Global and Environmental Health Issues
- Vector and host abundance, local prevalence of disease-causing parasites and pathogens and human population behavior and disease resilience
In concern of vector-borne disease, it is reflected that the ecology of Vector-Borne Diseases is a complex infectious disease for the human transmitted from and for this disease, the climate is considered as the significant factor that may influence the disease transmission cycles as well as disease occurrences.
This disease is transmitted to the humans by pet animals as well as wild animals that are also called by the name of vectors in which includes mosquitoes, lice, fleas, rodents, and ticks (Parham et al., 2015).
In addition to this, the climate changes such as changes in temperature and the humidity may create an impact at which vectors reproduce. Similarly, they determine climate changes can also create a more profound impact on the pathogen’s life-cycle that they carry.
Moreover, some climate conditions that reconsidered for influencing the three components such as Vector and host abundance, local prevalence of disease-causing parasites and pathogens and human population behavior disease resilience, etc. to increase the rate of vector-borne disease are reflected below:
- Drought and heat:
While having the Drought and heat situation at a place, there are more chances to have West Nile virus activity because, in this kind of situation, it often appears to be supreme.
In other words, it is also found that West Nile virus activity that is responsible for the Vector-Borne Disease (VBD) generally come into view during having the La Nina condition of drought as well as hot summer temperatures (Campbell-Lendrum et al., 2015).
- Wet conditions:
In concern of Vector-Borne Disease (VBD), a prolonged rainy season may make any country more at risk in concern of the introduction as well as the development of exotic vectors like the factors that carry yellow fever and the dengue (Bett et al., 2017).
- Ultraviolet radiation
- Increased trade of harmful or illicit substances
In respect to influence public health, it has already been determined that the foreign policy has a profound effect on public health as well as the management of public health.
In this manner, the reactive role is often given to public health while dealing with the consequences of the several policies that do not influence shaping (Peters, 2018).
So there is a need for foreign policy in concern of the public health and the management of the public health. On the basis of this, it can be depicted that health is a growing concern under foreign policy.
However, in some cases, people have a question in their mind as does the foreign policy manage the health or do the health services manage the foreign policy?
In concern of the above, it is reflected that some ways can be adopted by foreign policy in order to influence public health. In this way, these factors are defined as below:
- The Foreign policy can endanger health at the time of breakdown of diplomacy or at the time trade consideration.
- In respect to achieving the other goals, the public health can be used as the instrument related to the foreign policy
- Under foreign policy, health can be considered as an integral part of the global agenda.
Thus, the above-defined ways can be helpful for the foreign policy to influence the public health that is important for the country concerning keep the country’s population healthy. From the above approaches, it is also declared that these approaches may not always be sharply separated. However, at the same time, it is also mentioned that these approaches are better pictured like a continuum (Birkland, 2017).
In addition to the above, it is described that many examples define that foreign policy serves the public health in different ways.
Similarly, the example of Thailand can be represented in which this statement such as the foreign policy serves the health has been made true because of the cooperation between the strong national public health coalition of Thailand and its diplomats (Milani and Pinheiro, 2016).
In this way, it is also made possible for getting on a signpost case to contest concerning the opening of its tobacco market for the US companies in concern of public health grounds.
Because of this case as well as its impact over the opinion of the people of the world, it led to several changes under the US and UK diplomacy.
On the basis of this, it can be mentioned that the globalization requires that the minister of health should act with other countries in concern of ensuring the health of the country’s population at their home. In this concern, the UK results framework concerning global health defines this clearly (Heinrich et al., 2016).
Bett, B., Kiunga, P., Gachohi, J., Sindato, C., Mbotha, D., Robinson, T., Lindahl, J. and Grace, D., 2017. Effects of climate change on the occurrence and distribution of livestock diseases. Preventive veterinary medicine, 137, pp.119-129.
Birkland, T.A., 2017. Agenda setting in public policy. In Handbook of public policy analysis (pp. 89-104). UK: Routledge.
Campbell-Lendrum, D., Manga, L., Bagayoko, M. and Sommerfeld, J., 2015. Climate change and vector-borne diseases: what are the implications for public health research and policy?. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 370(1665), p.20130552.
Heinrich, T., Kobayashi, Y. and Bryant, K.A., 2016. Public opinion and foreign aid cuts in economic crises. World Development, 77, pp.66-79.
Milani, C.R. and Pinheiro, L., 2016. The politics of brazilian foreign policy and its analytical challenges. Foreign Policy Analysis, 13(2), pp.278-296.
Parham, P.E., Waldock, J., Christophides, G.K., Hemming, D., Agusto, F., Evans, K.J., Fefferman, N., Gaff, H., Gumel, A., LaDeau, S. and Lenhart, S., 2015. Climate, environmental and socio-economic change: weighing up the balance in vector-borne disease transmission. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 370(1665), p.20130551.
Peters, B.G., 2018. American public policy: Promise and performance. US: Cq Press.