ENG740 Engineering Research Methods and Postgraduate Assignment Sample
RESEARCH REVIEW PAPER ON IMPLEMENTATION OF ELECTRIC RIM DRIVEN FAN TECHNOLOGY TO UNMANNED AIRCRAFT
In the implementation of electrical rim driven fan technology to unmanned aircraft, the propeller of the aircraft’s performance is reduced generally during the time when the speed that in the tip form generally becomes in the sonic form that actually causes the maximum level of the aircraft’s speed that is usually attainable is to make limited by the diameter of the propeller. In case of SUA, that is generally referred as Drones are actually becoming more popular in the society and are generally used widely in the application of recreational and commercial.
Figure 1: SUA including fans driven by hub
The major vastness of the of this type of aircraft actually are powered electrically and the proper use of batteries that are of Polymer of Lithium for the storage of energy’s on boarding and the motor of the Brushless DC for the driving of the three or two bladed prominent propellers that is conventional for the process of propulsion.
Figure 2: BLDC controlled motor’s structure
Various users who are recreational generally have the keenness for building drones that are actually built in home and this actually resulted in the healthy and well known market for the related components’ compatible drone’s range that is generally extensive.
According to Robert, 2019, the main implementation of rim driven fan technology to Unmanned aircraft that is electrical, the prominent propeller of aircraft’s advance performance is generally reduced at the time when the speed that is in the tip form actually turns into the sonic form that usually causes the study of the maximum level of the specific speed of the aircraft that is actually attainable to make this limited by the exact diameter of the prominent propeller. In this case of implementing SUA, this is actually referred to as Drones that are usually becoming very much popular in society and are actually used widely in prominent applications of recreational and commercial use. The vital vastness of this type of aircraft are generally powered in the electrical form and the prominent use of batteries that are actually of Lithium Polymer for proper storage of energy’s prominent on boarding and the specific motor of the DC that is Brushless for the proper driving of the 2 or 3 bladed specific propellers that is generally conventional for method of propulsion. Different users who generally recreate have the eagerness for implementing rim driven fan technology that is electrical and this actually resulted in the well known market for related components’ compatibility of drone’s specific range that is actually extensive. It is actually very vital for the ensuring of the torque that is actually startup in form is generally generated by the windings’ implementation of the electrical rim driven fan technology to Unmanned aircraft. The propelling that is electrical that is generally of the aircraft is very much popular in the society and the countries that actually reduced in the form of the technology’s advancement. However the propulsion that is electrical generally helped in the propulsion. Actually, the electrical technology propulsion that is generally increasing for the simplification of the peeler design of the implementation of the rim based design of the fan technology that is more efficient and during the implementation of this technology (Robert, 2019). Here, the great vastness of the technology is actually reduced at the specific time when the actual speed that is in the form of tip actually turns in the sonic form that actually results in the max level of the aircraft’s speed.
According to Yuriy, 2018, this might be referred to as the management of energy that is actually one of the vital issues that is actually faced by the society. Here, this rim driven technology of fan to Unmanned aircraft that is actually electrical are generally very much vital and generally leading in the proper adopting of the friendly environmental technology that actually make a success in the for the proper implementation of the technology in the proper way. However, this technology for the unmanned aircraft actually provides a positive impact on the possibility of the prominent powered technology in the electrical form. Propellers of the variable pitch, propellers of contra-rotating and propellers of fixed pitch are the vital types in the implementation of the rim driven fan technology to unmanned aircraft that is actually electrical. This actually recommends the future study of this implementation of the technology that exactly ensures the overall characteristics that are prominently addressed (Yuriy, 2018). This is very much vital and the popular aspects for the ensuring of the prominent torque that is actually in the proper startup form and is actually generated on the specific windings’ energisation form that is very sufficient for torque’s overcoming that is generally in the form of cogging is usually generated by the communication and the interaction that is stator and the specific field of magnet which is permanent.
- Calculation of Total Magnetic Flux
The author, in this result found various kinds of prototypes which are base4d on B or flux density. This kind of density is usually generated with the help of electro-magnetic circuits. Various simulation models and equations are used by the author that can provide a high speed flight which can involve an accelerating circuit of the aircraft on the basis of the high speed category (Shahmoradiet al 2020). In this kind of speed the ambient air helps to maintain the thrust for overcoming the main drag which is incurred in the perfect speed. Here the main ratio of the outlet pressure to that of inlet air is critically important for determining the speed at maximum level which the main aircraft can attain with. The author also demonstrated in his article that it is mainly possible to build or construct the RDF devices at a very low cost and it can also be capable of interfacing the UAV which is commercially available.
