INTERACTION OF A SHOCK WAVE WITH AN ARRAY OF PARTICLES AND EFFECT OF PARTICLES ON THE SHOCK WAVE WEAKENING

 

 

Table of Contents

Interim report 3

Introduction. 3

Background of study. 3

Objectives. 4

Literature Review.. 5

Proposed methodology. 9

Research Design. 9

Research strategies. 10

Research Approaches. 11

Research methods. 12

Data collection methods. 12

Software requirements. 13

Project Management 14

Identification of self-reflection form.. 14

Conclusion. 14

Reference List 16

 

 

 

 

Interim report

Introduction

The introduction part of the section has briefly described the interaction of shock waves. Wave interaction is the one-dimensional flow. This flow is situated in various investigations with the help of the precomputers era.  The research efforts also aim the determination the conditions of excitation and propagation of the forces. The detonation is developed with the help of wave operation. On the other hand, this wave interaction is planned to use for the detonation phenomenon in advanced rocket engines. The detonation of rocket engines also operates on the thermodynamics cycle of combustion. There are two-phase systems that can contain gas particles and gas droplet flows. The challenges of weakening and suppression of detonation also able to saturate gas flow with the array. There are some natural occurrences that can put impact multi-phase flows. The shock waves also sweep over the embedded particles. These particles are compressed and can be applicable in significant deformation. Shock wave interaction is able to focus the points which are observed in all experiments. In this project, the background of the shock wave interaction and the objectives will be discussed here. The statements of various journals will also be analyzed here. The mathematical results of the particles will be evaluated here. There is some essential project management that can put impact wave interaction, which will be discussed here.

Background of study

Wave interactions are one-dimensional flows in which the various kinds of investigations are situated. In terms of the precomputer era,  due to the lack of “numerical power” the conversation equations of mass and momentum of energy were solved in a simple way. This reduction of the mass, momentum, and energy is executed with the help of a set of algebraic equations. In recent times,b the implementation of wave interactions is important in terms of gas flow calculations. The development methods of supersonic gas flow are applicable in wave interactions (Bulat et al, 2017). The calculations are able to discrete phases due to the lack of a degeneration system. This degeneration system is one of the major parts of wave interactions.  The degeneration system is able to determine the evolution of the particles. Previously due to the lack of efficiency, there creates so many difficulties in terms of shock wave interactions. It is also important for the management to improve the efficiency of wave interactions. The efficiency also helps for calculations movable. The movable calculations are also used to allow the implementation of the resolution of shock and detonation waves. The present method of adapting TVD schemes also creates more opportunities in terms of wave interactions. It also helps for calculations of gas mixtures with the help of fine articles. The implementation of the TVD scheme also provides a highly accurate representation. This representation is able to create strong discontinuities at the standard template (St Clair et al, 2022). The application of TVD schemes is also able to justify the detonation flows.  The application of  TVD is also important in recent times in terms of wave interactions. The mathematical model is not done properly due to the lack of main approaches. The approaches of the mathematical model are important for wave interactions. Previously due to the lack of construct equations, the users can not able to simulate the wave interactions. The shock waves also sweep over the embedded particles. These particles are compressed and can be applicable in significant deformation. Shock wave interaction is able to focus the points which are observed in all experiments.

Objectives

This section of the project represents the main purpose of the wave interactions. The objectives are more effective in terms of wave interactions. Due to the proper objectives there create so many opportunities in terms of wave interactions. The users also are able to know about the working ability of the wave interactions. On the other hand, the objective is defined as the efforts and actions to accomplish the project. The objective is able to set the goals and targets for the organization (Mehta et al, 2020). The objectives also provide proper execution ways to implement the wave interactions. In the case of this wave interaction objectives, it is important to execute the elements and materials properly.  On the other hand, due to these objectives, the designers are able to design the wave properly. They also use various methods and tools that can provide continuity in wave interactions. Wave interaction matters in various ways. The wave interaction is also able to occur during the time of wave passes from one medium to another medium. The objectives of waves interaction are following

  • To enable the elements and materials properly.
  • To evaluate the TVD scheme in terms of wave interaction.
  • To analyze the software tools for wave interactions.
  • To enhance the two-phase system.
  • To use the gas-droplet flows in wave interactions.
  • To evaluate the approaches which can put impact wave interactions.

