HR4043 Organisational Behaviour and Practices in Amazon
Introduction (HR4043 Organisational Behaviour and Practices in Amazon)
The management profession, in the words of John F. M. Kotter, can be defined as “the art of achieving the greatest number of outcomes with the least amount of effort in order to maximise wealth and pleasure for both employers and employees while providing the best possible service to the general public.” Several definitions state that “management is the art of achieving the greatest number of results with the least amount of effort in order to maximise prosperity and happiness for both the employer and the employee, while simultaneously providing the highest possible level of service to the general public.” According to Wikipedia, management is “the art of accomplishing the greatest number of outcomes with the least amount of effort in order to maximise both employer and employee profitability and pleasure while providing the best possible service to the general public.” (Uzo,2018)
Theoretical perspective of governance and management in Amazon
According to Kimball and Kimball, corporate governance encompasses “all of the duties and functions that are associated with the establishment of a business enterprise,” “financing a business enterprise,” “formulating major policies,” “providing all necessary equipment,” “sketching the general organisational structure of a business enterprise,” and the “selection of the principal officers.” It is a group of people who have significant influence over the operations of a firm who are referred to as “management.”
Managing Social practices in Amazon
According to the author, “management is a social process that entails accountability for the effective and efficient planning and regulation of an enterprise’s actions in order to achieve a specific target or accomplish a task.” In the following definition, management is defined as follows: In the words of E.F. Schumacher, “accountability entails two things: 1. judgement and decision-making in the development of plans, and the use of data to monitor performance and progress in relation to those plans; and 2. the guidance, integration, motivation, and supervision of the personnel who make up the enterprise.
According to Axon,(2018), a management tactic is defined as a “method for defining the purpose and objectives of a person or group of individuals, classifying them, and putting them into effect.” A management tactic is defined as a “method for defining the purpose and objectives of a person or group of individuals, classifying them, and putting them into effect.”
As defined by Mary Cushing Niles, “good management or scientific management” is attained when a social aim is achieved by making the most efficient use of people and material resources while simultaneously ensuring that participants and the general public are satisfied.
As can be seen from the previous definitions, “management” is a technique for extracting work from others in a coordinated and integrated manner with the goal of achieving certain objectives through the efficient use of available material resources. The act of mobilising physical, human, and financial resources for the purpose of conducting company operations and accomplishing specified objectives is referred to as “management” in the context of conducting company operations and accomplishing predefined objectives. According to a consensus of various authorities, management is defined as “a distinct ongoing process of allocating an organization’s inputs (human and economic resources) through typical managerial functions (planning, organising, directing, and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives, which may include the production of goods and services that customers desire” (environment). It is completed over time in partnership with and through the efforts of the organization’s personnel, in an ever-changing business environment, and this is accomplished through the process.”
Managerial action can be defined as follows:
Management is a universal action that takes place in all organised social and economic activities, regardless of the industry in which they are carried out. It can be defined as follows: Manufacturing, retail, and the workplace are all examples of environments where it is prevalent. In all complex organisations that are attempting to achieve their stated objectives, it serves as the driving force behind the activities of all of its members. All businesses, government agencies, educational and health-care institutions, as well as military organisations and trade associations, rely on the performance of their management teams to ensure their long-term survival and prosperity.
A higher degree of authority is involved in the administration of a company: Initial perceptions are that administration is playing a determining function, whilst management is perceived as having an executive role. As defined by William Newman, William R. Spriegel, Oliver Sheldon and Ordway Tead, administration includes the broad definition of major objectives, policy formulation, the identification of general purposes, the development of broad programmes, the development of significant projects, as well as a wide range of additional activities.
In addition, the formation of large-scale programmes, large-scale initiatives, and other obligations of a similar nature are included in their definition of administrative responsibilities. According to them, the executive function, which is defined as the active direction of human activities toward the attainment of objectives, is the most important preoccupation of management professionals. Administrative nature is more determinative than management on average, which means that administration is more executive in character than management on average, according to the Gallup Organization.
For the second time, management is regarded as a wide term that incorporates both administrative obligations and other business operations in general, according to this viewpoint. According to Brech, the term “management” is defined as “a social activity characterised by the acceptance of major responsibility for the efficient and effective planning and regulation of an enterprise’s operations in order to achieve a goal.” In addition to planning and implementing means for distributing and conveying the programme, administrators are responsible for reviewing and comparing the current state of operations to the program’s goals and objectives, as well as conducting research and analysis.” Therefore, Brech considered administrative functions to be a subset of management rather than a separate entity from management. Kimball and Kimball were thinking in the same direction at the same time. They assert that Law, (2018), who were management scientists at the time of their writing, elevated the terms “management” and “administration” to the same level of significance. This has resulted in the first and second points of view being in direct conflict with one another. In conclusion,
To make matters worse, in today’s society, it is considered that the terms “management” and “administration” are synonyms for one another. Furthermore, when the two names described above are employed in common discourse, there is no differentiation between the two names. Higher executive activities such as policy development, planning, organising, leading, and controlling are referred to as “management” in the business sector. When used in the context of government, the phrase “administration” refers to the same set of functions as the term “management.” Consequently, there is a lack of obvious differentiation between these two names, which are commonly used in the same context.( Mampane2021)
Practices and behaviour for managers in Amazon
There are three interpersonal duties that a manager can perform to ensure the effectiveness of his or her organisation in order to ensure its efficacy. Managers take on the role of the figurehead in ceremonial and symbolic activities when they participate in these activities on behalf of their respective organisations. The responsibility for giving merit certificates to deserving employees, in addition to welcoming visitors and attending social occasions involving their subordinates (such as weddings and burial services), falls on their shoulders. One of the other jobs is to train subordinates, which is one of the other tasks. In addition to other duties, being a leader is responsible for a wide range of tasks such as recruiting, instilling confidence in, inspiring, and disciplining others. When management acts as a point of communication between their organisation and other organisations, or between their units and other divisions within their organisation, they are accountable for carrying out the liaison task. According to Mintzberg, this method entails contacting third people who may be able to offer the management with knowledge on the problem. Responding to e-mails and participating in discussion boards on external websites are examples of the types of actions that fall under this category.
Organisational communication and information system Practices
In terms of information, there are two types of obligations. A manager’s information collection and communication responsibilities are, to paraphrase Mintzberg, among the most important components of his or her job description. It is when managers get information from a variety of sources that they make the most significant decisions. It is a frequent element of this work to be abreast of changes in consumer preferences, competition manoeuvres, and other developments of this nature, which is often accomplished through reading publications and conversing with colleagues. The phrase “monitor” is attributed to Mintzberg, who is credited with coining the phrase in the first place. (Mutalib,2018)
This position is responsible for ensuring that vital information about the organisation is made available to subordinates who would not otherwise have access to it unless the management takes action to make it available. When managers speak with other parties on their organisations’ behalf, they are functioning in the capacity of spokespersons for the organisation.
Three-dimensional responsibilities in terms of decision-making: The manager is tasked with four unique decision-making responsibilities, each of which is covered in further detail further down this page. When it comes to entrepreneurship, the management must be constantly on the lookout for ways to improve the unit’s performance. As a result of environmental constraints, he makes deliberate changes to his surroundings in order to overcome them. In the case of disturbances caused by circumstances beyond their control, such as strikes, material shortages and other customer complaints, the resolution of these disturbances falls under the purview of managerial responsibilities and is an obligation on the part of the management team. People in management jobs such as resource allocator are in charge of allocating people, physical resources, and financial resources to the most appropriate locations within a company. Non-stop problem-solving within their organisations, managers are also entrusted with negotiating with other divisions in order to acquire competitive advantages for their organisations. Managers are responsible for more than only internal concerns within their organisations. (Pakira,2018)
Historically, classical organisation theory can be traced all the way back to the height of the industrial revolution in the second half of the nineteenth century, when some astute observers were enchanted by the prospect of the manufacturing industry in the United States expanding to unprecedented proportions. Initially, large-scale operations were carried out with the assistance of unskilled and semi-skilled labour; however, technological discoveries drastically altered the industrial environment later in history (Farooq,2021). New economic, social, and technological problems have arisen in recent years as a result of the emergence of new economic, societal, and technology challenges. To achieve this goal, it was necessary to build creative organisational structures and administrative practises in order to overcome the obstacles that had arisen. A more mechanistic approach to organisation and administration was adopted as a result of the loss of the personal nature of the former. This point of view was widely recognised throughout the country from the first half of the twentieth century till the present day (Zeba,2018).
For Amazon author regarded individual beings as diverse components of the machine’s operation, and the organisation itself as a machine in its own right, according to their viewpoint. The researchers’ research has concentrated on mediators that serve as a link between intake and output, paying less attention to external restricting and facilitating variables than has been done in earlier studies. When it came to motivating workers, the predominant view was that it was essentially economic in character, with the underlying belief that workers were capable of being motivated exclusively by monetary gain.
People thought of managers as decent folks who were moderate, knowledgeable, and well-suited for the positions they held. It is possible to increase the efficiency of each individual by enhancing the efficiency of the organisation as a whole, which would result in benefits for both the organisation and its workers. According to this hypothesis, an increase in human productivity would assist the firm in meeting its aims and objectives, while a greater level of output would result in an increase in the wages and benefits of employees (Kivimaa,2021). It is for this reason that management should devote significant resources to machine enhancement in order to maximise labour productivity while maintaining operating expenses to a minimum. During the competition, the emphasis was placed on the specialisation of performance as well as the coordination of a large number of tasks. (Pereira,2017).
Division of Labour:
Division of labour refers to the process of breaking down a company’s tasks into smaller sub-tasks and assigning individual workers to these smaller sub-tasks or sub-parts of the organisation. The distribution of duties should be such that each employee is assigned a little amount of work in order to allow them to specialise and boost organisational efficiency; however, the aggregate of individual tasks should equal the company’s aims and objectives, not the other way around. Once a job has been broken down into its constituent parts, the primary premise is that the greater the degree to which a person becomes specialised in carrying out a certain activity, the more efficient the overall organisation will be. This is the fundamental premise underpinning the approach. Division of labour must be in place in order for the other three parts to work correctly, and because they are all dependent on division of labour, this quality acts as the foundation for all four characteristics stated above (Kahila-Tani,2020).
Second, scalar and functional processes are concerned with the organisation of people in a vertical and horizontal manner, respectively, in both vertical and horizontal organisations. A scaler process is one that is concerned with the development of an organisation starting at the top and working its way down. In this context, it refers to a command and control structure that extends from the highest level (the chief executive) to the lowest level (the first-line supervisor), with responsibilities and reports flowing down the line from the highest to the lowest level of the organisation. Provide each employee with an understanding of their immediate and distant superiors as well as the individuals to whom they are accountable in the course of their work tasks. Using this figure, you can see how the command hierarchy is organised. (Etse,2021)
Horizontal practices for Amazon
A more concrete aspect of this process is the essential horizontal organisation in amazon , which consists in the grouping of diverse functions into units and the clearly delineation of relationships among the different heads of units. Functions can be grouped according to their goal, technique, client, location, and time parameters, among other considerations; these are all possible configurations. (Fatima,2021)
In order for an organisation to achieve its objectives, its operations must be carefully planned and carried out in a logical fashion. This is referred to as organisational organisation in the context of this article. In this context, interpersonal interactions relate to the interpersonal contacts that take place between members of the line and members of the staff in the workplace.
Organizational key objectives and progress toward attaining those objectives are determined by people who work in the trenches. It is their responsibility to create the organization’s important objectives and monitor progress toward reaching them. It is made up of individuals who represent a varied range of departments, divisions, and other sections of the company. The staff component of an organisation is defined as the component of the organisation that aids and advises the line in the performance of its responsibilities. In a manufacturing organisation, for example, production is regarded a line function, whereas human resources and finance are considered staff functions within the same organisation. (Hashim,2020)
It is necessary to generate key environmental imports, turn them into products or services, and then export these products or services back into the natural environment in order to satisfy the technological sub-goal of the system. This is accomplished through a variety of processes including decision-making, communication, action, and balancing to name just a few examples. Three essential considerations must be addressed during the decision-making process:
what should be made, for whom it should be produced, and how it should be produced, all of which must be addressed.
These are the questions that have been posed:
In order to make decisions, it is necessary to obtain information from a wide variety of diverse sources. It is necessary to communicate these particular to action centres as part of the overall communication process in order for them to be put into practise. Administrative equilibrium is accomplished by the balance process, which ensures that all components of the organisation can be coordinated and that no one area of the organisation can exert influence over all of the other sections of the organisation. Multiple processes occur as a result of employees being assigned to different occupations based on their abilities and credentials, which are determined by the employer. Being given authority and a position that is commensurate with the importance of the task and the individual’s ability to carry out the assignment successfully are both required in order to complete the assignment successfully. Policies, traditions, procedures, processes, and job descriptions that have been methodically crafted establish the norms of behaviour that must be observed in the workplace, and they must be adhered to by all employees. Thus, the technical sub-system is organised based on criteria such as the location of professions in relation to one another, as well as interactions between processes and authorities, among other things.
The phrase formal organisation is derived from the term formal organisation and can be used to refer to the technological sub-system. Specifically, we are referring to both the talents and knowledge required for carrying out activities as well as the procedures that are employed to transform input data into output data when we speak about “skills” and “knowledge.” The formal organisation chooses a specific technology, establishes a predetermined layout, establishes policies, rules, and regulations; creates different hierarchical levels, assigns authority and responsibilities; and establishes technical engineering and efficiency considerations, among other aspects. An inherent contradiction exists between the individual, who is a component of the system, and the system as a whole. This contradiction occurs as a result of expectations placed on him by both the organisation and the people regarding the work he is supposed to execute. Because of this conflict, technology subsystems are unable to explain organisational behaviour in the way that they should. It is critical to bring about specific changes in human behaviour and ideas through the social and power subsystems, among other things.
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