Figure 3: Comparison of performance between RDF and BLDC technology of motor
2.Characterization of Thrust
From the analysis it is also seen that the Ns which is known as the number of the rotor stages comes in the form of 4 and this calculation mainly illustrated the RDF concepts that can potentially allow the UAV for achieving a high speed of the subsonic flight. The authors have used two useful tables to understand the properties of RDF results. The table shows that when the input voltage is 4 the speed is generated as 3.97 and the thrust efficiency is generated as 42%. The author makes a conclusion also that the main fan in the aircraft has to be rotated in a higher speed of 7000 rpm which is comparatively less than the normal planes which consists of 5500 rpm (Ajenikokoet al. 2020). The author had also mentioned that a relatively high speed is also involved with the accelerating force of aircraft that can maintain the fan in order to impart energy. FPR or Fan Pressure ratio is determined with the help of maximum speed of 1.75, which is quite normal in the case of turbo-fan engines.
- Prototype od RDF Design
The author also mentioned the design concept of RDF and the arrangement of various tandem fan rotors. The main installation process is also similar to the axial flow in the compressor flow state that consists of a pressure ratio which is in the between 1.2 to 1.3. The author also does a performance comparison between RDF and BDLC in the concept of motor technology and the result is given in the above picture (Jansen et al. 2019). Their analysis is also involved with the CFD modeling techniques that can drive from the configuration of the fans in the way of performance charts. The author also made a prototype of rimless fan blades that was installed and constructed on the basis of conventional motor out-runner and also tested the lifting performance on the basis of powers and speeds. The proposed model was able to take off or lift the weight of its own. Their full analysis helps to determine the value of RDF that was the most important and suitable design of the fan. The author also did “semi-empirical fan” design and analysis by adopting the aerodynamic shape of the fan which is mainly capable of sustaining adequate pressure.
- RDF Analysis of Weights
In the implementation of rim driven fan technology to unmanned aircraft that is generally electrical, the prominent propeller of the exact performance of the aircraft is usually reduced at the time span when the exact speed that is in the tip form actually transforms in the sonic form that usually results the max level of the aircraft’s exact speed that is actually attainable in form to make this limited by the proper diameter of the propeller (Bolamet al. 2021). In this implementation case of SUA, this is generally referred to as Drones that are usually becoming more vital in the whole society and are actually used in the wide level in the prominent application of the aspects that are recreational and commercial. The main vastness of the of this specific type of aircraft implementation actually are prominently powered in the electrical form and the prominent use of batteries that are of Polymer that is made of Lithium for the specific storage of specific energies on boarding and the prominent motor of the Brushless DC for the proper driving of the blade that is 2 or 3 in number.
Figure 4: Testing of performance of the fan that is four bladed and BLDC motor that is conventional.
- RDF Configuration of a high speed flights
The prominent propellers that is conventional in form for the proper method of propulsion. Different users who are very recreational actually have the eagerness for proper implementation of this technology and this actually resulted in the well known market for the components that are related for the compatible drone’s proper range that is actually extensive. This is very vital for ensuring the torque that is in the form of startup that is generally generated on the specific windings’ energisation that is very sufficient for the overall overcome of the torque that is in the proper form of cogging that is generally generated by the specific interaction that is stator and in the field of magnet that is generally permanent. This implementation of the rim driven technology to Unmanned aircraft, generally has the specific ability for the proper responding and the exact mitigation of the unknown and known challenges that generally remain as an vital factor that is usually integral in the form in the ability that is collective and properly understanding for the specific remaining of the situation that is actually relevant. In this implementation, the actual technology development is generally in the advanced form. This implementation work actually is referred to in the form of the proper combination of electric motors that are battery powered and a combustion engine that is internal and in this case this can be viewed as the technology that is actually transitioning in the proper form of the electrical rim driven fan technology to Unmanned aircraft.
- UAV Perspective in the design
Here, the exact performance of the fan or propeller is the most significant and is generally reduced at the time of the speed of the tip in which sonic force is causing the max level of the airspeed that is actually attainable. The conduction of the implementation of the technology generally indicates the specific propeller and the motor configuration so that here this generally becomes rim driven and this actually provide the prominent performance and different vital advantages that is actually operational and it can properly inspire the whole design of the specific speed of configurations of UAV in which this prominently powered by the multi stage, contra rotating and hub less compressor of the electrical fan (Radmaneshet al. 2018). Here, in this implementation of the technology this generally includes overall analysis, prototype of proper testing and design, less cost and the demonstration of the concept. This is generally demonstrated that in this type of configuration of the prototype this will not be more efficient as a propeller and the motor of the Brushless DC that is actually conventional. In this implementation this is properly demonstrated that this fan technology that is actually rim driven in Unmanned aircraft can be successfully and properly applied in the propelling and the lifting of the Unmanned aircraft. This implementation of technology actually indicates the proper rearrangement of the DC Motor that is brushless and the prominent configuration of the propeller. The motor that BLDC in the conventional form actually includes 3 or 2 bladed propellers that are driven by a hub that combines the overall technology in the proper form and that is very well suited.