Literature Review

According to St Clair et al. 2022, in the field of science and technology, compressible multiphase flows are found which have industrial and environmental considerations. To explore the shock of an aluminum particle layer wrapped by nitromethane a  series of favorably resolved simulations was performed. The initial conditions consist of a planar shock upstream of a particle layer of unit consistency in the streamwise direction. The layers are arranged in a cartesian configuration. The geometric configuration permits simulation carried by a single particle. In this study, researchers discussed the computational methods. The models which the researchers discussed are constitutive models. interaction, shock propagation, high rate of solid mechanism, and Fluid-structure are the essential aspects of the problem at hand. Simulation methodology based on the  “Arbitrary Lagrangian”, purely eulerian, and “coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian”. The review of this method is what Benson provides (Osnes et al, 2019). The eulerian method is used by the author. This method treats the phase of the particles as a continuum. This is used to measure the shock wave. This method deals with the particles which are individual and the trajectory of this particle is calculated separately from this method. This method is needed for an accurate solution. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approaches are used to solve a couple of problems involved in Eulerian modeling. The material compressibility is used for fast and transient analysis. In the section of the single particle simulation, the first simulation is discussed by the author. The aluminum particles are far away from the transverse boundaries.

According to author Gan et al. 2018, SWBLI is the fundamental phenomenon in hypersonic and supersonic aerodynamics. SWBLI is present in so many aerodynamic applications. An example is “highly-loaded turbo-machinery”, and supersonic inlet. APG is induced by the shock wave. The SBWLI is unsteady in nature (Peng et al, 2022). The application of  TVD is also important in recent times in terms of wave interactions. The mathematical model is not done properly due to the lack of main approaches. The compression is discussed in this study to know the arrangement of the pressure. 16 SAPA is used to control the SWBLI. The SAPA has two copper electrodes. The copper electrodes maintain a gap of 10 mm. These electrodes are mounted in the “model baseplate”. The structure of SAPA is arranged into four rows. The rows of SAPA have four actuators. The actuators are distributed in the spanwise direction and streamwise direction. The lateral spacing is 17 mm and 11 mm respectively (Gan et al, 2018). The downstream “actuator row” is 42 mm forward of the ramp foot. In recent times, the implementation of wave interactions is important in terms of gas flow calculations. The SWBLI is controlled by the SAPAs. More energy is consumed in the first phase of the SAPA array. After fully charging the capacitor its waits for the trigger signal. That’s why the control effect is analyzed first in the first pulse. The maximum control authority is indicated by the first pulse. The frequency effect of the shock wave is discussed by the author in this study. In this experiment, the found operational frequency controls the outcome of the first pulse. The frequency effect is examined by the CGI. it is generated in four different frequencies. The name of these frequencies is 500Hz, 2kHz, 1 kHz, and 5KH. In the figure,, the resulted CGBs are compared.

Figure 1: Different frequencies

(Sources: openaccess.city.ac.uk)

 

The figure shows the CGBs placed in the first pulse of every frequency and attached for comparison. Which is explained in the above section. The image acquisition is not triggered by a “plasma actuator. Imaging frequency is multiple frequencies. In the CGBs one of the random pulses is selected which shows in the figure. the increasing frequency reduces the size of CGB.

According to author Sidorenko et al. 2018, the “multidimensional gas dynamic model” is used to define the quantitative and qualitative challenges. In this study, the application of shock waves is discussed. The researchers discussed the qualitative and competitive challenges briefly in this research (Sidorenko et al, 2018). The challenge of qualitative challenges is an inconsistency between methodology and research questions. The “two-dimensional numerical parametric” study is used to introduce the shock wave. This is a very useful method to calculate the shock wave. Cylinder modeling is used as a bed of granular medium. “The mathematical model” is dependent on the “Euler questions”. Different system integration is connected with multiple domains taken by using the computational algorithm of the “cartesian grid method”. The computational algorithm is the first computer algorithm. A computational algorithm is built with multiple control parameters. Which remains in the first part of the algorithm. This algorithm is used for many purposes. This method is used to solve the long-distance problem in a program. The data collection method is discussed by the researchers. In this study, the cad model is discussed by the researchers. Cad model is also known as “computer-aided design”. This model is very important to complete the design process. Cad model is used to access the digital world without any physical resources. Cad model helps the idea of the human in the digital world. The cad model is used in a variety of applications. Cad model is used for 3d printing. This model is also used for “promotional photo-realistic rendering”. 3D cad model is used by engineers to develop any design. Modeling and simulation are described by the researchers in this study. They can easily use the software tools to implement the wave interaction process. The research strategy also helps wave interaction to strengthen their positions. The wave interaction process is described by the researcher in this study. The wave interaction process acn defined different frequencies coming from different directions. This process is very useful to find the different frequencies. This is placed in the corners of the tank to measure the frequency. Interaction helps to define the waves which are passing from one medium to the other medium. In this study, TVD schemes are discussed. “Upwind differencing scheme” is one of the stable and bounded schemes which is unconditional.

