Industry

Concrete Industry

1. Introduction

1.1 Research Background

In the construction industry, concrete is one of the most popular materials as it offers various advantages such as, accessibility, availability and economy. From the survey, it is analyzed that the annual global consumption of concrete is approximate 25 billion tonnes (WBCSD[na2] ) (Tiwari, Singh, & Nagar, 2016). The key component of the concrete matrix is aggregates which comprises around 70% of the total volume. Due to rapidly depletion of natural reserves the problems have taken place in the context of extraction of natural sand from river bed which creates the issue of compelling the authorities in various countries at the global platform as it put restrictions on the sand extraction. In like manner, it is identified that increasing issues in concrete industry has created the scenario of ban in mining sector in various countries. Moreover, it has increased the need of replacement at partial or complete way without creating any compromise in the concrete quality. On the other hand,

Sue[na3]  to this reason, indiscriminate generation of solid waste as well as inefficient solid waste management practices lead to host the problems. Additionally, there is a need of focusing towards cleaner production as it supports to create sustainable environment (Ledesma, et al., 2015). Sustainable production process remains supportive to design the raw material while focusing towards eco-friendly disposal of the concrete[na4]  as it will remain supportive to manage the industrial waste of this huge quantum and also will remain supportive in the context of economy and viability. However, it is identified that this can only be possible when the incoming substitute enables to enhance the natural sand concrete.[na5]  So, in this context, this study motivates to review the prominent research work in the context of this global issue. This study analyses the state of art and also supports to propose the framework to assess comprehensively the feasibility of the sand substitution in the perspective of various industrial by-products during the concrete manufacturing process.

1.2 Problem Statement

The reason behind conducting this study is to assess the feasibility of the substitution of natural sand in concrete in the context of different industrial products. In support of this, various experiments spanning rheological, durability, mechanical and micro-structural investigations have taken place in this study (Mo, et al., 2015). This paper enables to summarize the characteristics and to create the feasible percentage replacements for the purpose of various industrial by-products. For this purpose, this study supports to offer the framework for future research work and has supported to offer detailed understanding in this domain.

1.3 Outline of the Review

In this study, physical and chemical attributes have taken place in different industrial by-products for the purpose of effective comparative analysis. It has supported towards incorporating the detailed literature review to examine the potential difference in industrial by-products due to feasibility in substitute for sand. To offer detailed understanding[na6] . The study has divided into a number of sub-sections which are dealing with different[na7]  materials. Furthermore, the last section discusses about the conclusion which has supported to summarize the future scope and has enabled to offer effective framework for the future implication.

2. Literature review

In the views of Fonseca, et al., (2011), concrete industry is growing at great pace due to increasing demand of construction to meet the dwelling needs of the increasing population. But at the same time, it is also causing some challenges and issues for the countries and businesses as more sand extraction and limited reserves may cause environmental issues like river erosion, aquatic life imbalance, etc. In relation to this, Wang & Huang (2010) also depicted that the increasing issues in concrete industry has raised the ban in mining sector in the most of countries. It has raised the need for replacement at partial or complete way without compromising the quality of concrete. On the other hand,

On the other hand, from the study of Behera, et al., (2014), it can be revealed that waste is a significant issue in concrete industry as there are different types of wastes like waste glass, plastic waste, rubber tyres,agriculture waste, slags and slurries, fly ash, or any combination of waste materials. It is also causing problems for the environmental protection. The waste materials considered to be recycled in this study consist of glass, plastics, and demolished concrete. Glass is widely used in our lives through manufactured products such as sheet glass, bottles, glassware, and vacuum tubing. Glass is an ideal material for recycling. The use of recycled glass saves lot of energy and the increasing awareness of glass recycling speeds up focus on the use of waste glass with different forms in various fields (Schaefer, et al., 2010). Concrete produced by replacing cement with waste glass powder (GP) in different proportion has been studied. Higher resistance to sulphate attack was obtained when 20% cement was replaced by waste glass.[na8] [na9] 