Here, it can be concluded that this can be demonstrated that electrical rim driven fan technology to Unmanned aircraft can be used successfully in the prominent propel and lift of an Unmanned aircraft. The initial goal of this implementation is the investigation of the feasible study of the application of the driving of the electrical rim fan technology to the unmanned aircraft. As the outcome of the implementation work is done, this can be concluded that the electrical technology of the RDF can be prominently applied to the propel and lift of a UA. However the RDF’s testing that is generally of performance has actually demonstrated that is usually in the present form of the prototype. This will not be more efficient as the BLDC that is actually conventional and the proper arrangement of the propeller like that are found typically on the aircraft that is Unmanned and multirotor. This implementation also provides the spotlight on the feature that is actually problematic, that actually relates with the torque of the motor that is actually cogging. However, the RDF’s architecture actually makes it prone to characteristics of the torque that is cogging that actually characterizes that can affect the performance of the startup and the reason of vibration at the low speed of rotation. Therefore, this is actually recommended as the future study of this implemented technology that generally ensures the characteristics that are properly addressed. This is very much vital for ensuring the torque that is in the startup form is generally generated on the windings’ energisation that is very much sufficient for the overcome of the torque that is in the cogging form is generally generated by the interaction that is stator and the field of magnet that is permanent.
Ajenikoko, G.A., Nwagbara, V.U., Ojekunle, E.O., Akinjobi, B., Adepoju, O.S., Ojekunle, P., Omotosho, O.S. and Osinubi, O.A., 2020. Design and Implementation of An Improved Camera Mounted Remote Controlled Quadcopter.
Bolam, R.C. and Vagapov, Y., 2017, September. Implementation of electrical rim driven fan technology to small unmanned aircraft. In 2017 Internet Technologies and Applications (ITA) (pp. 35-40). IEEE.
Bolam, R.C., Vagapov, Y. and Anuchin, A., 2020, October. Performance comparison between copper and aluminium windings in a rim driven fan for a small unmanned aircraft application. In 2020 XI International Conference on Electrical Power Drive Systems (ICEPDS) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
Bolam, R.C., Vagapov, Y., Day, R.J. and Anuchin, A., 2021. Aerodynamic Analysis and Design of a Rim-Driven Fan for Fast Flight. Journal of Propulsion and Power, 37(2), pp.179-191.
Chittoor, P.K., Chokkalingam, B. and Mihet-Popa, L., 2021. A Review on UAV Wireless Charging: Fundamentals, Applications, Charging Techniques and Standards. IEEE Access, 9, pp.69235-69266.
Hebala, A., Nuzzo, S., Connor, P.H., Giangrande, P., Gerada, C. and Galea, M., 2021, April. Improved Propulsion Motor Design for a Twelve Passenger All-Electric Aircraft. In 2021 IEEE Workshop on Electrical Machines Design, Control and Diagnosis (WEMDCD) (pp. 343-348). IEEE.
Hebala, A., Nuzzo, S., Volpe, G., Connor, P.H., Giangrande, P., Gerada, C. and Galea, M., 2020, June. Feasibility Design Study of High-Performance, High-Power-Density Propulsion Motor for Middle-Range Electric Aircraft. In 2020 IEEE 29th International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE) (pp. 300-306). IEEE.
Jansen, R.H., Celestina, M.L. and Kim, H.D., 2019. Electrical Propulsive Fuselage Concept for Transonic Transport Aircraft. In 24th ISABE Conference.
Kerem, A., 2021. Design, implementation and speed estimation of three-phase 2 kW out-runner permanent magnet BLDC motor for ultralight electric vehicles. Electrical Engineering, pp.1-13.
Martinez-Guanter, J., Agüera, P., Agüera, J. and Pérez-Ruiz, M., 2020. Spray and economics assessment of a UAV-based ultra-low-volume application in olive and citrus orchards. Precision Agriculture, 21(1), pp.226-243.
Qiao, G., Liu, G., Shi, Z., Wang, Y., Ma, S. and Lim, T.C., 2018. A review of electromechanical actuators for More/All Electric aircraft systems. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 232(22), pp.4128-4151.
Radmanesh, M., Kumar, M., Guentert, P.H. and Sarim, M., 2018. Overview of path-planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms for UAVs: a comparative study. Unmanned systems, 6(02), pp.95-118.
Shahmoradi, J., Talebi, E., Roghanchi, P. and Hassanalian, M., 2020. A comprehensive review of applications of drone technology in the mining industry. Drones, 4(3), p.34.
Song, Y.W., 2020. Analysis of Technology Evolution Trends for Predicting Future Technologies.
Know more about UniqueSubmission’s other writing services: