International

“Impact of Intermodal International Logistics on the Operations of Manufacturing Companies: In the Context of Godrej Consumer Products Ltd”

ABSTRACT

The main purpose of this report is to “analysis the impact of intermodal international logistics on the operations of manufacturing companies: in India.” For this research study, the researcher has chosen Godrej Consumer Products Ltd. In order to fulfil this research aim the researcher analysed the process of intermodal international logistic in the context of India. As concerning of this objective, the researcher identified the concept of intermodal international logistic process. This study also aimed to analyse the relationship between the intermodal international logistic and operation of manufacturing companies. Furthermore, the researcher also provided recommendations to improve the process of intermodal international logistic.

For this research mixed research techniques quantitative and qualitative used by the researcher with the interpretivist philosophy and inductive approach. At the same time, the researcher also used both primary and secondary data collection method. Under the primary method, the researcher was collected data by the survey questionnaire with taken 60 sample size and literature review and case study is developed with the secondary method of data collection. In order to data analysis, the researcher used SPSS software with descriptive analysis technique.

From the data analysis, it is found that there is significant impact of intermodal international logistic process on the operation of the manufacturing companies. In this, it is found that there are some forms of the intermodal transport such as Water-road, air-road and water and rail. However, the company face issue in the operation due to intermodal logistic. In this, major issues are lack of communication, high cost and ineffective strategy. In order to mitigate these issues an organisation should hire skilled and profession employees in logistic department and should also develop effective strategy.

TOPIC

The title of this thesis is to “analysis the impact of intermodal international logistics on the operations of manufacturing companies: Godrej Consumer Products Ltd.”

CHAPTER 1:  INTRODUCTION

1.1 Research Background

The research topic is to analysis the impact of intermodal international logistics on the operations of manufacturing companies: in the context of India. In the international business environment, intermodal logistic refers to the exchange of containers of goods between two modes of transport. In the simple words, the movement of goods from in mode of the transport to another mode of transport is known as the Intermodal (Wood, et al. 2012). The increasing the concept of the globalisation has increased the concept intermodal international logistics. In order to maintain the cost of operation, there is a significant role of the intermodal international logistic. The international logistic is a part of the international business that includes physical movement of the goods between two nations. The international logistic process involves the planning, implementation and controlling process in order maintain the effectiveness of the flow of goods (Cho, et al. 2012).

The intermodal international logistic involves transportation of the cargo in an intermodal container by using the multiple modes of the transportation including rail, road and water. It does not involve more efforts to change the modes of the container. It is effective to decline the cargo handling and improve the security of goods. It also minimise chances of the loss and damage of goods during the logistic process. It reduces the overall cost of the logistic that is a key benefit for the manufacturing companies. Beside of this, at the international level, a manufacturing company cannot be depended on only a single model of transportation. It has to take help of another mode to deliver the goods (Lam and Gu, 2013). For example, to deliver the goods in cities, an organisation has to move its good on road mode from the water and rail mode. In this process, it is possible that a manufacturing company face issues due to any reason and error in the logistic process.

India’s transportation has developed at the great extent in the recent years. Due to this, there are many competitors in the global market that are raising their concern on the Indian intermodal system. The intermodal international logistic in India is increasing with 8-9 percent per year. At the same time, the increasing the customers demand of the foreign products also supports the logistic industry and manufacturing companies. India is developing and famous country in the world. India is one of the biggest economies in the world and there are many opportunities for the business (Slack, 2016). That is the reason that concern of the investors is increasing toward India. However, the impact of the global crises has been seen in the Indian economic growth, but it is less that other developed countries. At the same time, there is a strong prediction that India will become their largest economy in the world in coming 7 to 9 years after the USA and China.

The level of the transportation and logistics sector are the base of the economic development of any country. It is also an important area for India because of there a need to provide employment to 45 million people. The intermodal logistic facilitates to connect the different modes of transportations including rail, water, air and road. The economic growth of India has increased the demand transportation in the country. The transport and logistics industry are important and basic elements of the economic growth of the country. In India, since the 1990s, unexpected and significant changes have been seen in the transportation infrastructure (Verma, et. al. 2012). Along with this, polices of the current government of India accelerates the demand of in the logistics industry. In this, the growth was recorded in each mode of the transportation.

1.2 Research Problem

The main research problem is the increasing cost of manufacturing companies in the context of the international logistic process. It is difficult for an organisation to maintain logistic cost minimum due to increasing the demand of the customer. Along with this, in the intermodal international logistic, many parties are involved due to this the cost of the raw material has increased that directly increase the manufacturing cost of companies. Along with this, it is also possible that manufacturing companies face packaging issue due to the intermodal international logistic process. The continuous changing the customers need is also a challenge for the manufacturing industry because the company cannot maintain a large amount of raw material and finished goods (Rodrigue and Notteboom, 2012). Therefore, manufacturing companies have to conduct logistic process many times in the week or month. Hence, in order to manage these kinds of issues, an organisation must consider the accurate logistic management process. It will also help to prevent the issues in the intermodal international logistic process of the manufacturing companies.

In the intermodal international logistics, it is analyzed that there is various type of the barriers which affect the industry. In this, the marketing barrier is in main that includes entry restriction of one country. Additionally, the poor knowledge regarding the market size is also a concerning aspect. In this, the main issue is faced by the organisation is related to pricing and tariff barriers (Bruns and Knust, 2012). In the international logistic the competition is increasing continuously. The logistics industry also faces difficulties in the context of the regulation and rules. At the international level, each country has different rules and regulation. The financial barrier is also a major research problem of this research study. In this, the companies face difficulties in the global environment. Along with this, there are also barriers in the context of institutional infrastructure serviced by the banks, insurance firms, and legal counselors. The distribution channel is also a major aspect of the transportation of the goods and material. It is because the manufacturing companies face problems due to lack of the infrastructural standardization such as differences in the material handling equipment and transportation (Boschian, et. al. 2011).

Therefore, the operation of manufacturing companies is deeply affected by intermodal international logistic. The management of the company prepares strategies and plan to deals with these barriers effectively. As the aim of this research is to analysis the impact of intermodal international logistics on the operation of manufacturing companies, this research significantly analysis the problem of research topic. In this, it is possible that the cost of the intermodal international logistics affects the operation of the manufacturing companies (Li, et. al. 2012).

1.3 Research Purpose and Objective

The main purpose of this report is to analysis the impact of intermodal international logistics on the operations of manufacturing companies: in the context of India. It also has an aims to identify the relationship between the intermodal international logistic and operation of manufacturing companies. For this, the below objectives accomplished in the research study:

  • To explore the concept of intermodal international logistic management
  • To analysis the relationship between the intermodal international logistic and operation of manufacturing companies
  • To provide recommendation to improve process of intermodal international logistic

1.4 Research Question

In order to attain objectives, the research questions are as follow:

  • What is the concept of intermodal international logistic?
  • How intermodal international logistic affect the manufacturing companies?
  • What are ways that can adopt to improve the intermodal international logistic process?

1.5 Research Justification

It is an interesting topic to analysis the impact of intermodal international logistics on the operations of manufacturing companies. It keeps importance in the both manner such academic and professional. This research improves the knowledge intermodal international logistic system as well as the logistics management. To have sufficient knowledge on the international logistic management can be helpful to develop a career in the logistics management (SteadieSeifi, et. al., 2014). In the contrast of academic, the accomplishment of the research study on this topic is helpful for the researcher to improve their knowledge on the logistics management. It will help the researcher to complete its degree in the relevant subject. At the same time, if the researcher wants to develop its career in the logistics department then this research keep a vital role in researcher life. It will help to develop basis understanding of the intermodal international logistics process as well as its impact on manufacturing companies. This research provides the knowledge on the problems of manufacturing companies (Sawadogo and Anciaux, 2011).

Along with this, this researcher is also useful to develop the understanding of international logistic management in order to maintain logistic cost minimum. Additional, this research is helpful for the research to understand the various methods, approach, philosophy and techniques of the research methodology. Along with this, research is also helpful for the further researcher that will conduct research in the same area. It will provide base them to start their research effectively. By the help of this research, the small manufacturing organisations that want operate at the global level can understand issues in the international business operation (Miller-Hooks, 2012). Hence, it can be summarised that this research includes several importance in the various perspectives.

1.6 Company Introduction

Godrej Consumer Products Ltd is an Indian company that provides consumer goods. It’s headquarter is in Mumbai, Maharashtra. The company has a wide range of product line that includes soap, hair colourants, Toiletries and liquid detergents. Along with this, it also has some brands include ‘Cinthol’, ‘Godrej Shikakai’, and ‘Godrej Fair Glow’, ‘Godrej No.1’. Godrej operates business in the various location of in India and its major plans are in Guwahati (Assam), Malanpur (Madhya Pradesh), Baddi- Katha (Himachal Pradesh), Pondicherry, Baddi- Thana (Himachal Pradesh), Chennai and Sikkim. It is a public company that was founded in 2001 by the Godrej group. The target markets of the company are Asia, Africa, Latin America and Europe. The products of the Godrej are available in more than 80 countries. The product range of the company can be found in Asia, Africa, Latin America, Europe etc. The company follow a 3 × 3 approach to international expansion. Even though, the main market of the company includes Asia, Africa and Latin America. Along with this, Godrej is also established in the Indonesia as Godrej Indonesia, Godrej Global Middle East in UAE., Godrej Household Products Bangladesh  in Bangladesh,  Godrej Household Products Lanka (Pvt)  in Sri Lanka, Godrej Argentina in Argentina, Cosmetica Nacional in Nacional.

The company is known for offering the cleaning agents and personal care products. In 2011, the market revenue of the company was 378.93 billion and the net income was calculated 4.81 billion. As well as the company provides employment more than 1500 people. The main competitors of the company are HUL, Black Rose, Loreal, ITC limited, Gillette and Palmolive.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

This chapter plays a vital role in the thesis to accomplish the research goals and objectives. In this chapter, the researcher review of available literature written by previous authors and researchers. It helps the researcher to develop the depth understanding of research objectives and issue. In this chapter, the researcher collects the data from the different sources such as academic books, journals and articles is critically analyzed to generate theoretical understanding about the research topic. This chapter is helpful for the research study because it fulfils gap between the existing literature and gives own inputs to improve the literature review for further researchers. In this research study, the literature review provides the depth understating of the concept of the intermodal international logistic. At the same time, it also identifies the relationship between the intermodal international logistic and operation of manufacturing process. Moreover, this chapter also suggests strategy to improve the intermodal international logistic process.

2.2 Concept of intermodal international logistic

In the views of Márquez, et al. (2015), the concept of the logistic is not new in the business environment. It refers to the business activities that happen between the organisations. The logistic process is effective to develop the companies in the market. The Logistics is a management activity that helps the company to manage the procurement, production, sales, and distribution with demands. The main objective of the logistic process is to enhance the competitiveness and increaser the corporate value through the fulfilling the customers’ needs. In the same concern of this, García-Pardo & Márquez (2014) depict that purpose of the logistic process is to minimise the operation cost of the company. It also defines that logistic is a planning framework which is used by the management of an organisation to support the distribution process of the organisation. In the current business environment, the logistic process has become more complicated due to increasing the demand in the international market.

Moreover, Ringsberg & Lumsden (2016) concluded that the logistic process starts with when the suppliers come into the operation process. The role of the logistic process is significant to develop the relationship between the production and movement of the production. An effective logistic process should address many of the aspects of production, including time, costs and quality.  In the business environment when an organisation successfully conducts the logistic process then the company get achieve competitive advantage. An effective logistic process also focuses on the proper geographical location of all assets within the organization.

In the views of Directive, (2011) the term logistic is defined as the organisational strategic framework in order to manage the material, capital flow, service and information. Even though, there is not any specific definition of the logistic because there are various authors that represented their views by using different words. In the same concern of this, Meng and Wang, (2011) state that the logistics are a process that is linked with procurement, maintenance, distribution of material and good and managing the personnel. The logistics process is helpful to get products and services to supply forward to fulfil the needs and desire of the customers. It keeps the significant role in the economic growth of the company. According to the American Council of logistic management, the logistic is a process of planning, implementing, and controlling the raw material and finished goods within the organisation.

In the same concern of this, Nossack and Pesch, (2013) stated that there are many definition of the logistic. In this, one definition is about the international logistic. The international logistic process happens when the goods and service delivered between two nations. It means that when an organisation conduct the logistic process outside of country then it is known as the international logistic process. The main objective of the international logistic process is to minimise the cost and risk. It also has an aim to minimise the trade barriers in the international business environment.

Craig, (2013) determine that concept of the intermodal logistic is introduced with the concept of globalisation. The intermodal logistic refers to the transport of the goods from one place to another place by the use of the two or more transport mode. In other words, intermodal logistics can be seen as a chain interconnects different links and transportation modes.     According to Nam and Song (2011), the term intermodal logistic indicates to movement of goods and container of good through the use of two modes of transportation.  This process can involve the use of the road transportation with rail, water transportation with rail, water transportation with road and use of three transportations in the single process. At the same time, in the views of Gil, et al. (2011) intermodal transport needs all modes to work together in a systematic way. It is all about the connectivity of the modes of transports. It is able to reduce the problems of the logistic process of the manufacturing company.