At the same time, it can also be determined from Huang, et al. (2010) that it is mandatory to solve the waste issues caused by glass, plastic and rubber and agricultural materials and generate the possibility of replacement. Concerning, it can also be evaluated from the investigation of Van Tuan, et al., (2011)that the mixing of waste materials in concrete may reduce the strengths of the concrete materials in the construction that may lead to collapse of building. There is a scientific reason behind this as the strength of concrete depends on the hydration reaction and the used water is important in deciding strength of the concrete. The less water used in making concrete increases the strengths of the concrete. There is need of sufficient water to make hydration reaction and achieve better composition (Van Tuan, et al., 2011). The presence of pores in concrete makes it weaker because of shortage of strength-forming calcium silicate hydrate bonds. The reason behind this is the availability of waste in water that increases the possibility of pores and weakens the strength of concrete.

Howeve[na10] r, the study of Kevern, et al., (2011) focuses on the chemistry of cement concrete as a central issue in the use of concrete. It is because there are short-term and long-term chemical reactions between the constituents of cement concrete. For example, when the concrete is mixed with the glass it leads to alkali silica reaction that affects the process and life of concrete. In addition, Huang, et al. (2010) also stated that the use of waste glass in concrete is good for the environmental purpose. This is the waste that does not decompose in the environment as it is used with concrete as development of sustainable (environmentally friendly, energy-efficient and economical) infrastructure systems. The increase in glass addition flow also causes an effect on concrete workability.  At the same time, the study of Shu, et al. (2011) reveals that use of waste glass as aggregate in concrete results into reduction in workability and strength properties of concrete. The reduction in the workability may be due to flat and elongated shape of glass aggregate.

On the other hand, [na11] the research of Wang & Huang (2010) investigates the impact of the agricultural waste on the properties of concrete. It finds that Rice husks (RHA), sawdust, coal, etc[na12] ., are the organic materials that are used to control the burning temperature of the concrete, which is of principal importance. The higher burning temperature produces the higher quality yield. However, the findings of Schaefer, et al., (2010) provide different results as flexural strength and split tensile strength are decreased gradually with increase of RHA content from 10 to 25 %. The results of different results vary with the amount used of RHA in the concrete in terms of flexural strength and split tensile strength.

Rice husk ash is obtained from agricultural waste rice husk. When rice husk is burnt in an uncontrolled manner, the ash, which is essentially silica, is converted to crystalline forms and is less reactive. So, use of RHA with cement improves workability and stability, reduces heat evolution, thermal cracking and plastic shrinkage. This increases strength development, impermeability and durability by strengthening transition zone, modifying the pore-structure, blocking the large voids in the hydrated cement paste through pozzolanic reaction (Antiohos, et al., 2014). RHA minimizes alkali-aggregate reaction, reduces expansion, refines pore structure and hinders[na13]  diffusion of alkali ions to the surface of aggregate by micro porous structure.

Van Tuan, et al., (2011) investigated the properties of concrete by applying waste rubber as coarse aggregate[na14]  and concluded that compressive strength of rubberized concrete is less as compared to conventional concrete within acceptable limit. The flexural strength is also reduced in comparison to normal concrete but the cost of rubberish concrete is much less than conventional concrete. It was observed that smaller particle size of the glass powder has higher pozzolanic activity resulting in higher compressive strength of concrete (Torkaman, et al., 2014). Also finer glass powder concrete has slightly[na15]  higher early strength as well as late strength.

Rubber Waste

Zhan, & Poon (2015) depicted that disposal of rubber waste is one of the serious problems at the global platform. In the current scenario, due to increase in the use of rubber, huge quantum of rubber waste is discarded every year which increases the level of pollution. According to the views of Kanadasan, et al. (2015), around 1.5 billion tyres are[na16]  produced on an annual basis globally. Moreover, around 1000 million tyres finish their service life however around half of these are dumped on the land without any treatment. At the same time, it is analyzed that concrete mixes with a variable percentage of tyre chips and fragment the rubber and shows the replacement of fine aggregates and coarse aggregates. In this context, it is identified that replacement of coarse aggregates[na17]  with the rubber led can remain supportive to reduce up to 85% compressive strength and 50% in tensile strength (Patra, & Mukharjee, 2017). However, smaller decrement of 65% in compressive strength can be seen on the replacement of fine aggregates with rubber.

Glass Waste

In the context of glass waste, it is identified that it produces in a huge quantity at a global platform. In support of this, Martínez, et al. (2016) depicted that 0.7% of the total urban waste generated is glass waste in the context of India. At the same time, in the US, the annual glass waste is approx. three million tons. So, the utilization of glass waste[na18]  as a partial replacement for sand can remain assistive for the purpose of decreasing the severity of disposal problem of this huge quantum. In this perspective, the effect of utilizing LCD glass sand in the concrete as a partial replacement of sand remains assistive to create sustainable practices. For this purpose, three different mix designs can be prepared (with compressive strength of 21, 28 and 35 MPa).

In the context of glass waste, it is analyzed that the compressive strength and flexure strength decreases with the increase percentage of LCD glass sand. Moreover, the split tensile[na19]  strength shows increasing trend with the increased percentage of LCD glass sand (Fontes, et al., 2016). In like manner, electrical resistivity and resistance towards sulphate attack also show the tendency of increment, with enhance replacement percentage (Ling, & Poon, 2014). In this context, it is identified that Scanning electron microscopy images represents the formation of denser CeSeH[na20]  gel hydrate at the interface in glass sand and cement while reflecting increase durability (Lim, et al., 2017). It is identified[na21]  that the impact of utilization of recycled cathode ray tube funnel glass sand by partial replacement for natural sand in the concrete takes place in steps of 0%, 25%, 50%and 75%.

Ribeiro, et al. (2016) examined the concrete mix replacement, for this purpose, glass bottle were[na22]  recycled for producing fine aggregate. It has[na23]  taken place in incremental steps of 25% beginning which was decreased by 0% and ultimately complete replacement has taken place. In this replacement, it was analyzed that the compressive strength and modulus of Elasticity has shown noticeable decrease with increase in the percentage of replacement. This replacement has also shown deduction in the value of effective water to cement ratio which has indicated towards increase in the slump value. Moreover, according to the research of Ortiz, et al. (2017) it was identified that the glass waste can be substituted for sand in the concrete at the replacement level of 40%,in which without any significant decrease in strength can be mixed in the concrete while replacing the sand.

 

Slag Waste

The effect of steel slag includes the mechanical[na24]  strength of M20 grade concrete. It can be analyzed as an optimum replacement of 30% led remains supportive to marginal increase in the compressive strength. Moreover, it[na25]  also supports to flexure strength, split tensile strength, as well as modulus of elasticity. At the same time, Zhan[na26] , & Poon (2015) determined that there is a consequence of utilizing low CaO containing unprocessed steel slag in the context of concrete as it replaces the fine aggregate. In like manner, it is identified that the enhanced strength of steel slag concrete can be attributed as a higher intrinsic hardness of the slag particles which are harder as compared to natural sand.

Copper Slag

Munir, Kazmi[na27] , & Wu (2017) examined that the partial replacement of sand with copper slag impacts the property of concrete. It is identified that when copper slag replaces the sand, the significant increment can be observed in the context of the workability of concrete. It was found that 50% replacement of sand with copper slag enables to increase the strength of concrete to the control mix. After this 50% replacement, further replacement with copper slag decrease the value of strength. However, Ruello, et al. (2016)has given contradictory[na28]  findings as according to his findings. It is identified that when sand[na29]  replaces the copper slag, significant reduction in the surface absorption can be observed with percentage replacement of up to 40%, however further increase in the replacement creates the situation of increase in the steep which increases the surface absorption values. So,it can be analyzed that 40% replacement of fine aggregate with copper slag provides good quality high-performance concrete.

The replacement varies between 0 & 100%, develops different properties in[na30]  the concrete mix. According to the views of Wang, & Wang (2017[na31] ), the compressive strength of M25 grade concrete increases up to 75% replacement. This optimal compressive strength can be observed at 40% replacement of sand with copper slag. At the same time, corresponding compressive strength increases 55%. In like manner, flexure strength value alsoincreases as compare to control concrete at all the percentage replacements of copper slag. It enables to increase the compressive strength as well as flexure strength which increase the toughness of copper slag(Iniaghe, & Adie, 2015). At the same time, while assessing the partial replacement effect of fine aggregate with copper slag, it is analyzed that the compressive strength and split tensile strength remains[na32]  maximum at 40% replacement. However, increasing the replacement beyond 40% decreases the split tensile strength in the context of copper particles. According to the views of Munir, Kazmi, & Wu (2017), the copper slag waste remains highly supportive for the purpose of dense micro-structure as copper slag remains extremely fine to decrease the micro-cracks as well as flaws which remain assistive toincrease the strength of the concrete.

Iron-waste

According to the views of Thongtha, et al. (2014),partial replacement of waste iron with sand in concrete enables to flexural strength of concrete and assists to increaseconsistentvalue of flexural strength.At the same time, Ding, et al. (2017) identified that it was observed that at the 20% percent replacement maximum increment in compressive strength takes place. Additional increase in percentage replacement with waste iron consistently[na33] supports to increase the fresh density as well as dry density.

On the other hand, Soares,et al. (2014) determined that the value of slump slightly decrease whenthe replacement takes place but still theconcrete remains in workable condition. The feasibility of iron ore tailings concrete enables to identify that it shows consistently higher compressive strength and also offers split tensile strength. It hasincreased modulus of elasticity as compare to control concrete. The concrete enables to offer higher resistance towards shrinkage as well as carbonation. However, in the contrary, it is analyzed that in the context of iron tailing concrete water absorption, carbonation depth and loss of weight in the acidic solution remainsas compare to the control mix. In the views of Tošić, et al. (2015), the strength of iron waste concrete increases as the hardness of the iron waste particles are higher as compared to sand particles. However, it is also analyzed that the cavities in the iron particles hold back the significant amount of water whichdecreases the workability of fresh concrete.

Ashes

Coal is one of the major fossil fuels which is used at a global platform. According to the survey, it is identified that there are approx. 850 Giga tonnes of coal reserves globally (Rahman, et al., 2014). When the coal ash replacement with the sand, it is examined that increase in the replacement percentage decreases the strength of concrete, which reflects that there is an adverse relationship between coal ash and strength of concrete.However Behnia, et al. (2017) stated that this decrease in strength can be tolerated in the context of economy as well as effective utilization of waste.This replacement remains feasible in low strength concrete. Additionally, it was observed that the workability, flexure strength, compressive strength and modulus of elasticity decreases on a continuous basis when the percentage replacement increases. Additionally, it was analyzed that increase in the percentage of replacement, decreases the micro-silica, workability and water absorption.

Moreover, it is analyzed that no significant increment has taken place in the strength of concrete beyond 8% replacement of micro-silica. In this perspective, Ding, et al. (2017) stated that the decrease in the strength of bottom ash takes place due to larger particle size of bottom ash. The size of bottom ash remains larger as compared to natural sand andthe large size of particlesdo not become able to achieve proper densification, due to which the poorer concrete matrix takes place which reduces the strength. While the replacement of natural sand with coal bottom ash, the workability and loss of water takes place due to decrease inbleeding. Consistent decrease in the elasticity modulus value reflects all ages of curing with the increase percentage of replacement. According to the views of Iniaghe, & Adie (2015), 60% replacement of bottom coal ashwith natural sand reflects the increase demand of water which increases from 175 kg/m3 of control concrete to 238.63 kg/m3. Moreover, it is also analyzed that maximum increase in compressive strength, flexure strength and split tensile strength takes place at the 30% replacement. Moreover, it is also examined that at all percentages of replacement change is permissible except the change at 60%.

Plastic waste

Ruello, et al. (2016) stated that plastic is one of the most severe offenders which gives highly adverse impact towards the environmental pollution. Huge quantity of plastic waste is producedon an annual basis which is dumped in the oceans which creates severe threatening situation in the ecology system of the aquatic habitat. Wang, & Wang (2017) determined thatin the current scenario, due to increase in industrialization, huge amount of plastic waste dumped in the water bodies which creates the situation ofthreat towards the nation at aglobal platform. According to the views of Thongtha, et al. (2014), the properties of concrete areassess with the variable percentages in the context of plastic waste which partially replacesthe sand in concrete. From the observation of plastic waste replacement withthe sand, it is analyzed thatincrease percentage replacement, decrease the compressive strength and flexure strength and supports to the control the concrete. It also reduces the slump and the concrete mix demonstratesthe workability.

Ortiz, et al. (2017)assessed the properties of concrete while focusing towards two different ratios of water to cement (0.45 and 0.55) which was obtained through the 5% replacement of natural sand with Unwashed Polyethylene Tetraphthalate. This replacement has shown around 2% reduction in compressive strength as well as in split tensile strength. However it is assessed that the concrete shows similar workability as of control concrete. While from the inclusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate fibres (PET), it was observed that with the increase level of replacement,the density of concrete shows decrease tendency.Li, et al. (2015) opined that this type of concrete can be used for the purpose of lightweight applications. From theobservation, it is identified that compressive strength, flexure strength and split tensile strength remains maximum at 2% replacement. Arel (2016) stated that partial replacement of fine aggregate with plastic waste decreases the mechanical strength however it enhances the ductility of the concrete. So, the decrease strength of plastic waste concrete attributes the poorer bonding between the cement paste and surface particles of plastic waste.

Artificial sand

Artificial sand is also known as manufactured sand as itis produced with the help of machineries which assists to process the stones. Chousidis, et al. (2015) stated that when the replacement of fine aggregate by artificial sand takes place then the changes in the mechanical characteristics of concrete can be seen. In this context, it is identified that when natural river sand completely replacedwith artificial sand, thenthe compressive strength is increasedby 3.98% and flexure strength is increasedby2.81%.At the same time, indirect split tensile strength shows decrease trend of 1.85% as compared to control concrete.

According to the views of Fontes, Toledo Filho, & Barbosa (2016), when M-sand (manufactured sand) is replaced by fine aggregate,the strength characteristics of concrete shows different tendency. M-25 concrete is produced while mixing different proportions of glass fibres, M-sand and superplasticizers. When analyzing the replacement of fine aggregate withM-25, it is analyzed that the replacement percentage of natural sand was up to 50% in a concrete which offers adequate strength.In support of this, Munir, Kazmi, & Wu, (2017) observed that in the context of comparable study of the particles shape, surface texture and impact on the properties, of concrete manufactured sand and river sand, it is found that on a micro level, there is lesser roughness on the manufactured sand particles as compared to the river sand. Thongtha, et al. (2014) stated that the manufactured sand concrete provides higher rate of strength as compared to river sand concrete.It is identified that manufactured sandremains superior in the characteristics as compare to control concrete due to surface texture and shape of particles. It supports to improve the compressivestrength, flexural strength and split tensile strength.

 References

 

Amran, Y. M., Farzadnia, N., & Ali, A. A. (2015). Properties and applications of foamed concrete; a review. Construction and Building Materials101, 990-1005.

Antiohos, S. K., Papadakis, V. G., & Tsimas, S. (2014). Rice husk ash (RHA) effectiveness in cement and concrete as a function of reactive silica and fineness. Cement and concrete research61, 20-27.

Arel, H. Ş. (2016). Re-Use of Waste Marble in Producing Green Concrete. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering10(11), 1371-1380.

Behera, M., Bhattacharyya, S. K., Minocha, A. K., Deoliya, R., & Maiti, S. (2014). Recycled aggregate from C&D waste & its use in concrete–A breakthrough towards sustainability in construction sector: A review. Construction and building materials68, 501-516.

Behnia, A., Ranjbar, N., Chai, H. K., Abdullah, A. I., & Masaeli, M. (2017). Fracture characterization of multi-layer wire mesh rubberized ferrocement composite slabs by means of acoustic emission. Journal of Cleaner Production157, 134-147.

Chousidis, N., Rakanta, E., Ioannou, I., & Batis, G. (2015). Mechanical properties and durability performance of reinforced concrete containing fly ash. Construction and Building Materials101, 810-817.

Ding, X., Qi, J., Fang, W., Chen, M., & Chen, Z. (2017). Improvement on properties of recycled concrete with coarse ceramic vase aggregates using KH-550 surface treating technology. European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 1-16.

Fonseca, N., De Brito, J., & Evangelista, L. (2011). The influence of curing conditions on the mechanical performance of concrete made with recycled concrete waste. Cement and Concrete Composites33(6), 637-643.

Fontes, C. M. A., Toledo Filho, R. D., & Barbosa, M. C. (2016). Sewage sludge ash (SSA) in high performance concrete: characterization and application. Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais9(6), 989-1006.

Huang, B., Wu, H., Shu, X., & Burdette, E. G. (2010). Laboratory evaluation of permeability and strength of polymer-modified pervious concrete. Construction and Building Materials24(5), 818-823.

Iniaghe, P. O., & Adie, G. U. (2015). Management practices for end-of-life cathode ray tube glass: Review of advances in recycling and best available technologies. Waste Management & Research33(11), 947-961.

Kanadasan, J., Fauzi, A. F. A., Razak, H. A., Selliah, P., Subramaniam, V., & Yusoff, S. (2015). Feasibility studies of palm oil mill waste aggregates for the construction industry. Materials8(9), 6508-6530.

Kevern, J. T., Schaefer, V. R., & Wang, K. (2011). Mixture proportion development and performance evaluation of pervious concrete for overlay applications. ACI Materials Journal108(4), 439-448.

Ledesma, E. F., Jiménez, J. R., Ayuso, J., Fernández, J. M., & de Brito, J. (2015). Maximum feasible use of recycled sand from construction and demolition waste for eco-mortar production–Part-I: ceramic masonry waste. Journal of Cleaner Production87, 692-706.

Li, G., Xu, X., Chen, E., Fan, J., & Xiong, G. (2015). Properties of cement-based bricks with oyster-shells ash. Journal of cleaner production91, 279-287.

Lim, S. K., Tan, C. S., Li, B., Ling, T. C., Hossain, M. U., & Poon, C. S. (2017). Utilizing high volumes quarry wastes in the production of lightweight foamed concrete. Construction and Building Materials151, 441-448.

Ling, T. C., & Poon, C. S. (2014). Use of recycled CRT funnel glass as fine aggregate in dry-mixed concrete paving blocks. Journal of cleaner production68, 209-215.

Martínez, P. S., Cortina, M. G., Martínez, F. F., & Sánchez, A. R. (2016). Comparative study of three types of fine recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW), and their use in masonry mortar fabrication. Journal of Cleaner Production118, 162-169.

Mo, K. H., Alengaram, U. J., Jumaat, M. Z., & Yap, S. P. (2015). Feasibility study of high volume slag as cement replacement for sustainable structural lightweight oil palm shell concrete. Journal of Cleaner Production91, 297-304.

Munir, M. J., Kazmi, S. M. S., & Wu, Y. F. (2017). Efficiency of waste marble powder in controlling alkali–silica reaction of concrete: A sustainable approach. Construction and Building Materials154, 590-599.

Ortiz, J. A., de la Fuente, A., Sebastia, F. M., Segura, I., & Aguado, A. (2017). Steel-fibre-reinforced self-compacting concrete with 100% recycled mixed aggregates suitable for structural applications. Construction and Building Materials156, 230-241.

Patra, R. K., & Mukharjee, B. B. (2017). Influence of incorporation of granulated blast furnace slag as replacement of fine aggregate on properties of concrete. Journal of Cleaner Production165, 468-476.

Raffoul, S., Garcia, R., Pilakoutas, K., Guadagnini, M., & Medina, N. F. (2016). Optimisation of rubberised concrete with high rubber content: an experimental investigation. Construction and Building Materials124, 391-404.

Rahman, M. E., Boon, A. L., Muntohar, A. S., Tanim, M. N. H., & Pakrashi, V. (2014). Performance of masonry blocks incorporating palm oil fuel ash. Journal of cleaner production78, 195-201.

Ribeiro, M. C. S., Fiúza, A., Ferreira, A., Dinis, M. D. L., Meira Castro, A. C., Meixedo, J. P., & Alvim, M. R. (2016). Recycling Approach towards Sustainability Advance of Composite Materials’ Industry. Recycling1(1), 178-193.

Ruello, M. L., Amato, A., Beolchini, F., & Monosi, S. (2016). Valorizing endoflife LCD scraps after indium recovery. physica status solidi (c)13(1012), 1011-1016.

