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Executive Summary

Project managers are responsible for planning, directing, organising a series of activities required for completing projects. Different micro and macro environmental factors along with participation of stakeholders decides the success or failure of the project. This study aims in understanding stakeholder’s participation in the both failed Wembley Stadium project and successful NHS Louisa Jordan project while comparing the same. This would also include possible risk factors impacting the operation of the project and use of stakeholder analysis and risk matrix as a strategic tool for project managers.

Introduction

Efficient project management can influence the success and failure factors enabling an improved business environment and achieve future objectives. This study aims in comparing the two case studies of Wembley Stadium Project and NHS Louisa Jordan Project while identifying their respective failure and success factors. Critical evaluation of stakeholder analysis, risk evaluation and responsibilities of the project manager in both the projects would be represented in this study.

Overview of Wembley Stadium Project

Located in London, Wembley Stadium Project is one of the most expensive projects of all time. This project has been identified as a badly run project in the history of project management. The project was first provided to Multiplex, an Australian builder at a “Guaranteed Maximum Price” contract. The builder was supposed to build a stadium of 90,000 seat capacity that has cost around over £789 million that can be estimated at £1.2 billion today (Sobolevskiy, 2018). The builder has overrun the budget of the stadium by £431 million. Establishment of this stadium is a living example of system failure whereas the success factors that the stadium has been facing is due to the focus of its project manager and construction workers in building a national monument.

Overview of NHS Louisa Jordan Project

NHS Louisa Jordan Project has been apprised for its best project management abilities along with managing the cost-effectiveness aspects in the worst possible time.  NHS Louisa Jordan Project is a temporary critical care hub for emergency situations to deal with the cases and circumstances of COVID-19 pandemic. Establishment process of this project has shown a great effort in building this hospital in just three weeks. This critical care hub is located at the SEC centre in Glasgow, Scotland. The initial capacity of the hospital can be identified at a 300-bed capacity whereas the capability is expected to expand to 1000 beds (Building, 2021). The project manager of NHS Louisa Jordan Project, Graeme Watson has provided greater insight into the development process. This has shown how technology and multidisciplinary team effort can demonstrate the best example of construction in this pandemic situation.

Stakeholder Analysis of Wembley Stadium Project

Sl. No. Stakeholders Power Interest Impact
1 Government High Manage Closely Government in Wembley Stadium project has measured the financial and political factors influencing related to the process of constriction.
2 Builder “Multiplex” High Keep Satisfied Multiplex has managed the whole process of establishing the stadium in terms of finances, design, redesign and other management.
3 Football Association High Keep Satisfied The stadium was first planned in becoming a home ground for athletes thus the process requires the football association to be satisfied with the process.
4 Project Designers Low Keep Informed The redesign process of the stadium has required the project managers to keep informed effectively and to help in the construction.
5 Contractors High Manage Closely The construction process has many contractual contractors to be followed and manage closely to operate the building process.
6 Construction workers Low Monitor Construction workers play an important role in building the Wembley stadium, however, this stakeholder only needed to monitor their work process.
7 Suppliers Low Keep Informed Supplying materials was needed for the efficient process of construction and building the monument. Thus, suppliers needed to keep informed about the requirements for improved efficiency of construction work.
8 Administrators High Keep Satisfied The government has funded the Wembley project thus, the government administrator is required to keep satisfied with the establishment of Wembley Stadium.
9 Consumers Low Keep Informed The consumers are the tax payer to the government and the income source for the stadium who are kept informed on a regular basis.
10 Technical supervisors High Manage Closely Technical supervisors have provided valuable insights on the design/redesign process of the project. Thus, the technical supervisors have been managed closely for the construction process.

Table 1: Stakeholder Analysis of Wembley Stadium Project

(Source: As influenced by Sobolevskiy, 2018)

Stakeholder Analysis of NHS Louisa Jordan Project

Sl. No. Stakeholders Power Interest Impact
1 Government High Manage Closely NHS Louisa Jordan Project was one of the government funded projects to fight the emergency situations of COVID-19. Thus, the government needed to be managed closely throughout the project.
2 Aecom High Manage Closely The builder of the project was Aecom that has controlled the activities of building an efficient hospital in only three weeks.
3 NHS High Keep Satisfied NHS faculty needed to be satisfied with the process of construction along with the design, cost structure and other motives.
4 Graeme Watson High Keep Informed The project manager of this project, Graeme Watson needed to be kept informed in the process for improving the activities regarding the establishment of the hospital.
5 Contractors High Keep Satisfied The contractors of the project needed to be kept satisfied through following the guidelines of the project.
6 Construction workers Low Monitor The work process of construction needed to be monitored closely for improving the activities regarding the completion of the project in a short time period.
7 Suppliers Low Keep Informed According to the needs of the construction process, the suppliers needed to be kept informed for the necessary items throughout the process.
8 Hospital authority High Keep Satisfied The Hospital authority is required to be kept satisfied with the activities of construction for designing, provide better scoping and many more.
9 Health and Safety Advisors Low Keep Informed Following the guidelines of “Health and Safety Act 2018 (c.31)”, safety advisors needed to be kept informed.
10 Patients Low Keep Satisfied The patients are required to be kept satisfied through the design of the construction.

