ESSAYS ON PHILOSOPHICAL PRINCIPLES
For causes so varied as amusement, divine worship, and political peace, human cultures have been interested in sport (Baker, 2020). Summers and Egyptians of ancient times practised games in preparation for war. The ancient Greeks and Romans did the same for whom sport had also great social and religious importance. In classical Greece, for example, sporting competitions were a place where tradition and excellence were displayed (Cohen-Almagor, 2017).
Developing and defending an account of fair play in sport by using respect (Kant)
In 1724–1804 Immanuel Kant argued that the categorical imperative” standard was the highest moral principle (CI). CI, notwithstanding the natural pulses and inclinations, has been described by Kant as an objective, rationally necessary and absolute principle to be observed. According to Kant, this principle justifies all the specific moral demands activities against the CI are irrational. Other philosophers, like Hobbes, Locke, and Aquinas, have argued that moral criteria are based on logical principles. These criteria were thus either instrumental rational principles to fulfil one’s wishes as in Hobbes or abstract rational principles that could be sought by argument, like in Locke and Aquina (Varden, 2018).
The pursuit of sports excellence played an important role in Hellenistic culture, where the search for success in mind and body was one of the most unifying practices of society (Lunt and Dyreson, 2017). Likewise, ballgames have served religious, social, and political purposes in the Maya civilization, for example by forming a collective bond, thus reducing local variations and conflicts (Fox, 2019). Like many of his contemporaries, Kant has acknowledged A practical motif analysis reveals the necessity of communication between logical actors and instrumental principles. He also claimed, however, that the reasonable organization must be compatible with the CI (a non-instrumental principle), hence the moral criteria themselves (Sticker, 2020).
The claim is based on his striking doctrine that a reasonable will must be treated independent or autonomous as the creator of the statute that binds it. Nothing but the rule of an independent will is the basic morality concept [the CI]. This is a conception of reason that goes well beyond that of a Humean slave in his passions over basic problems at the heart of Kant’s philosophical philosophy. It is also in every single person that Kant thought that the existence of this self-governing cause was a definitive reason for finding all equally respected and worthy of equal respect.
At least since ancient Greece, scholars have focused on the essence of the sport. Plato and Aristotle found the sport to be a central component of schooling and human prosperity. An informed Greek requires a balance between mind and body by athletic competitions, among other things. In the Romanesque and medieval periods, meditation persisted on the role sports play in human life and society. Sports were instrumentally interpreted as instruments for training warriors in Rome.
The fifth book of Virgil’s Aeneid, for example, centres on celebrating games of pace and power in readiness of the Romans for battle. Sport played a major part in Christian imagery in medieval times, despite a lack of public relevance. Augustine referred to Apostle Paul, for example, in the City of God as ‘Christ’s athlete.’ Like Plato and Aristotle, Thomas of Aquina promoted the importance of nurturing the body and soul as humans.
There is a chance to develop meaningful social accountability in the learners amongst the two concurrent purposes of physical education (PE) and sport. Promoting social responsibility and character building for the sport and PE are important because participants can advance their moral thought, encourage their prosocial actions, and develop their sportive skills (Naylor and Yeager, 2017).
Reason of sport is a poor moral educator
Schools have a rare chance to concentrate on social actions in young people. School services are being called in to shield children from social dysfunction and collapse. The concern about the growth of youth problems was a reason to raise participation in active youth involvement and to increase demand for post-school programmes. Moral education is increasingly becoming an issue in progressive scholastic programmes today. It is difficult to establish educational support conditions for student-athletes, but sport can flourish. Those who advocate rivalry and play firmly agree that EP and sports can inspire ethical decision-making and athletic conduct. (Stoll and Beller, 2020).
A program designed for the formation of a positive character will provide students with a social atmosphere to gain personal and social ideals, as well as to conduct that leads to character and citizenship. Certain schools have responded by denying entry to sporting activities to fans and competitors’ poor behaviour. Other school districts need sports instruction for parents to build and strengthen their social responsibilities when participating before their children engage in athletics (Nuhrat, 2017). Hellison’s personal and social responsibility model was based on the contents of the club.
Social accountability requires being attentive to the rights, feelings and wishes of others, self-nutrition and professional growth. It aims to encourage risky young people to take more responsibility for their lives and invest in self-development independently of external factors which substantially restrict their vision and future choices. (Hellison et al., 2017).
Evidence suggests that the mechanism of spiritual maturation is not likely to begin until character growth is specifically approached. The coach or physical instructor, therefore, has the duty and ability to build circumstances that improve the growth of the character of children. A long-term relationship with young people is needed. It proposes six potential strategies for managing the hostility of young athletes and fostering positive sporting or PE values:
Coaches, trainers, and parents should be a guide for moral thought and athletic and provide young athletes with playful and safe environments. Sports rules and frameworks should be amended to address the developmental and growth needs of each young athlete. Inadmissible actions and discipline should be encouraged, endorsed and emphasised by media and referees. Coaches should not be judged, promoted or relied purely on their losing records. Finally, each participant needs physical education and coaches to develop sophisticated moral thought, athletic techniques and expertise in the education system. (Frierson, 2019).
The ability is to improve the quality of life in physical fitness and sports programs. Participation in a competitive atmosphere or PE atmosphere may enable young people to learn how to cope with challenges and enjoy wellness, diet, and fitness, and to practice teamwork and sportsmanship.
Cohen-Almagor, R., 2017. On the philosophical foundations of medical ethics: Aristotle, Kant, JS Mill, and Rawls. Ethics, Medicine and Public Health, 3(4), pp.436-444.
Demetriou, D., and Fischer, B., 2018. Dignitarian hunting: A rights-based defence. Social Theory and Practice, 44(1), pp.49-73.
Frierson, P., 2019. Character in Kant’s moral psychology: Responding to the situationist challenge. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie, 101(4), pp.508-534.
Imbrišević, M., 2020. Paying to Break the Rules: Compensation, Restitution, and Strategic Foul. FairPlay, Revista de Filosofia, Ética y Derecho del Deporte, (18), pp.44-72.
Nuhrat, Y., 2017. Fair to Swear? Gendered Formulations of Fairness in Football in Turkey. Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies, 13(1), pp.25-46.
Poland, S., 2018. Morgan, the ‘Gratuitous’ logic of sport, and the art of self-imposed constraints. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 12(4), pp.348-360.
Sticker, M., 2020. Kant, Eudaimonism, Act-Consequentialism and the Fact of Reason. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie, 102(2), pp.209-241.
Varden, H., 2018. Kant on Sex. Reconsidered.–A Kantian Account of Sexuality: Sexual Love, Sexual Identity, and Sexual Orientation.–.
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