Determine if an identifiable cohort-based subculture born between 1980 and 1990 exists within current university student populations

 Literature Review

Meanwhile, Maĉkayová & Baláņová (2011) pointed out that the people from generation Y shows the cohort based subculture due to having differences in the permanent change, the entertainment in life, payment expectations, fast career growth and promotion, use of digital interactive technologies and impersonal communication.

All these aspects make them differ from the older generations X and baby boomers. The generation Y representatives have some features like group activities, persistence, hero spirit, multi-tasking skills and optimism and ability to operate new technologies.

At the same time, the study of Looper (2011) finds that the generation Y focuses on comfortable life, exciting life, sense of accomplishment, family security, true friendship, social recognition, freedom, mature love and salvation, but at the same time, the generation Z focuses on a world of peace, a world of beauty,

equality, inner harmony, and national security. For generation Z, it matters to have a healthy economy and peaceful environment where they live.

This distinctive pattern became possible due to changes in social environment in which they live. The changes in society and global expansion have brought these changes in the perceptions from the generation Y to generation Z.

This thought makes the generation Z more optimistic as compared to generation Y because they don’t think about the uncertainty and consider that they will get future opportunities to grow.

As per the views of Wood (2013), the current generation that can be said as the generation Z is simply an extension of generation Y. The generation Y grew up with computers, generation Z grew up with touch-screens. Generation Y spend money boldly having boundaries but the Generation Z like to save money rather than spending.

The purchasing pattern of the Y generation and Z generation has completely changed. Generation Y preferred to purchase from malls while the generation Z prefers to purchase from online.

In the views of Mansor (2013), the generation Y is flexible and multi-tasking and behaviour of this generation is influenced due to these attributes. But at the same time, technology, cultural acceptance and being independent are not consistent with the behaviour of the generation Y.

Additionally, team work in generation Y has a significant factor at workplace. So, it can be stated that the multi-tasking and flexibility and team work are major considerable factors for the generation Y.

The research conducted by Moss & Martins (2014) reveals that there are quite differences in the perceptions of organizational culture between Baby Boomers’, Generation X’s and Generation Y’s.

This study was based on qualitative research design by asking sample of 455 employees within a large South African ICT company. In relation to this, some dimensions including leadership, strategy and change management, employee needs, means to achieve objectives, management processes,

Organisational goals and objectives and external and internal environment can be used to determine the differences in perceptions of these generations.

From this study, it is found that generation Y shows the highest rating for all these dimensions, while generation X provides the lowest and baby-boomers in-between. It means the generation X is more cynical, while the generation Y is more positive and optimistic and idealistic regarding the organization.

On the other hand, the study of Berkup (2014) reveals the differences between the generation Y and the current generation based on technology aspects. As per this study, the current generation is more techno-savvy as compared to generation Y and like to prefer to use more advanced and latest technologies.

The change in this distinctive pattern became possible due to emergence of advanced technologies over the time.

For the generation Y, the latest technologies like social media, online purchasing, etc. are not common because they were emerged over the time that is common among the current generation.

The current generations use these technologies in their daily life. They are addicted these technologies but the generation Y is not addicted to these technologies.

At the same time, from the study of Turner (2015), it can be oriented that there is gap between the generation Y and current generation. It is because a significant change in the family values can be noticed between these generations. The generation Y is family oriented but the current Z generation is not so generous and family oriented.

The reason behind this change is the change in the social aspects and impact of advanced technologies. The youth generation in current period uses the technologies as they are busy on these technologies including social media and Whatsapp and keep a distance with the family members.

In perspective of this aspect, it can be sated that the generation z is less family oriented as they are not socialize with their parents and also make les friends. The reason behind this pattern is the use of the technologies.

They prefer to play online games and also use the chat applications to make friends online. So, their socialization is very less with the parents and surroundings (Bassiouni & Hackley, 2014).

From the qualitative study conducted by Altinbasak-Farina and Guleryuz-Turkel (2015), it can be reviewed that the generation Y born between year 1977 and 1994 give preference to specific values including respect, trust, being well groomed, hardworking and responsibility.

They further investigated that the Gen Yers love dynamism and change and value trust and respect. This generation is more socially responsible and health conscious. This study reveals the characteristics of the generation Y that are significant in terms of marketing purpose.

The study conducted by Stojanová (2015) on schools graduates through survey finds that the generation Y prefers the work-life balance rather than remuneration while working in an organization.

It is important for them to enjoy the freedoms and opportunities with better control over finances, work, social and family life. They focus on their own specific way of life and the expectations.

They also prefer a higher standard of living and social security and personal growth too. Apart from this the people in this generation have an interest in their personal lives, spending leisure time, friends and family relationships along with focusing on career and economic success.

On the other hand, the study conducted by Kampf et al. (2017) is based on generational differences in the perception of corporate culture. This study was conducted by considering the survey through questionnaire on Sixty-four European transport enterprises.

All the generations consider the people including employees and customers aspect important while working in an organizational culture.

It is important to focus on loyalty and teamwork to be successful in personal as well as professional life. It can be stated that members of each generations does not show different behaviour and also attitude and opinions.

The employees with the age of 25 prefer the highly competitive environment, while the employees up to 35 years old prefer the personal development. At the same time, employees with the age of 55+ consider the work safety, recognition, serenity, benefits and advancement as the motivating factors to work.

echnology has a positive significant effect for generation Y at workplace.

Hypothesis 2: Cultural acceptance in generation Y has a positive significant effect at workplace.

