HOW SEWAGE SLUDGE REUSE FOR AGRICULTURE

HOW SEWAGE SLUDGE REUSE FOR AGRICULTURE FIELDS OR ANY OTHER MODERN TECHNOLOGIES

Abstract

This is a study focused on identifying various aspects involved with material called ‘Sewage Sludge’. Primary focus of this project paper is to determine the possibility of sewage sludge in agriculture lands. A number of articles based on the topic have been collected and a theme from the outcome has been developed. A brief discussion on that developed theme is presented in the literature review section. This project paper will be conducted on secondary qualitative data, in addition to this; the researcher will use a number researcher philosophy. A brief discussion about this aspect has been presented in the methodology section of this report. Ethics associated with analysing this study is also presented in the ethics section of this report. Legal aspects that will be followed by researcher during complete of the project have been presented in the ethics section of this proposal.

INTRODUCTION

Hygiene factor is of the major aspects should be maintained in agricultural fields. Sewage sludge is a semi-solid materials involved into operating sludge system. Sewage system is one of the most prominent parts of agricultural activities. Agricultural industry in United Kingdom is highly emerging in recent times. Due to stable climate, country’s agricultural industry is improving day by day (Kirchmann et al. 2017). Economy of the country is also influenced by the agricultural industry.

Due to increasing population in the country, demands of agricultural producing are being increased in the country. Traditionally farmers used to apply water in agricultural fields through the sewage system. The major technology that is used by farmers to enable Sewage system in agricultural field is called sewage sludge. The material that is used in this sewage system is called ‘Sewage Sludge’. This material is developed in such a way so that it can be reused multiple times. Due to the application of this technology, growth rate of agricultural product has been increased to some extent at agricultural field.

As per the studies, it is found that in European countries first time Sewage sludge technology was used in agricultural lands. Due to the application of the technology, a significant growth in agricultural products has been identified. In Spain 16% growth in agro products has been identified while comparing it with the previous year (Alvarenga et al. 2015). A growth in Portugal’s agricultural industry has been identified 3-9% growth has been identified in that country depending on different types of products. During the same period, they also tried to re-use the material for cultivating number of products.

This research paper is aimed to determine possibility level of reuse sewage Sludge in agricultural industry. A number of studies have discovered that the prices of agricultural products are being increased day by day due to application of expensive technology. Sewage Sludge is another modern technology available in the market. Identification of reusability level will be determined through this paper.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Classes of Sewage Sludge used across the globe

A number of studies has been analysed in order to determine usability of Sewage Sludge. Sewage sludge can be classified as class A, sludge and class B. Class A sludge is a dried form of Sludge that is pasteurized. Quality of that sludge is comparatively better than class B. Solé-Bundó et al. (2017) discussed that if proper recycle technique is used in that context then class A sludge can be converted into reusable form to some extent. On the other side, class B sewage sludge is an inferior quality of materials that is termed as ‘undigested’ and ‘volatile’.

Mininni et al. (2015) stated that both types of sludge could be obtained in a similar situation. However, in terms of re-usability Class A sludge carries a lot of weightage. A study by Healy et al. (2016), described harmful materials those are involved with the context and generate pollution against it. As per the study, it is found that 85-milligram cadmium is present on 1 KG sewage sludge. Another harmful material involved with this material is called mercury. In every 1KG Sewage Sludge 57 milligrams mercury present. Other harmful elements that attract environment pollution present in Sewage Sludge are ‘Nickel’, ‘Selenium’ and ‘Zinc’. In every 1 kilogram of Sewage Sludge 420 milligrams of Nickel, 100 milligrams of Selenium and 7500 milligram present respectively.

A study by Zhang et al. (2018) discussed that disposal process of Sewage Sludge is different in different countries. For example, in Asian countries Sewage Sludge technology is not that useful. In some areas of Japan and China, this technology is used in agricultural fields. People who used this technology in these countries failed dispose the metal in an effective way.

In the agricultural field of Australia, the same technology is used. Australian who is involved into using sewage sludge disposed the metal into ocean. A number of studies have criticised this process of disposing. Zhang et al. (2015) stated that due to involvement of harmful materials disposing sewage sludge into the ocean attracts environment pollution. A major part of the seawater is polluted due to ocean dumping process. Apart from dumping metals into ocean, United States experimented to dump metals into land as well. Dumping sewage sludge increased soil pollution as well.