Figure 2: Graphical representation of wave interaction

(Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0094576516308311)

 

The application of TVD schemes is also able to justify the detonation flows. The constitutive models are discussed by the researchers in this study. This model helps to know the various material in different loads. This model is used to predict the mechanical behavior of thermoplastics. This model is also used to transmit the information. In this study, the shock wave effect is discussed. Computational research methods help to calculate the algorithm. This method helps to advance the algorithm in the computer. This method is one of the most important trool. This is used to solve a complicated problem. This method can calculate several complicated problems at a time. This is one of the effective methods used to calculate the algorithm. There are several examples of the computational method. The methods are abstraction, data mining, pipelining, etc. In this study, the researchers discussed the fluid-solid coupling process, cad model is used in this study by the researchers. This is one of the important parts of designing the process. Cad model is used to design the 3d model. This is useful to build a  3D structure. In the case of wave interaction, the designers are able to use some different methods. This method is needed for an accurate solution. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approaches are used to solve a couple of problems involved in Eulerian modeling.  The implementation of the TVD scheme also provides a highly accurate representation. The challenge of qualitative challenges is an inconsistency between methodology and research questions. The frequency effect of the shock wave is discussed by the author in this study.

 

 

 

Proposed methodology

In this section of the study, the proposed methods are discussed. In this study, a numerical method is discussed briefly. The numerical method is a mathematical tool to solve numerical problems. The numerical method is used to enable wave interaction. There are various kinds of numerical methods that can put impact wave interaction. The methodology section of the project briefly describes the different methods to form wave interaction in recent times.

Research Design

Research design is the systematic framework that can occur as a major part of research methods. The Research design also contains different methods and techniques that can be chosen by the researcher. The research design also allows the researchers to minimize the effects of the cost and to provide simple subject matter for the project. It also helps an organization’s success in the market (Mehta et al, 2019). The research design also contains data methods for the project. In the case of this wave interaction, the quantitative research method is used. The quantitative research design is also able to aims to discover the thinking of the designers and the activities that can be executed in a specific way. In the case of these wave interactions, it is important to create a large sample size. Various kinds of mathematical tools are used to form wave interactions. This also helps to create more opportunities in the market (Min et al, 2020). On the other hand, the descriptive research design also provides knowledge of the case study and the perspective of the case study. In the case of wave interactions, this correlation quantitative research is essential. It helps to attempt for providing the variables to form the wave interactions. These particles are compressed and can be applicable in significant deformation. Shock wave interaction is able to focus the points which are observed in all experiments.

Figure 3: Quantitative research design

(Source: https://www.questionpro.com/blog/quantitative-research)

Research strategies

Research strategy is also one of the systematic procedures that can put impact methods. The research strategy step-by-step step plan to create the goals and targets for the organization. This research strategy also provides the right direction for designer thoughts and efforts. This also helps to enhance the performance to conduct the research systematically. As a result, the management can easily get the quality result (Huang et al, 2020). In the case of this wave interaction, it is more efficient. Due to this research strategy, the designers can easily develop TVD schemes for wave interaction. They can easily use the software tools to implement the wave interaction process. The research strategy also helps wave interaction to strengthen their positions. It also helps to minimize the investment risk in terms of wave interactions. In the case of wave interaction, the designers are able to use some different methods. The designer also has the ability to increase the working ability of wave interactions. This strategy also helps to form the wave interaction in the market. The strategy of implementing the mathematical model also creates more opportunities for wave interactions. It is also important for the designer to enable the two-phase system to increase the working ability of wave interactions. The research design also contains effective strategic planning. This effective strategic planning of wave interaction also creates more opportunities in the market.

