IB96T0 Equality And Diversity Assignment Sample 

Here’s the best sample on IB96T0 Equality And Diversity Assignment written by experts.

Introduction

Disability makes an enormous difference in leading and selecting the way of life. But what is disability? The term disability can be described as the function which is judged to be indispensable impairing to the generally set standard of the individual or the groups (Eltringham, 2016). Disability is linked with the functioning of the individual and incorporates the following:

  • Physical impairment
  • Cognitive impairment
  • Intellectual impairment
  • Sensory impairment
  • Mental illness
  • Any chronic diseaseIB96T0 Equality And Diversity Assignment

Structure Of International Classification Of Impairment Disability

In 1980, the classification was given by WHO as International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps also termed as ICIDH which offers basic guidelines for the diversification of the components of functioning and disability (Kaye, Jans and Jones, 2011). The structure of ICF is as follows:

  • The body functions and structure.
  • The extra information on the environmental factors and severity.
  • Activities concerning the tasks and actions performed by the individuals and participation which is the reaction in the various situations of life (Mehrotra, 2013).

Disability can even be describe as the multidimensional experience of the person who is involved. For living a life the life a person takes part in several activities which has an involvement of different organs henceforth due to disability the degree of individual participation is affected. According to ICF the dimensions of disability can be widely divided into three:

  • Body structure and functions
  • Activity
  • Participation (Pandhyegurjan & Pandhyegururjarshekar, 2012)

Body structure refers to the impairment, activity signifies the restrictions which a person has on movements and at last the participation restrictions. With it an amalgamation of the social and physical environment factors which have an impact on the functions of the disability. The study of disabilities has been developed as an academic, discipline that analyses and examines the cultural, economic, social and political factors. There are numerous models of disability which are given by the scholars, activist and practitioners which has provoked a debate. These models of disability are as follows:

  • Social model of disability
  • Medical model of disability (Corporate Authorship TCB, 2013)

The Social Model Of Disability        

The social model of disability states that disability is caused because of the manner in which the society is formed and framed. The barriers which restrict the life of disabled people and make them bounded must be removed. It is only with the help of removal of these barriers the growth and equality of disabled people can be generated. Independence of the disabled people in necessary for their freedom and attainment of self-respect. The disabled people must have the choice to control and handle there lives in the way they desire and wish (Halvorsen et al., 2013).

There are certain reasons concerning the fact why the social model of disability was developed. One of the most important reasons is that the traditional medical model of disability was not satisfactory and failed to explore and explain the personal experience of disability. Moreover, the medical model of disability even is unsuccessful in laying down the various ways of living. Under this model impairment is well defined as the long lasting limitation of person mental, physical and sensory activities (Burke et al., 2013). The thinking process and the attitudes of the disable people have observed a major change in past few decades. The barriers which a disabled person faces are not limited to physical restrictions but even the society separates them from the normal people. The behavior of the society towards the disabled people is different as the behavior of the society is the mirror of the stereotypes and prejudices faced by the disabled people. This differentiation is the main reason why the disabled people are treated differently from the other people for the job or employment (Dongug, 2013).

Medical Model Of Disability

Unlike the social model of disability which states that states that the basic reason of any disability is the way in which the society is organized, a medical model of disability states that the disabled people are disabled because of their impairments and differences from the other people. This model states that the differences must be fixed or changed with the help of medical help. A disabled person must be given in every case (Fraser et al., 2012). When the disability does not causes any problem in the working of person than too the disability is observed as a major drawback. Moreover, the disability must be treated with the help of medical assistance. What is wrong with the person is important but not the wishes and desires or liability of the person to do something. The degree of expectations under this model are very low. Also, a disabled person cannot have the freedom and independence in any scenario or condition. The decisions of lives of disabled people is also taken by others and not them (Värlander, 2012).

Examples to understand the social model of disability and medical model of disability:

  • In case an employee is wheel chair bound than faces problem in getting to the office which is in a building because of the presence of steps at entrance. In accordance to the social model of disability a ram will be arranged to the entrance with the help of which the wheel chair user will be independent to enter into the building as per the convenience (Amir, Strauser & Chan, 2011). On the other hand, as per the pedicle model there will be very limited solution by which the wheel chair user will be able to manage to climb the stairs because of which there will be restriction on going to the office.
  • Another scenario which explains both the models quite well is: there is a girl with learning disability but wants to live the life as a free individual. She desires to rent a house and live on her terms and conditions. The social model of disability will offer a solution to it. The girl will be supported by which she will be able to ay the rent of her own house. On the contrary, under the medical model of disability it is difficult for a girl with learning disability to live as per her own wish and must be sent to the communal house.
  • A little boy has visual disability and impairment but reading is the passion he has. He wishes to read books and discuss them with well-read and well sighted people. Medical model fails to provide any solution to the problem however the case is not the same with the social disability model. Under the social model, the solution which will be offered can be to create a text audio recording of the books when it is published. Which denotes that a person with visual impairment is as free as a normal person to peruse the hobby of reading.

The basic difference in both the models is about finding the solutions and ways to the problems which a disable faces whereas in the medical model of disability there are no solutions which can be provided to the disabled people for better living (Fraser et al., 2010).