Schaefer, V., Kevern, J., Izevbekhai, B., Wang, K., Cutler, H., & Wiegand, P. (2010). Construction and performance of pervious concrete overlay at Minnesota Road Research Project. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, (2164), 82-88.

Shu, X., Huang, B., Wu, H., Dong, Q., & Burdette, E. G. (2011). Performance comparison of laboratory and field produced pervious concrete mixtures. Construction and Building Materials25(8), 3187-3192.

Soares, D., De Brito, J., Ferreira, J., & Pacheco, J. (2014). In situ materials characterization of full-scale recycled aggregates concrete structures. Construction and Building Materials71, 237-245.

Thongtha, A., Maneewan, S., Punlek, C., & Ungkoon, Y. (2014). Investigation of the compressive strength, time lags and decrement factors of AAC-lightweight concrete containing sugar sediment waste. Energy and Buildings84, 516-525.

Tiwari, A., Singh, S., & Nagar, R. (2016). Feasibility assessment for partial replacement of fine aggregate to attain cleaner production perspective in concrete: A review. Journal of Cleaner Production135, 490-507.

Torkaman, J., Ashori, A., & Momtazi, A. S. (2014). Using wood fiber waste, rice husk ash, and limestone powder waste as cement replacement materials for lightweight concrete blocks. Construction and building materials50, 432-436.

Tošić, N., Marinković, S., Dašić, T., & Stanić, M. (2015). Multicriteria optimization of natural and recycled aggregate concrete for structural use. Journal of Cleaner Production87, 766-776.

Van Tuan, N., Ye, G., Van Breugel, K., & Copuroglu, O. (2011). Hydration and microstructure of ultra high performance concrete incorporating rice husk ash. Cement and Concrete Research41(11), 1104-1111.

Wang, C. C., & Wang, H. Y. (2017). Assessment of the compressive strength of recycled waste LCD glass concrete using the ultrasonic pulse velocity. Construction and Building Materials137, 345-353.

Wang, H. Y., & Huang, W. L. (2010). Durability of self-consolidating concrete using waste LCD glass. Construction and Building Materials24(6), 1008-1013.

Zhan, B. J., & Poon, C. S. (2015). Study on feasibility of reutilizing textile effluent sludge for producing concrete blocks. Journal of cleaner production101, 174-179.

 


 [na1]

 [na2]Introduction everything paraphrased from the report I have given, even person did not know how to put reference from two articles. 1st paragraph same as sample

 [na3]???

 [na4]Disposal of concrete??//

 [na5]Only be possible, who said that any reference or self-stated

 [na6]Is it a sentence?

 [na7]Whole paragraph copied from sample

 [na8]

 [na9]Both paragraphs already explained in introduction, explaining background of the research, not the literature review

 [na10]Is it a comparison?, is there any flow in literature review?

Talking about glass then moving to rice husk ash, plastics again to glass?

Do you really think that it’s a thesis work?/??

Done by an expert

According to me studies done in past are written in past sentence not in present like focuses, reveals

 [na11]Why on other hand?

Is it comparing something or different views on same thing

Reduction in workability due to glass other hand agriculture waste??????

 [na12]Is it a formal English word?

 [na13]Any references?

Go and find that it increases alkali-silica reaction as well but if you are saying it decreases then you need to put reference

 [na14]Coarse aggregates?

I think topic is to replace fine aggregates?

 [na15]Reference?

 [na16]From sample article

 [na17]

 [na18]From sample article

 [na19]Sample article just changed the ref

 [na20]What is this?

 [na21]No reference

 [na22]Past tense good

 [na23]Present in next sentence?

Expert writing?

 [na24]Reference?

 [na25]Just copied from sample article by deleting original reference

 [na26]Copied from sample slag section 1st paragraphs reference starting from Qasrawi et al.

 [na27]Original ref al-jabri

In sample article everything else is same.

 [na28]What is contradictory here one said 50% second is 40% maybe diff in grades or rwas materials

 [na29]Original ref nagur and …..

 [na30]Reference?

 [na31]Mot by wang and wang.

Sample paper, see in copper slag section its Chavan and Kulkarni, just copied by EXPERT

 [na32]Need reference, go to sample paper and write

Al-jabri et al please it is copied from there

 [na33]Every single research is copied form sample

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