A number of studies also discussed techniques that encourage re-usability of the metal. As per the study, it is found that Sewage Sludge is an expense non-solid materials used for improving sewage system. This material is quite expensive, a number of techniques have been used to identify possible re-usability of the material.  The process of reusing sewage sludge is called sewage sludge treatment. Outcomes of the treatment disclosed that the material itself it not reusable however, disposing process should be done in such a way so that the material itself regenerated again without losing its identity. Cieślik, Namieśnik and Konieczka (2015) stated that sewage sludge could be reusable in agriculture sector as well.

METHODOLOGY

Research Question

This study is focused on identifying possibility of reusing Sewage Sludge in agricultural sector. A number of studies has been analysed before taking up the topic into account. As per the findings of the selected articles, it is found that possibility of reuse the metal still under the cloud. Based on that observation a research question has been developed.

  • What is the possibility of reusing Sewage Sludge in agricultural sector?

Purpose

Through accomplishment of this study, research will able to fulfil a number of purposes. All purposes are presented in the following section in bullet form.

  • Review a number of studies to get better insight about sewage sludge.
  • Identification the application of Sewage Sludge in agricultural lands
  • Evaluate possibility of recreating the metal without having further investment. In other words, determine the possibility of reusing Sewage Sludge in agricultural land in United Kingdom.

Research Type

This project will be conducted based on principles of exploratory research. Kumar (2019) discussed that exploratory research is a technique when researchers try to find out new outcomes from their study. As per the current study, it is identified that here also the researcher will find out the possibility of re use sewage sludge and other modern technologies into agricultural fields. Water supply is one of the major components of agriculture. In that situation, if technologies like sewage sludge is not applied then profit from agricultural land will decrease to some extent. Previously mentioned technology is quite expensive and cannot be bought repeatedly for every period. Reusability of that technology is still unknown. This research paper will identify gather knowledge regarding usability of the materials hence researcher will carry out expropriator research design here.

Epistemology

Epistemology is a philosophical branch that determines acceptance level of knowledge. As per the above discussion, it is found that researcher is looking forward to get practical knowledge of application ‘Sewage Sludge’. Researcher will gather information mostly from secondary sources that are the internet and books. Researcher will use Google scholar as their source of knowledge. Mackey and Gass (2015) discussed that academic sources should be taken into account in order to get appropriate knowledge and information regarding the topic. Epistemological views can be form into four different types: the first one is ‘positive’, the second one is ‘pragmatism’, third and fourth ones are ‘realism’ and ‘interpretivism’. For the current study researcher will use interpretivist approach. The study is taken into account to determine the possibility of using Sewage Sludge. Therefore, pragmatic approach of epistemological is also applicable in the current context. Researcher will analyse a number of data related to science from the current context therefore, pragmatic approach is applicable in the context (Bresler and Stake, 2017).

Researcher will retrieve a number of information and will make a preliminary report on that. After the report is done, the researcher will cross verify the quality of writing with his/her colleagues. Quality of knowledge will be determined by this approach here.

Research Methodology

The researcher will conduct the project in a written project form. Researcher will not analyze any data by using any statistical analysis tool. Researcher will collect more than ten journal articles based on the key terminologies of the topic and develop the project. Researcher will complete the study based on secondary qualitative research technique. Researcher will not randomly select article. Researcher will verify the publisher of the journal articles. Journal articles, which are published from trusted sources, will only be selected for further analysis of the study. A number of historical information regarding application of Sewage Sludge will be taken into consideration by the researcher to provide a better outcome through the study. As this study is aimed to identify reuse of the technology called sewage Sludge therefore, research papers will be cited in the current study that is conducted based on exploratory research paper.

After collection of the articles, the researcher will do further research to understand the authenticity of the data. If possible, then the researcher will contact the publishing house before taking the information for the current project. As per the topic, it is found that the researcher is planning to determine possibility of reuse of modern technologies like Sewage sludge in agricultural sector. Flick (2015) stated that if a researcher is planning to bring up new things or trying to deliver knowledge regarding any aspect then the study comes under exploratory study. In that context, researchers need to take information after validation from external sources.

Research Method

Researcher here will complete the project based on the principles of both pragmatism and interpretivism. If a researcher wants to complete a study based on secondary qualitative data then the researcher is bound to use mixed research approach. As per the topic of the current study, it can be determined that the researcher wants to find out various useful approaches to reuse sewage sludge in agricultural industry or sector.

Secondary qualitative technique is suitable for the current study because the topic is related to civil engineering and technologies. If researcher would select secondary quantitative technique then it will be difficult for the researcher to align the same type of data from different sources. Ledford and Gast (2018) discussed that researchers should use secondary qualitative data whenever they are planning to prepare a study on descriptive approach. In descriptive study, researchers try to take align already established information with existing models. However, researcher for the current study has conducted the study based on exploratory research. Therefore, the researcher will carry out the study based on information from secondary articles. In other words, secondary qualitative technique will be used in this context. Some statistical information like usability of sewage sludge in various countries across the globe will be collected and will be disclosed in the literature review section of this research paper.

A number of studies have been collected to develop the topic and initial research on the topic. Majority of the papers have given information regarding sewage sludge and its application in agriculture sector. However, a few studies have given information related to reusability of non-solid metal called ‘Sewage Sludge’. The researcher will develop some knowledge about reusability of this technology based on the collected information. The researcher will have to maintain some research ethics while conducting this project. Ethical aspect associated with this project will be presented in the following part of this project.

ETHICS

Ethics is one of the major aspects of any research paper. A researcher needs to maintain a number of things before publishing the paper into portals. The first one is data security, as per the methodology section of this report it is found that the researcher will conduct the project based on the information from previous studies. Taking information from these studies should be done in a proper way or else the researcher might have to face legal trouble. The researcher will follow every component of Data Protection Act (Gov.uk, 2019). If a researcher finds out any confidential data from the previous studies then he/she will not disclose it with the current study. In addition to this, researcher will cite original articles in the final project paper.

REFERENCES

Books

Bresler, L. and Stake, R.E., 2017. Qualitative research methodology in music education. In Critical Essays in Music Education (pp. 113-128). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Flick, U., 2015. Introducing research methodology: A beginner’s guide to doing a research project. Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom: Sage.

Kumar, R., 2019. Research methodology: A step-by-step guide for beginners. Thousand Oaks, California, United States: Sage Publications Limited.

Ledford, J.R. and Gast, D.L., 2018. Single case research methodology: Applications in special education and behavioral sciences. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Mackey, A. and Gass, S.M., 2015. Second language research: Methodology and design. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Journals

Alvarenga, P., Mourinha, C., Farto, M., Santos, T., Palma, P., Sengo, J., Morais, M.C. and Cunha-Queda, C., 2015. Sewage sludge, compost and other representative organic wastes as agricultural soil amendments: Benefits versus limiting factors. Waste management40, pp.44-52.

Cieślik, B.M., Namieśnik, J. and Konieczka, P., 2015. Review of sewage sludge management: standards, regulations and analytical methods. Journal of Cleaner Production90, pp.1-15.

Healy, M.G., Fenton, O., Forrestal, P.J., Danaher, M., Brennan, R.B. and Morrison, L., 2016. Metal concentrations in lime stabilised, thermally dried and anaerobically digested sewage sludges. Waste management48, pp.404-408.

Kirchmann, H., Börjesson, G., Kätterer, T. and Cohen, Y., 2017. From agricultural use of sewage sludge to nutrient extraction: A soil science outlook. Ambio46(2), pp.143-154.

Mininni, G., Blanch, A.R., Lucena, F. and Berselli, S., 2015. EU policy on sewage sludge utilization and perspectives on new approaches of sludge management. Environmental Science and Pollution Research22(10), pp.7361-7374.

Zhang, L., Zhang, J., Zeng, G., Dong, H., Chen, Y., Huang, C., Zhu, Y., Xu, R., Cheng, Y., Hou, K. and Cao, W., 2018. Multivariate relationships between microbial communities and environmental variables during co-composting of sewage sludge and agricultural waste in the presence of PVP-AgNPs. Bioresource technology261, pp.10-18.

Zhang, Z., Le Velly, M., Rhind, S.M., Kyle, C.E., Hough, R.L., Duff, E.I. and McKenzie, C., 2015. A study on temporal trends and estimates of fate of Bisphenol A in agricultural soils after sewage sludge amendment. Science of the Total Environment515, pp.1-11.

Online articles

Solé-Bundó, M., Cucina, M., Folch, M., Tàpias, J., Gigliotti, G., Garfí, M. and Ferrer, I., 2017. Assessing the agricultural reuse of the digestate from microalgae anaerobic digestion and co-digestion with sewage sludge. Science of the total environment586, pp.1-9. Available at: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/?page=1190&per_page=100&search_field=all… [Accessed on 18th December, 2019]

Website

Gov.uk (2019). Data protection Act. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/data-protection [Accessed on 18th December, 2019]

 

 

 

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