Employment Disadvantage Faced By Disabled People

In the whole world there are more than 600 million people who are disabled as per the data which is provided by the World Labor Organization. There is a change observed in the perspective of the people all around the world in the treatment and the behavioral traits with the disabled. The disabled people are given chance to search and maintain the employment so as they can become self-sufficient. Furthermore, there are some disadvantage which are faced by employees due to their disability. The qualified people are at times even kept out do the job to provide comfortable working environment (Habeck et al., 2010).

  • Speed and Productivity

The people often feel that due to presence of the disabled employees there is a slow progress in the speed and productivity of the company. Let’s suppose that an object has to be moved from one place to another in an organization. Arson having physical disability can take a longer time in shifting the object and on the other hand an employee having mental disability may take more time in developing an understanding regarding what is to be done. It has an impact on the jobs where in the ability to be apace has a positive or negative effect on the other functions. At times, the functions are chained after one another and delay in one task will delay all of them for example: in assembly line. Furthermore, it is not the case in every company as places where quality is given more important than quality the disabled people have the complete freedom to take more time in completion of work.

  • Discrimination

In Australia with the acts on disability the scenario is changing in a slow and gradual manner (Bell & Heitmueller, 2009). The doors for the disabled people in the work place are opening. Even after the issue of these laws the disabled people still face discrimination. At times it is difficult for the disabled person in the organization to gain acceptance from the fellow employees. With the arising conflicts the human resource department at times has to interfere in the working of the organization and maintaining a balance between the employees. The laws formed for the discrimination must be communicated to the employees for the smooth functioning.

  • Update of Infrastructures and Technology

In Australia, the employers are legally bound to adjust and accommodate the infrastructure by which the disabled people can adjust easily when hired. These changes might seem small but they prove to be of a great help for the disabled. For example: when at a workplace a wheelchair ramp is formed it makes the working and movement of the disabled easier (Bell & Heitmueller, 2009). Albeit, making such changes is not an easy task as modifying the infrastructure even to a limited extent takes some time. This might lead to a slow process of work at a particular time and delay in the assigned duties and tasks. Moreover, when there are special needs of the disabled employee a particular technology might be at use (Värlander, 2012). The other employees might or might not be families with it. Let’s state, there is an employee who is a software expert who needs an assistant. The assistant has an impairment of speech. With the help of speech recognition program the problem can be solved but the software might not be well aware about its use or how to use it. When the technology becomes a barrier in the working and the other employees are not well aware of how to use it the working becomes an issue (Värlander, 2012). As per the social model there might be certain delays in the working of the company Bu it normally does not causes any financial burden on the employer. The quality and productivity of a disabled worker is always higher. The disabled employers have even proved to be more loyal at the job.

  • Considerations

As per the medical model of disability there are disadvantages which exists in the organization due to employment of the disabled people. But social model states that most of these disadvantages are nothing but a myth. It is assumed that the rate of absenteeism in the disabled people will be much higher than the other employees due to their condition (Eltringham, 2016). But, per the facts, when the degree of absenteeism was compared the number of days which a disabled person misses the work is same or fatherless than the other employees which are non-disabled. On the other hand, the disabled people have higher standards of safety records. For the smooth functioning in the company such facts must be circulated and explained to the employees by which the acceptance of the disabled people in the company or organization will become easier.

Impact Of Social And Medical Model Of Disability On Employment

The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) takes up a survey which emphasis on the participation rate of the people with disability. It was found that in the year 2009 the rate of participation of the disabled as the art of workforce was only 54% and the rate of people without any disability was 86% which was just the double than the disabled participation. The people who are disabled and take part in the labor forces are employees easily and henceforth getting a job does requires some effort. However this data is changing with a rapid speed (Eltringham, 2016). The figures also depots that the workforce participation with disabilities has dropped. When the comparison of Australia s done with the other OECD countries the ranking of Australia is 21st out of the registered 29 countries at the rate of participation of the disabled employees.  The socio economic status of Australia is as high as 45% of people surviving below poverty line because of the low performance of employment of the people with disability. The government offers the disabled unemployed people of Australia the Disability Support Pension also known as DSP. The government spends about $15 billion for the disabled people which are too high. In the past year, these payment were made to mere than eight lakh people in Australia (Kaye, Jans and Jones, 2011).

These facts and figures are true indicators that the poles and regulations of the government for the disabled people employment are not working in the fight direction. The disabled people who are willing to work and look forward to be independent are unable to find jobs or are not accepted with open heart at the job. The government is looking forward to the welfare independence of the people who are suffering from disabilities. For this the government will be required to make new policies and reforms with the help of which the disabled employees can enjoy the social acceptance and long term employment at the work place.

