attaining higher education in the UK. Increase in the number of students taking admission for higher educational courses in Indian educational institutions can help in measuring the efficacy of the recommendation.|
|A-Achievable||In order to achieve the recommendation Indian education system has to redevelop the classroom environment and teaching system totally inducing cognitive learning methods in it (Scherer et al. 2019). New learning outcomes have to be connected with previously learned lesions for better understanding.|
|R-Relevant||This recommendation is relevant as redeveloping the learning system while inducing cognitive learning can help to promote practical usage and in depth understanding of the lessons within the curriculum of Indian education Institutions. This can change the opinion of Indian students towards the education system in India.|
|T-Time based||In order to bring such a change in the education systems it can take 1-2 years to obtain approval from the government.|
|SMART||Eliminating the reservation system for the admission process in reputed colleges or universities for higher education can be recommended.|
|S-Specific||This recommendation is specific as it will help to encourage the students who feel wronged because of the reservation system to stay in India and get admission in reputed organisations for pursuing their higher education degrees (Sönmez and Yenmez, 2019). This can motivate the students to not migrate to developed countries for a fair chance and better education system.|
|M-Measurable||This recommendation can be measured with the reduction in students getting in Indian educational institutions on the basis of their merit rather than on their caste or social background. Fair admission process can be considered as the measure of the recommendation’s efficiency.|
|A-Achievable||This recommendation can be achieved with effective initiatives from the Indian government towards improving the admission process within the Indian education system.|
|R-Relevant||It is relevant because it provides fair opportunity to students with talent and good academic performances. This can help to encourage the students who are willing to leave their own country and migrate to the UK despite the possibilities of having difficulty adjusting to adjust in a new country.|
|T-Time based||It order to achieve this recommendation 1-2 years time is required to get approval; of the government on the petition of removing reservation system from admission process.|
|SMART||Indian government can introduce improved employment systems for new graduates to reduce the number of students migrating to the UK.|
|S-Specific||Providing employment opportunities after completion of the higher studies is the most important concern of the students. However, India fails to provide adequate work opportunities for the students. This is one of the major reasons for the increased number of students migrating. Providing enough employment opportunities will help in preventing the students from migrating to the United Kingdom for higher studies.|
|M-Measurable||Efficiency of the recommendation can be measured with the increased number of newly graduates in various sectors of Indian society. Fair and unbiased recruitment system can help in reducing migration rates to the UK from India.|
|A-Achievable||In order to achieve the recommendation Indian government have to take initiatives for revising the employment and recruitment duy\system of the country. Besides the public sector, private sectors have to be willing to recruit new graduates in their organizations.|
|R-Relevant||Guaranteed work opportunities after completing higher studies is the major requirement of the students that are willing to pursue higher education. Education system that can fill these requirements can effectively attain increased number of students registered for various educational courses.|
|T-Time based||To fulfil this recommendation Indian government may take at least one year.|
|SMART||Introducing new part time work opportunities for students pursuing higher education in Indian colleges and universities can be recommended to improve the current condition of student migration.|
|S-Specific||Financial independence helps students to reduce the burden of educational expense from their parents’ shoulders. Providing part-time work opportunities within the college or university campus can help India to encourage students to stay in India and apply for Indian colleges and universities for pursuing higher educational courses.|
|M-Measurable||Increased number of students taking admission in the colleges and universities of India and taking up part-time job opportunities will be the indication for measuring the efficiency of the recommendation.|
|A-Achievable||Pricing small work opportunities with adequate wage rates inside college or university campuses and various departmental stores can help to encourage students for attaining financial independence and collecting educational expenses on their own. Government has to develop legislation regarding the part time work hours and adequate wage rates for higher education students.|
|R-Relevant||This is relevant as providing the opportunity to work alongside studying is what makes western and developed countries student’s favourite. Introducing similar opportunities in India can help to motivate students to stay in India and pursue higher education in their own country.|
|T-Time based||Government of India has to take required initiative which may require 1-2 years as it is a lengthy process.|
|SMART||Reducing theoretical classes and increasing the number of practical classes in the curriculum of higher study courses can help in improving the situation.|
|S-Specific||Practical classes provide better understanding of the lessons provided to the students. Introducing cognitive learning processes in the Indian education system can help the students in regulating the old lessons with new learning outcomes. Increased number of laboratory and practical classes can help in implementing the recommendation in Indian education system.|
|M-Measurable||Increased educational outcome for the students can help in measuring the efficiency of the recommendation. Reduction in student migrants leaving India for pursuing their higher studies in the UK can be considered as an indicator of the efficiency of this recommendation.|