Table 2: Stakeholder Analysis of NHS Louisa Jordan Project

(Source: As inspired by Building, 2021)

Risk Evaluation

Risk Register for Wembley Stadium Project

Sl. No. Risk Events Probability Severity Impact Planned Response
1 Delays and Indecisiveness Moderate High  High Effective planning of a project takes time, however, political and financial issues for a huge project like Wembley Stadium would need flexibility and relevancy in the process.
2 Design Changes High Moderate High Providing better insight, critically evaluating the design and inclusion of “constructible, consistent and co-ordinated” models would help in mitigating these design issues.
3 Scope Creeping High Low High The scope creeping of a project would require changes in the design of a project. Thus, the scope of the project requires to be determined on a prior basis.
4 Poor Performance Moderate High High Effective planning of performance of different stakeholders and follow it effectively.
5 Procurement Issues High Moderate Moderate Formal procurement process and objective meeting the needs of potential advantage for the construction operation process of an organisation.
6 Cash-flow Problems High High High Strategic management in financial aspects while future planning of flexibility according to the needs of the project.
7 Inefficient Planning and Organisation High Low Moderate Sustainable approach in the planning process and adapt to a flexible process of planning.
8 Poor Communication Moderate High High Developing effective communication and collaborative practices among the employees would help in mitigating related risk related to it.
9 Disputes High Low Moderate Effective contract guidelines to follow and planning of completion of a project would be an efficient communication process.
10 Health and Safety Problems Moderate High Moderate Following the guidelines under the act of “Health and Safety Act 2018 (c.31)” would help in this risk mitigation.

Table 3: Risk Register for Wembley Stadium Project

(Source: created by author)

Risk Register for NHS Louisa Jordan Project

Sl. No. Risk Events Probability Severity Impact Planned Response
1 Fast planning process Low High High The planning process can decide the success or failure factor of a project. Thus, adequate planning is needed before starting the same to gain success.
2 Construction issues High Low Moderate Construction issues are common issues faced by any construction project. The clarity in contract policies would help in reducing construction challenges for a project.
3 Social distancing issues Low Moderate High COVID-19 has created issues such as social distancing the construction process. Following the guidelines of social distancing would affect the work process however, following the same would help in preventing the spreading of the disease in the workplace.
4 Lack in construction worker number Moderate Low Moderate Effective contract with builders and providing a better environment for employees would help in solving worker issues.
5 Advanced technological requirements High High High Application of up-to-date technologies, software in the production process would minimise these challenges.
6 Time constraints High Moderate Low Effective time management planning and discipline to follow the same would help in addressing the time constraints in the construction process.
7 Design Issues Low Moderate Moderate The design of the hospital has been designed for treating patients that have been modified to treating energy cases in COVID-19. Flexibility nature in the design process would help in addressing the issues for design changes in the construction process.
8 Team work Moderate Moderate High Teamwork practices play an important role in creating better performance output and increasing the productivity of a process (Ogbonnaya et al. 2018). Building relevant skills and attributes in each professional would help in addressing the issues related to team work.
9 Collbartion Moderate Moderate High Collaboration can be described as a crucial aspect of improving a team’s work ethics and increasing productivity (Larsson and Larsson, 2020). Thus, effective communication would help a company in mitigating issues related to collaboration in construction projects.
10 Safety issues High Moderate High Following the guidelines of employees safety under the “Health and Safety Act 1974 (c. 31) would help in addressing the issues related to safety issues in the construction process.

Table 4: Risk Register for NHS Louisa Jordan Project

(Source: created by author)

Critical Evaluation of the Utilisation of Strategic Tools by Project Manager

Stakeholder analysis can be identified as an effective tool used by project managers to understand the prioritisation of interest of different stakeholders. In the opinion of Papke-Shields and Boyer-Wright (2017), stakeholders analysis helps in encouraging the group of stakeholders required for the development of a project and ensure participation of the same. Thus, stakeholder’s analysis would help a project manager in increasing the positive impact of stakeholders while reducing potential negative influence of the same. This would help a project to minimise the influences of potential stakeholders in the production process and achieve success in future. However, the aspects of stakeholder analysis changes on a regular basis thus, the managers needed to perform on a constant basis for improving on the effects of stakeholders on projects.

Risk Matrix Analysis

Risk matrix analysis would allow a project manager to identify potential risks affecting the operation of a project and prioritising the same while catering mitigating plans. As explained by Szymański (2017), the analysis of a risk matrix helps in providing a clear insight on the impacts of the risk factors and their probability as well as severity to disrupt the operational process. Thus, risk assessment would help a project manager in creating an effective risk management plan, mitigate all the risks affecting the operation and reduce potential consequences by the same. This would help in making smart decisions, improving success factors of projects and achieving success. On the other hand, sub optimization of resources and categorisation of severe risks and objectives would create uncertainty in the unknown consequences and planning activities according to it.

Conclusion

Following the study, it can be concluded that ineffective project management, design issues and conflicts are the factors influencing the failure and success factors of the projects such as Wembley Stadium projects and NHS Louisa Jordan project. The stakeholder analysis provides a greater insight of different stakeholders affecting the project activities whereas the risk matrix has provided the list and impacts of the different factors influencing the activities of a project. Thus, it can be further concluded that, using stakeholder analysis and risk matrix would help a manager in identifying different influential factors of the activities of project management and allows in achieving success in the long term.

References

Building.co.uk (2021). Five lessons from building NHS Louisa Jordan. Available at: https://www.building.co.uk/comment/five-lessons-from-building-nhs-louisa-jordan/5105923.article[Accssed on: 2 February 2021]

Larsson, J. and Larsson, L., (2020). Integration, application and importance of collaboration in sustainable project management. Sustainability, 12(2), p.585.

Ogbonnaya, C., Tillman, C.J. and Gonzalez, K., (2018). Perceived organizational support in health care: The importance of teamwork and training for employee well-being and patient satisfaction. Group & Organization Management, 43(3), pp.475-503.

Papke-Shields, K.E. and Boyer-Wright, K.M., (2017). Strategic planning characteristics applied to project management. International Journal of Project Management, 35(2), pp.169-179.

Sobolevskiy, A., (2018). Information Wembley.

Szymański, P., (2017). Risk management in construction projects. Procedia Engineering, 208, pp.174-182.

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