Ethics

Ethics Assignment

Executive summary

The research is based on the effect of potential implications of drones for personal and locational privacy. Mainly, the ethical concerns also need to be followed with the help of four theories and one standard which provides an overview of the guidelines which are to be followed by the drone operators.

The main component of Utilitarianismtheory deals with the contentment through specific action of the firm which is gifted through drones.The delivery of products via drones also be capable to view by the other citizens which augment the ethical value of the customer for availing the provision of the drone. In addition, the basic requirements are needed to be followed which are mentioned in the ACS code of ethics.

Introduction

Drones are widely used by the Australian and New Zealand citizens for a medium of earning money through using it for commercial purpose. The commercial or no-military drones are mostly deployed in the delivery of the product which simplifies the business process.

Despite that, the wedding videography, utility inspection, pest control, and land surveying are also demonstrated as the application of drone other than the medical field.

Australian Government has established standards and guidelines which are to be followed for the application of dronelike permitting the flying in daylight and the highest range is 120 meters or 400 feet above the ground. So, the research question for the report is standardized as follows.

  • What are the potential implications of drones for notions of personal and locational privacy?

In this report, the ethical analysis of the drone for maintaining locational and personal privacy are conducted with the help of Utilitarianism, deontology, social contact and character-based ethical theory. Moreover, the standards of ACS code of ethics also help to apply the drones for fair use.

Ethical analysis

The application of ethical theories helps to outline a framework for evaluation of moral issues which involves technical assistance. These theories also provide a comprehensive, consistent, coherent and systematic approach for managing the continuous business process ethically.

Utilitarianism ethical theory

Utilitarianism theory deals with the consequentialist principle of policy and act that is morally tolerable if the firm had produced the greatest goods for most of the affected people(Lyons, 2015). The morally permissible act is needed to be applied if the consequence results in high quality good in larger number.

The social utility help to enhance happiness by calculating the approach that leads to a high level of happiness. The course of performed action must be aligned with self-evaluation related to the consequences and the higher number of consequences other than goods is included as the morally permissible act for customer satisfaction.

The drones are widely used in the delivery purpose where the settings and guidelines are aligned with the theory of Utilitarianism theory(Luppicini & So, 2016).

The main component of theory deals with happiness through particular action of the firm which is accomplished through drones. As drones are widely used for the delivery purpose, the simplification in the delivery process also adds value to the consumer. The theory has been constructed through following two principles which are as demonstrated.

  • For evaluating the moral system, social utility is taken as superior to the substitute criteria.
  • Amount of produced happiness indicates the measure of social utility.

The moral values of implemented action are measured with respect to the social influences and amount of social utility has been flourished through increasing permissible policies and actions.

Rule utilitarians espouse the aspects of Utilitarianism theory by demonstrating two fragment view which enforces the impact of moral values. The specific action is morally vindicated if it follows to a justified ethical instruction and a decent regulation is defensible if its inclusion into the moral code createsthe highest amount of utility with compared to other possible rules(Wills, 2018).

The drones generally deliver the product by adapting the knowledge of the personal and locational details of customers. Maintaining security and confidentiality of the data help to add value to the consumers which demonstrate the following of the ethical theory.

Deontology ethical theory

The term Deontology is derived through the word ‘demon’ which indicates duty or reasonability. Deontological ethical theory is based on the moral system on obligation or duty rather focusing on the outcomes and consequences and the ethical theory is also known as duty-based, right-based and Kantianism theory(Grant, et al., 2017).

The principles of the theory state the individual for treating with the people which is expected by him and duty is also performed with care. According to Kant, the morality of human being depends on pure reasoning as the people have to acquire the distinctive ability for acting rationally and morally with respect to the situation.

Ethical theories where the approach of obligation and duty establishes the foundation morality are described through the deontological approach where moral knowledge is not related to the factual knowledge and the action of right or wrong.

All human beings are provided value and the application of non-military drones are applied for the betterment of society which enhances the social value of the customers. The citizens or individuals cannot be discriminated on the basis of privilege, circumstances, wealth or intelligence as they have the same moral growth(Custers, 2016).

While delivering the drone services, the customers cannot be discriminated which is included as the ethical aspect for adding social values. The duties of the drones are particularly prioritized for providing quick delivery to customers. The drones are also used for photography or video works where the snapshots of the scenery and individual are provided a main focus.

The importance of evaluating individual situations and actions for determining the morally correct action course is included as the main focus of deontology. The theory also demonstrates the all-inclusive claims which are faithfulness of duties and obligations, making compensations for any type of wrong done and the thankfulness(Novitzky, et al., 2018).

If the delivery of drone has been restricted in between the path, it would be considered as the sole responsibility of the firm for compensating the customer as it includes in the ethical principles. Self-improvement and beneficiary are also demonstrated as the act deontology which helps the drones to deliver the service in a quick manner by maintaining the privacy and confidentiality.

Social contract ethical theory

Social contract theory refers to the introduction of a moral system which is connected through contractual agreement existence in between the individuals. It comprises with both the legal and moral rights for justifying the action of constraint by adding the concept of deontological aspect and consequential list.

The self-interest for growing a moral system help to add value to the citizens and customers for buying or availing the delivery of the product by drones(Boucher, 2015). The delivery of products via drones also be able to view by the other citizens which enhance the moral value of the customer for availing the service of the drone.

Social contract theory has also stated that good citizens are encouraged by the society of good structure. However, the morality of the individual depends on the effectiveness of social laws related to mutual agreement and guarantee of right and protection.

The benefits of the theory are demonstrated through the approach of building social values, community interpretation, controlling income and wealth disparity for shared challenges in a particular community.

The peace of mind is also been established through the application of the theory which is to be followed by the drone service providers to add value to consumers. The legal obligations are derived from the legislations and laws along with the contracts which are governed by the law officers(Government.nl, 2018).

In the case of drone delivery, the maximum capacity of product delivery is of 2 Kg and the flying path of drones must not disturb another individual.

The moral contracts are also derived through a municipal and personal relation with neighbors and community culture for adding value to the citizens of the country.

In Australia, the legislation associated with safety apps of drones, safety rules, emergency flying, public space flying and traveling overseas restricts the span of the drone services and follow the ethical concern for maintaining the confidentiality of the personal and location information of the customers(Gov.au, 2018).

However, the theory also focuses on the involvement of decision making based on different moral factors and accomplishing the legitimate goal for pursuing. Human rights are also included as the crucial factor for moral deliberation which helps the drone companies to cope up with the ethical principles.

Character-based ethical theory

The difference between values and virtues are demonstrated through the application of theory which reflects that virtues are indicated as the means for obtaining the value that is intended by the customers.

Virtue in human character has been flourished with the core values which is also need to be applied in the context of drones for maintaining the ethical aspect(Schwartz, 2016).

The standard for analysis of moral behavior and acquisition of good skills and attributes traits help to add value from the social context which is applied in the field of drones. The right values for delivering the product via drone are maintained and the customers must be well-aware about the delivery.

The cultural and spiritual aspect of the theory is not discussed as it does not comprise any connection with the drone delivery.

The rules and regulations for making a decision related to the ethical aspect depend on three factors which are duties, consequences and social contrast observation. The delivery of the drone services needs to comply with all of the requirements which increases the quality of drone delivery.

The programming of the machine is to be done in such a format that the confidentiality of the data of recipient has been disclosed only to the availing customer for adding value.

The loopholes of the theory are also demonstrated through the conflict between virtues as the legislation of the country and ethical principles are followed in a structured way for effective delivery of the product(Caulfield & Laufer, 2018).

The community life is prioritized where the role of individual citizens are higher which demonstrate the social enforcement of the value generation. The ethical behavior has varied with respect to the persons which creates an opportunity for the drone service provider to fly their own machines by affiliation of Aviation reference.

The physical safety and security of the individual also need to be followed as the drones must be fly over 400 feet for removing any type of conflict-related to its application.