|A-Achievable||Changing the conventional education framework in India and inducing cognitive learning techniques can help in improving the education system of India. Improved education system can help Indian students to stay in India and motivate them to pursue their higher studies with superior education from Indian colleges and universities.|
|R-Relevant||This recommendation is relevant as it can help to improve the education system of India and give a proper reason to the Indian students to stay in India and pursue their higher studies in their own country rather than spending a fortune to migrate to the UK for higher educational purposes.|
|T-Time based||This can take 6-8 months for being implemented as it requires effective initiative and approval from Indian government and Indian education ministry.|
5.2 Areas of need for future research
Future researchers can effectively execute their research on the various learning techniques that can be induced in Indian education system to encourage students to enrol in Indian educational institutions for higher studies. Improved education system can help the Indian government to attain trust of the Indian students in the education system from a tender age. The learning techniques that can provide a positive result for the students can be analysed with the help of these research works where the faults in the current education system can be identified too. Researchers can execute further research on the reservation system of Indian education and employment structure that provides privileges to the people belonging from lower caste and minorities (Bhattacharyya et al. 2017). Research on the reservation system can help to gain knowledge on the pros and cons of the reservation system and its impact on the Indian students and their attitude towards the Indian government as well.
On the other hand, the situation of the migrant students in the United Kingdom or any western countries can be considered as an excellent topic for future research work. This can effectively provide an insight to the challenges faced by migrant students from developing countries. Based on the viewpoints of Wessendorf (2018), it can be stated that the barriers they face to settle down in a comparatively large and developed nation can be analysed and solutions for the issues can be developed too. The increased amount of fees migrant students has to pay as compared to local students and other expenses that are hard for students coming from small countries can be identified as well. The facilities that these countries offer to their permanent residents in employment and educational sectors and opportunities can be considered as a subject that can be explored in the future research. The major comparison between the courses and subjects that UK based education national institutions offer and their internet resources for attracting international students to their institutions can be further researched. This furniture research can help in developing proper understanding of the marketing strategies and usage of the internet that stabilises their countries economy. Migrant students contribute to the GDP of the UK with the educational expenses and as an educational hub UK have been successfully attracting students to several reputed educational institutions.
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|1. What are the problems of Indian higher education system?|
2. What do you prefer to study in the UK to India?
3. What are the differences of quality of higher education in the UK and India?
4. How do you perceive the brand image of the UK’s education system?
5. What are the aspects that have limited or encouraged your decision to study abroad?
6. What is the historical importance, according to you, is attached to the UK’s education sector in Indian society?
7. What is the impact of globalisation in higher education sector?
8. Do you consider that this increased trend of Indian students going abroad for higher education will have adverse effect on Indian economy?
9. What is the impact of competition in the labour market?
10. What are the barriers do you think Indian students can face while going for the UK’s education sector?
Appendix 2: Participant Information sheet
How are the differences between the Higher Education systems of India and The UK: The Research Project
My name is RitubenRudani, currently studying MA Education, Culture and Society at St. Mary’s University. For my final semester dissertation I plan to carry out a small-scale study examining six participants have chosen for the research work who have spent one year in United Kingdom to pursue higher studies in their respective subjects or fields.
Why am I being asked to participate?
You have been asked to participate in this study because you have an experience of studying in the UK. This means that you hold required knowledge to critique regarding the education system of UK. Your opinions will prove to be beneficial while in the process of distinguishing in between the education system of UK and India with regarding to pursuing higher education. I will share the complete findings with you and you can surely give your valuable feedback. Also. There are no payments involved in your participation, you will just have to answer some of the questions, which I will send you prior interview. I am planning to carry out the interview in the mid of August, I hope that is fine with you.
I promise that, my supervisors and I can see the raw data of the interviews and field notes and they will not be shared with anyone else. The data will remain confidential between the researcher and supervisor.
The University stipulates that ALL data must be saved on its Server. All the information will held confidentiality on the University’s server. Also all identifiers will be removed like your name and university name and etc.
No one else will be allowed to see this data or information of the interview transcripts in your university or your tutors.
None of you will be carrying research that is intrusive or invasive but you must include a few sentences to that effect i.e. Your participation in the project will not involve any form of risk but, should you not feel comfortable answering particular questions, or you wish to withdraw from the study at any time, you are free to do so.