Hypothesis 3: Flexibility and multitasking in generation Y has a positive significant effect at workplace

Hypothesis 4: Being independent for generation Y has a positive significant effect at workplace.

Hypothesis 5: Teamwork in generation Y has a positive significant at workplace

The study conducted by Kolnhofer-Derecskei et al. (2017) is based on generational differences and also similarities among the university students for determining the generational gaps.

From this study based on survey, it can be revealed that generation Y members are technology and social media addicted and less family oriented as compared to X generation.

At the same time, Millennials or generation Y representatives should remain protected as children and like to depend on others for support.

This generation like to speak foreign languages and open-minded and have clear perspectives and opinions. They are more pragmatic and self-assured and achievement focused.

However, the study of Desai & Lele (2017) finds that the generation Y focused on the text messages as a norm while the generation Z prefers the communication by using icons, images and symbols.

The generation Z lives in the era of continuous updates as this generation believes in faster processing of information as compared to previous generation.

So, their focus can be lower than the generation Y due to more focus on the information processing. As mentioned by Mohr (2017), the generation Z might be less focused as compared to the generation Y counterparts but they are better multi-taskers.

For instance, students in this generation prepares the documents on school computer, also research on tablet or phone and also make a conversation with the friends.

They shift their work and play with multiple distractions and also handle the multiple tasks at a time. In banking perspective, the generation Z uses mobile apps for transacting on mobile while the generation Y sues the credit and debit cards at shopping malls.

On the other hand, the study of Lakatos et al. (2018) focuses on the environmental aspects of the generations gaps between the generation Y and generation Z. From this study; it can be revealed that the generation Z is more conscious about the environment and natural resources because of impact of changing climate on the environment.

The current generation has faced several natural calamities and climate changes that have made more oriented towards the protection of environment.

They consider that it is necessary for an economy to grow with the protection of natural environment. There should be a proper control on the industry growth or with proper measures without affecting the survival of the environment.

They are more conscious about the international and international evens that impact their life or the country. The global aspects matter for them due to the expansion of their thoughts towards the international matters.

As per the research of Shatto & Erwin (2016), the generation Z prefer to be different and original as they are the most interesting and stimulating people.

On the other hand, the generation Y like the few surprises or unexpected happenings in daily regular life. At the same time, the people in generation Z make decisions based on sufficient information by using different technologies and make informed decisions.

On the other hand, the generation Y makes the decisions based on insufficient information. In addition, generation Z believes in communication with the complete strangers but the generation Y prefers to communicate with the known people.

Overall, this literature review focuses on the organizational context as the previous studies are based on employees and customers of the organizations from different generations to determine the differences in their perceptions.

But these studies do not focus on the students in current context as the current study focuses on the students from Z generation and determine their perceptions to make a comparative study.


Altinbasak-Farina, I. and Guleryuz-Turkel, G. (2015). Identifying the Needs of Gen Y by Exploring Their Value Systems: A Qualitative Study. International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, 6(6), 290-295.

Bassiouni, D. H., & Hackley, C. (2014). ‘Generation Z’children’s adaptation to digital consumer culture: A critical literature review. Journal of Customer Behaviour13(2), 113-133.

Berkup, S. B. (2014). Working with generations X and Y in generation Z period: Management of different generations in business life. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences5(19), 218.

Desai, S. P., & Lele, V. (2017). Correlating internet, social networks and workplace-a case of generation Z students. Journal of Commerce and Management Thought8(4), 802.

Kampf, R., Lorincová, S., Hitka, M., & Stopka, O. (2017). Generational differences in the perception of corporate culture in European transport enterprises. Sustainability9(9), 1561.

Kolnhofer-Derecskei, A., Reicher, R. Z., & Szeghegyi, A. (2017). The X and Y Generations’ Characteristics Comparison. Acta Polytechnica Hungarica14(8), 107-125.

Lakatos, E., Cioca, L. I., Dan, V., Ciomos, A., Crisan, O., & Barsan, G. (2018). Studies and investigation about the attitude towards sustainable production, consumption and waste generation in line with circular economy in Romania. Sustainability10(3), 865.

Looper, L. (2011). How generation Z works. How Stuff Works. Retrieved March5, 2014.

Maĉkayová, V. K., & Baláņová, V. (2011). CHARACTERISTICS OF GENERATION Y AND ITS FUTURE OCCUPATION–COMPARISON OF OPINIONS. Human Resources Management & Ergonomics5(1).

Mansor, M.F. 2013. A STUDY ON GENERATION Y BEHAVIOR AT WORKPLACE. International Conference on Business Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Engineering 2013,

Mohr, K. A. (2017). Understanding Generation Z students to promote a contemporary learning environment. Journal on Empowering Teaching Excellence1(1), 9.

Moss, M. & Martins, N. (2014). Generational Sub-cultures: Generation Y a Sub-culture? Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(21), 147-155.

Shatto, B., & Erwin, K. (2016). Moving on from millennials: Preparing for generation Z. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing47(6), 253-254.

Stojanová, H., Tomšík, P., Blašková, V., & Tesařová, E. (2015, October). SPECIFICATION AND CHARACTERISTIC OF GENERATION Y IN THE SPHERE OF WORK ATTITUDE. In DIEM: Dubrovnik International Economic Meeting (Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 565-581).

Turner, A. (2015). Generation Z: Technology and social interest. The Journal of Individual Psychology71(2), 103-113.

Wood, S. (2013). Generation Z as consumers: trends and innovation. Institute for Emerging Issues: NC State University, 1-3.

Leave a Comment