ACS code of Ethics

ACS indicates Australian Computer Security where the members advance and uphold the dignity, honor and effectiveness of being professional in the field of managing the electronics devices and diversified range of data.

Mainly, six societal values are included under ACS code of ethics which are characterized as enhancement in quality life, public interest primacy, competence, honesty, professionalism, and professional development(ACS, 2018).

The quality of the life and performing different operations are included under the enhancement section which is applied in the context of drone delivery as it simplifies the business process and getting the product through the machines.

On the other hand, the public interests are placed above social or business interest and the customers are also added value through the ethical principles by delivery of the product. The privacy of the customers are also maintained intimate and the ordered product description are also kept confidential which add value to consumers.

The competency of the code of ethics also demonstrates the competent and diligent working pattern for the stakeholders. The quick delivery with maintaining customers’ aspect is accomplished by continuing the ethical aspect help to maintain the aspect of profitability.

The professional development includes the expansion for the drones by adding different facilities which are concerned with the updated technical infrastructure for the drones(Government.nl, 2018).

The professionalism aspect is maintained through the integration of society and its members which has paved the path for improving the infrastructure of information and communication technology. So, the path and process of the drones have become simplified by maintaining the guidelines of the ACS code of ethics.

Conclusion

Based on the above study, it has been concluded that the drones must be run with aligning the legislations and laws for removing all types of threats related to social concern. Rule utilitarians espouse the aspects of Utilitarianism theory by demonstrating two fragment view which enforces the impact of moral values.

On the other hand, the deontology ethical theory also demonstrates the all-inclusive claims which are faithfulness of duties and obligations, making compensations for any type of wrong done and the thankfulness.

However, in Australia, the legislations associated with safety apps of drones, safety rules, emergency flying, public space flying and traveling overseas restrict the span of the drone services and follow the ethical concern for maintaining the confidentiality of the personal and location information of the customers

References

ACS, 2018. acs-documents/Code-of-Ethics.pdf. [Online]
Available at: https://www.acs.org.au/content/dam/acs/acs-documents/Code-of-Ethics.pdf
[Accessed 14 August 2019].

Boucher, P., 2015. Domesticating the drone: the demilitarisation of unmanned aircraft for civil markets. Science and engineering ethics, 6(21), pp. 1393-1412.

Caulfield, M. & Laufer, W., 2018. The Promise of Corporate Character Theory. Iowa L. Rev. Bull, 1(103), p. 101.

Custers, B., 2016. Future of Drone Use. 1 ed. London: TMC Asser Press.

Gov.au, 2018. accreditation. [Online]
Available at: https://www.casa.gov.au/drones/rules/accreditation
[Accessed 14 August 2019].

Government.nl, 2018. Rules for the commercial use of drones. [Online]
Available at: https://www.government.nl/topics/drone/rules-pertaining-to-the-commercial-use-of-drones
[Accessed 14 August 2019].

Grant, P., Arjoon, S. & McGhee, P., 2017. Reconciling Ethical Theory and Practice: Toward Developing a Business Ethics Pedagogical Model. Business and Professional Ethics Journal, 1(36), pp. 41-65.

Luppicini, R. & So, A., 2016. A technoethical review of commercial drone use in the context of governance, ethics, and privacy. Technology in Society, 1(46), pp. 109-119.

Lyons, D., 2015. Utilitarianism. Wiley Encyclopedia of Management, 2(1), pp. 1-4.

Novitzky, P., Kokkeler, B. & Verbeek, P., 2018. The Dual Use of Drones. Tijdschrift voor veiligheid, 1(17), pp. 1-2.

Parrott, L., 2014. Values and ethics in social work practice. 1 ed. London: Learning Matters.

Schwartz, M., 2016. Ethical decision-making theory: An integrated approach. Journal of Business Ethics, 4(139), pp. 755-776.

Wills, D., 2018. The Drone Penal Colony. A review of Grégoire Chamayou, A Theory of the Drone. Postmodern Culture, 1(29), pp. 14-18.

 

 

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