Figure 4: Research Strategy

(Source: https://www.researchgate.net/)

Research Approaches

Research Approaches is defined as the plans and procedure for the research. The research approach put an impact on the designer to enable wave interaction in the market. Due to this research approach there create so many opportunities in the market. In recent times most designers are able to use research approaches to implement wave interactions. As a result, there create more opportunities in the market. The application of TVD schemes is also able to justify the detonation flows (Prasanna et al, 2018).  The application of  TVD is also important in recent times in terms of wave interactions. The mathematical model is not done properly due to the lack of main approaches. The approaches of the mathematical model are important for wave interactions. The research approaches also represent the different kinds of methods of collection, analysis, and interpretation. The research approaches also help the designers to form wave interaction. The quantitative research approach is used in terms of wave interaction. The quantitative research approach also contains several collections of numerical data to describe, explain, and prediction that is based on project work. On the other hand, the deductive approach, inductive approach, and abductive approach are essential parts in terms of wave interactions. Deductive approaches are also used to set hypotheses for wave interactions. The inductive approach is not able to involve the formulation of a hypothesis. This research hypothesis also implements the aim and objective to achieve the goals and targets. Abductive research is able to devote the explanation which can be based on incomplete observations.

Figure 5: Research Approaches

(Source: https://research-methodology.net/research-methodology)

Research methods

Research methods are the essential techniques and strategies to utilize the data in terms of uncovering new information. There are two types of research methods “Qualitative research method” and  “Quantitative research method”. In the case of this wave interaction, the quantitative research method is used. The quantitative research method also helps to gather some essential numerical data. These numerical data can be measured and ranked with the help of statistical analysis. In terms of the quantitative research method, also consists to uncover patterns to make generalizations (Yanhao et al, 2021). Due to the quantitative research method, the designer is able to create survey questionnaires. This also helps to get a clear vision of the project. The observation process is increased due to this quantitative research method. The observation also involves a specific phenomenon that occurs in the wave interaction. The observation in terms of wave interaction creates more opportunities in the market. It is also important for the management to share the document with the help share and screening. The sourcing of numerical data from financial reports also helps for word occurrences. Due to the quantitative techniques, the designers are able to do proper experiments in terms of wave interactions. The designer is able to put the different frequencies with the help of proper experiments. The designer is able to use the various electrodes with the help of proper experiments. The frequencies which are used in wave interaction increase with the help of the proper experiments.

Data collection methods

Data collection method is the systematic procedure to gather all the essential information in terms of the project. The data collection method plays a crucial role to make sure about the data is based on wave interactions. The lack of data collection method also not be accurate in further consequence. There are several data collection methods. In the case of these wave interactions, the user has used the second method (Jones et al, 2020). The primary data collection method is also used with the help of the secondary data collection method. As per the journals, the designer enhances the TVD schemes in terms of wave interactions. The statement of various journals also implements the electrode and control system in terms of wave interactions. Secondary data collection also provides advantages such as “save time”, “efforts”, and “expenses”. The advantages also create more opportunities in terms of wave interactions. Different kinds of features and elements which is used in terms of wave interactions, also implement the process.

Figure 6: Quantitative Data collection method

(Source: https://www.questionpro.com/blog/quantitative-data)

 

Software requirements

This section of the project briefly described as the requirements of the software to form the wave interaction process. In the case of this process, various kinds of software are required. The designer used CAD software for the process. But on the other hand, Ansys, Solidworks, and Matlab are used to form wave interactions.  CAD is one of the best simulation models for this process. In this CAD software, the designer can evaluate the proper value. In this CAD software, the designer is able to execute proper experiments with proper elements. The outcome of the software is enough to understand the wave interactions. The simulation results are also able to compare with the experimental data. The CAD software is also able to make proper design and structure of the wave interaction. The proper frequency also creates more opportunities in terms of wave interaction in the market. The mathematical model is not done properly due to the lack of main approaches. The compression is discussed in this study to know the arrangement of the pressure. 16 SAPA is used to control the SWBLI. The SAPA has two copper electrodes. The copper electrodes maintain a gap of 10 mm.

 

Project Management

The project management section of the project represents the workability of the management. This project management is important to form wave interaction in the market. The management is able to use the latest technology tools for the better increment of the wave interaction. They are also able to implement various mathematical tools for this process. The management is also monitoring the overall performance of the project. They also enable various methods of electrodes and control systems. This also creates more opportunities to implement the process. The management is also able to implement the TDV schemes to implement the wave indications model. This TDV also creates more opportunities for wave interactions. The management is also used several methods to implement the wave interaction model. The rows of SAPA have four actuators.  This also creates more opportunities in terms of process. The actuators are distributed in the spanwise direction and streamwise direction. The lateral spacing is 17 mm and 11 mm respectively. The downstream “actuator row” is 42 mm forward of the ramp foot.

Identification of self-reflection form

In this study, different types of models are discussed. The CAD model is discussed in this study. Cad model is used to design the 3D model. In this study, Matlab and Simulink are discussed.  CAD software is the oldest software that is mostly used. This is used in 2D and 3D models. In this study, the uses of Ansys software are discussed. Ansys is used to solve a wide range of mechanical problems. Ansys is used in computer models, electronics components, machine components, and computer structures. Ansis used to know the strength, elasticity, and toughness of these components.

Conclusion

This section of the project is briefly described as the overall performance of the wave interaction process. Different kinds of methods that can be based on the wave interaction method have been evaluated here. Different kinds of journals and its statements have also been discussed here. The evaluation of the mathematical process has been discussed here. The TDV scheme also been analyzed here. The characteristics of CAD, Ansys, Matlab also be evaluated here. The simulation result and the comparison of the experimental data have been analyzed here. Various kinds of opportunities that create on-wave interaction also be discussed here. Various kinds of research methodology can be based on wave interaction also been evaluated here. The research methodology also creates more opportunities in terms of his process. The individual reflective report has also been analyzed here.

 

 

Reference List

Journal

Bulat, P. V., Ilyina, T. E., Volkov, K. N., Silnikov, M. V., & Chernyshov, M. V. (2017). Interaction of a shock wave with an array of particles and effect of particles on the shock wave weakening. Acta Astronautica135, 131-138. Retrieved from: https://eprints.kingston.ac.uk/id/eprint/36083/1/Volkov-K-36083-AAM.pdf [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

Gan, T., Wu, Y., Sun, Z., Jin, D., Song, H., & Jia, M. (2018). Shock wave boundary layer interaction controlled by surface arc plasma actuators. Physics of Fluids30(5), 055107. Retrieved from: https://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/20337/1/ [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

Hosseinzadeh-Nik, Z., Subramaniam, S., & Regele, J. D. (2018). Investigation and quantification of flow unsteadiness in shock-particle cloud interaction. International Journal of Multiphase Flow101, 186-201. Retrieved from: https://www.osti.gov/pages/servlets/purl/1479977 [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

Huang, Z., & Zhang, H. (2020). On the interactions between a propagating shock wave and evaporating water droplets. Physics of Fluids32(12), 123315. Retrieved from: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2011.02071 [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

Jones, C., Bolton, J., Clifford, C., Thurow, B., Arora, N., & Alvi, F. (2020). Single-camera three-dimensional velocity measurement of a fin-generated shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction. AIAA Journal. Retrieved from: https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/pdf/10.2514/1.J059184 [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

Mehta, Y., Jackson, T. L., & Balachandar, S. (2020). Pseudo-turbulence in inviscid simulations of shock interacting with a bed of randomly distributed particles. Shock Waves30(1), 49-62. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Yash-Mehta-27/publication/333624999_Pseudo-turbulence_in_inviscid_simulations_of_shock_interacting_with_a_bed_of_randomly_distributed_particles/links/5cffbfde92851c874c5e5724/Pseudo-turbulence-in-inviscid-simulations-of-shock-interacting-with-a-bed-of-randomly-distributed-particles.pdf [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

Mehta, Y., Salari, K., Jackson, T. L., & Balachandar, S. (2019). Effect of Mach number and volume fraction in air-shock interacting with a bed of randomly distributed spherical particles. Physical Review Fluids4(1), 014303. Retrieved from: https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1836935 [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

Min, S. H., Wijesinghe, S., Lau, E. Y., & Berkowitz, M. L. (2020). Damage to Polystyrene Polymer Film by Shock Wave Induced Bubble Collapse. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B124(34), 7494-7499. Retrieved from: https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1772701 [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

NAGATA, T., NONOMURA, T., OHTANI, K., & ASAI, K. (2022). Schlieren Visualization and Motion Analysis of an Isolated and Clustered Particle (s) after Interacting with Planar Shock. TRANSACTIONS OF THE JAPAN SOCIETY FOR AERONAUTICAL AND SPACE SCIENCES65(4), 185-194. Retrieved from: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tjsass/65/4/65_T-21-22/_pdf [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

Osnes, A. N., Vartdal, M., Omang, M. G., & Reif, B. A. P. (2019). Computational analysis of shock-induced flow through stationary particle clouds. International Journal of Multiphase Flow114, 268-286. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301932219300278 [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

Osnes, A. N., Vartdal, M., Omang, M. G., & Reif, B. A. P. (2019). Numerical investigation of shock wave particle cloud interaction in cylindrical geometries. arXiv preprint arXiv:1906.06709. Retrieved from: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.06709 [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

Peng, X., Wang, S., Rao, G., Li, B., & Chen, W. (2022). Investigation of the Interaction Mechanism of Solid Particles under Shock Waves. Shock and Vibration2022. Retrieved from: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2022/3791156/ [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

Prasanna Kumar, S. S., Patnaik, B. S. V., & Ramamurthi, K. (2018). Prediction of air blast mitigation in an array of rigid obstacles using smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Physics of Fluids30(4), 046105. Retrieved from: https://aip.scitation.org/doi/full/10.1063/1.5022198 [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

Ramaswamy, D. P., & Schreyer, A. M. (2022). Effects of Jet-to-Jet Spacing of Air-Jet Vortex Generators in Shock-Induced Flow-Separation Control. Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, 1-30. Retrieved from: Ramaswamy, D. P., & Schreyer, A. M. (2022). Effects of Jet-to-Jet Spacing of Air-Jet Vortex Generators in Shock-Induced Flow-Separation Control. Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, 1-30. [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

Sawant, S. S., Tumuklu, O., Jambunathan, R., & Levin, D. A. (2018). Application of adaptively refined unstructured grids in DSMC to shock wave simulations. Computers & Fluids170, 197-212. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Saurabh-Sawant-2/publication/324682403_Application_of_Adaptively_Refined_Unstructured_Grids_in_DSMC_to_Shock_Wave_Simulations/links/5c3a7504458515a4c721f7cf/Application-of-Adaptively-Refined-Unstructured-Grids-in-DSMC-to-Shock-Wave-Simulations.pdf [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

Sidorenko, D. A., & Utkin, P. S. (2018). Two-dimensional gas-dynamic modeling of the interaction of a shock wave with beds of granular media. Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry B12(5), 869-874. Retrieved from: https://www.academia.edu/download/65116706/2018_25.pdf [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

Silber, E. A., Boslough, M., Hocking, W. K., Gritsevich, M., & Whitaker, R. W. (2018). Physics of meteor generated shock waves in the earth’s atmosphere–a review. Advances in Space Research62(3), 489-532. Retrieved from: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1805.07842 [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

St Clair, J., McGrath, T., & Balachandar, S. (2022). Fully resolved coupled solid-fluid simulations of shock interaction with a layer of deformable aluminum particles. Shock Waves32(2), 161-178. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sivaramakrishnan-Balachandar/publication/356984135_Fully_resolved_coupled_solid-fluid_simulations_of_shock_interaction_with_a_layer_of_deformable_aluminum_particles/links/61c54256b8305f7c4bf8a95c/Fully-resolved-coupled-solid-fluid-simulations-of-shock-interaction-with-a-layer-of-deformable-aluminum-particles.pdf [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

Sun, Z., Gan, T., & Wu, Y. (2020). Shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions at compression ramps studied by high-speed schlieren. AIAA Journal58(4), 1681-1688. Retrieved from: https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/pdf/10.2514/1.J058257 [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

Sun, Z., Miao, X., & Jagadeesh, C. (2020). Experimental investigation of the transonic shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction over a shock-generation bump. Physics of Fluids32(10), 106102. Retrieved from: https://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/25545/1/ [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

Yanhao, L. U. O., Jun, L. I., Liang, H., Shanguang, G. U. O., Mengxiao, T. A. N. G., & Hongyu, W. A. N. G. (2021). Suppressing unsteady motion of shock wave by high-frequency plasma synthetic jet. Chinese Journal of Aeronautics34(9), 60-71. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S100093612100162X [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

Zhang, L. T., Sui, Z. Z., & Shi, H. H. (2018). Interaction of a shock wave with multiple spheres suspended in different arrangements. Journal of Applied Physics123(10), 104901.Retrieved from: https://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/23/8/1051/pdf [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

Zhang, L. T., Sui, Z. Z., & Shi, H. H. (2018). Interaction of a shock wave with multiple spheres suspended in different arrangements. Journal of Applied Physics123(10), 104901.Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Lite-Zhang/publication/323675022_Interaction_of_a_shock_wave_with_multiple_spheres_suspended_in_different_arrangements/links/5ac60740a6fdcc051dafe8b3/Interaction-of-a-shock-wave-with-multiple-spheres-suspended-in-different-arrangements.pdf [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

Zhang, L., Feng, Z., Sun, M., Jin, H., & Shi, H. (2021). Numerical study of air flow induced by shock impact on an array of perforated plates. Entropy23(8), 1051. Retrieved from: https://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/23/8/1051/pdf [retrieved on: 08.07.22]

Leave a Comment