Disability Employment Services

In Australia the Disability Employment Services are provided to the citizens of Australia. The country invests about $850 million yearly. These funding supports a lot of areas for the disabled people which are as follows:

  • Help in finding a job
  • Support and assist the employees to hire people with disability
  • Give counseling to the disabled people facing problems (Mehrotra, 2013)
  • Bridging the gap between the employers and the disabled employee

It also incorporates the other aspects of disability employment such as:

  • Wage subsidies
  • Provision of support to the disabled people who risk the loss of the job
  • Work based personal assistance
  • Disability support

Even after all the above continuous efforts it was found that only 3% of employees make use of DES while they recruit the employees either disabled or non-disabled. As per the Australian network on disability the employers and the government must come together for the formation of new regulations (Dongug, 2013). Ones of such regulation formed by the DES is the six month employment outcome. At present, the success achieved in gaining employment to the disabled people is just 30% which is critically low. The time span given for it is twenty six weeks. More than 70% of the placement do not fit into the bill for the disabled people or even the employers. The Australian law is struggling to apply the social model of disability in all the sectors of work with the help of which the employment rate of the disabled people will enhance. The heed is given on increasing the weeks of employment from twenty six to fifty two. But till, gaining equality in the area of employment for the disabled people is a struggle not only for the disabled people but the Australian government as well. The Australian government understands that the dealings with the disabled at present is nay half and it must improve in the future.

Conclusion:

It is indeed a fat that, it is the social and medical model of disability which has its obvious impact on the disadvantage as well as advantage of the disabled employees in the work hemisphere. The work and the employment given to the disabled is very low in comparison to non-disabled people. There are some organizations and institutes which do apply social model of disability under which they modify the working environment and the changes in the infrastructure are made to suit the working conditions of the disabled employees (Kaye, Jans and Jones, 2011). The rate of productivity and acceptance of the disabled employees in the work place even differs from one job to another depending upon the nature of the work which is to be performed. When the quality of work is preferred over the constraints such as time and quantity the disabled employees are doing an outstanding work. But to suit all the needs of disabled employees actions must be taken to educate the people of Australia about the social model of disability as still the medical model of disability is blindly followed and the efficiency and the effectiveness of the disabled employees is ignored.

It is still a fact that the disadvantages to the disabled are more in the medical model of disability and there are certain advantages in the social model of disability. The employees mute be educated to treat the disabled employees in the same manner like they treat and behave with any other fellow employee. Disability must not define the way in which the life should be loved but it must be treated with dignity with the help of finding new ways to become independent, achieve independence and live the life at own terms. This is only possible when the government, employers and the non-disabled employees come together to provide the disabled employees the opportunity to grow and succeed. Even after many reforms formed by the government the scope of improvement is immense. The disadvantages of disability can be turned into advantages with the help of right utilization of the social model of disability and its unbiased practice in all the organizations throughout Australia. Assistance must be provided to the employers and the employees to understand the social model of disability in a better manner.

References :

  • Amir, Z., Strauser, D., & Chan, F. (2011). Employer’ and survivors’ perspectives. In M. Feurstein (Ed.), Work and Cancer Survivors(pp. 73–89). New York: Springer.
  • Bell, D. & Heitmueller, A. (2009). The Disability Discrimination Act in the UK: Helping or hindering employment among the disabled? Journal of Health Economics, 28, 465-480.
  • Burke, Jana; Bezyak, Jill; Fraser, Robert T; Pete, Joseph; Ditchman, Nicole; Chan, Fong (2013). Employers’ attitudes towards hiring and retaining people with disabilities: A review of the literature.
  • Corporate Authorship TCB. (2013). Leveling the Playing Field: Attracting, Engaging, and Advancing People with Disabilities. Report Number: TCB_R-1510- 13-RR. The Conference Board. https://www.conference-board.org/publications/publicationdetail.cfm?publicationid=2430
  • Dongug Kang. (2013). Why would companies not employ people with disabilities in Korea?
  • Eltringham M, (2016), Disabled workers continiue to face barriers in work place, as retrieved from workplaceinsight.net as on 12/8/2018
  • Fraser, R., Ajzen, I., Johnson, K., Hebert, J., & Chan, F. (2012). Understanding employers’ hiring intentions in relation to qualified workers with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 35(1).
  • Fraser, R., Johnson, K., Herbert, J., Ajzen, I., Copeland, J., Brown, P., & Chan, F. (2010). Understanding employers’ hiring intentions in relation to qualified workers with disabilities: Preliminary findings. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 20, 420–426.
  • Habeck, R., Hunt, A., Rachel, C.H., Kregel, J., Chan, F. (2010). Employee retention and integrated disability management practices as demand side factors.
  • Halvorsen, Bjørn; Hansen, Ole-Johnny; Tägtström, Jenny; and Flø, Ragna. (2013). Creating an inclusive labour market. Inclusion of youths, people with disabilities and seniors (a summary).
  • Kaye H.S, Jans L.H and Jones E.C, (2011), why don’t employers hire and retain workers with disability, as retrieved from ncbi.com as on 11/8/2018
  • Mehrotra Nilika., (2013), “Disability, Gender& State”, Policy Rawat Publications, Jaipur.
  • Pandhyegurjan Mansi. S, Pandhyegururjarshekar. B., (2012), “Factors affecting Treatment Seeking Behaviour of Individuals with Locomotor Disability”
  • Värlander, Sara (2012). Management practice and disability: an embodied perspective. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 14:2, 148-164,

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