Furthermore, Soysal, et al. (2014) states that intermodal transportation is a key part of the logistic system of the company. It is directly associated with supply chain management process of the company. The concept of the intermodal international logistic is raised from the concept of globalisation. It is because globalisation requires the move goods from one country to another country. Beside of this, Önke Behrends, (2012) demonstrates that in the international business, manufacturing companies use the water transport to move goods between the countries’ boundaries. Further, rail and road transports are used by the companies to distribute well within the country.

In the views of Soysal, et al. (2014), the increasing the concept of the technology is also improving the global supply chain in the business environment. The current business environment is very competitive due to this, it is essential for a manufacturing organisation to manage their logistic system in international marketing effectively. However, it is difficult for an organisation to manage mixed transportation in the logistic system. It also depicts that two or three decades ago, the concept of the international intermodal logistic was not developed. But, there have been seen unexpected changes in the intermodal international logistic due to globalisation and technology development. The technological advancements have developed at the great extent in the transportation. Due to this, the manufacturing organisations in India have become able to conduct safe, efficient and economical logistic activities in the international business world. Beside of this, the research study of Bruns and Knust, (2012) concluded that the intermodal international logistic could be defined as the combinational of two or more modes of the transportation in the movement of the goods. The combination can involve air mode, road mode, rail mode and water mode or two modes from this. The intermodal logistic process is also known as the combination of the transports.

The research study of Sawadogo and Anciaux (2011) develop arguments on the legal aspect of the intermodal international logistic. It depicts that from a legal viewpoint, the intermodal international logistic involves various issues. The intermodal transportation is governed by the different parities and it is more in the context of the international logistic. These parities provide transportation services in the different modes. Along with this, there are some legal procedures that are mandatory for the companies that have the desire to take the transportation service. In the same concern of this, Önke Behrends, (2012) demonstrates that the solution of this is that to prepare the set of proper principles. In these principles, the liabilities of the both parties such as service provider and service taker should be clear. Along with this, there should develop a legal contract between both parties.

Moreover, from the views of Sawadogo and Anciaux (2011), it can be interpreted that intermodal logistic is the articulation between the different modes of transportation. The concept of the intermodal transportation enables the companies to move rapidly and effectively the goods and material of operation. The intermodal logistic allows the organisations to use more than one mode of transportation in the logistic process. Likewise, Bruns and Knust (2012) state that when a company conducts its logistic process in the international business via intermodal transportation than this concept is known as the intermodal international logistic. The main aim of the intermodal international logistic is to support the international trade. It also has an aim to improve the international logistic process in order to expansion of business unites. However, it is possible that the intermodal international logistic affects the operation of organisations because there are different rules and regulation of the transportation at the global level. Along with this, transportation service providers regulate and control the logistic activities by following these rules and regulations.

2.3 Relationship between intermodal international logistic and manufacturing company

Lam and Gu (2013) explore that there is a significant relationship between the intermodal international logistic and manufacturing companies. It is because the use of the intermodal logistic allows the company to conduct logistic process at the minimum cost. It enables the companies to move toward another mode of transportation. It means that a company can move from one mode to another mode of the transportation when it follows the intermodal logistic process. It suggests the cheap modes of transport and enables the company to save cost. In oppose of this, Önke Behrends (2012) determines that the intermodal international logistic process affects the cost of the company. A manufacturing company depends on two modes of transportation due to this the cost of the operation of the company is increased. It is one of the main problems with intermodal transport is that it enhance the cost of the operation of the manufacturing company.

A research study is prepared by Soysal, et al., (2014) conclude that a manufacturing company that uses the intermodal international logistic process has to depend on more than two modes of the transportation. That is why, the companies have to face many kinds of issues and problems. In this, timing issue is a main because sometimes companies have to face the problem as delay in good delivering. Beside of this, Gil, et. al., (2011) posit that intermodal international logistic process provides the business opportunities to the manufacturing industry. It enables the companies to produce more goods and sell in more quantity. Therefore, a manufacturing company can get the benefit of the market opportunities. It also improves the brand image of the company in the manufacturing industry. At the same time, Nam and Song (2011) found that intermodal logistic at international level also provides reliability, capacity and safety advantage to the manufacturing companies. Through this, the company can access to equipment and standardized transit schedules.

At the same time, Vespermann and Wald, (2011) define that if an organisation uses two or more transportation modes to move the goods and material from one place to another place. Due to the globalisation, the concept of the intermodal international logistic developed because the demand of goods increased. In the context international trade, the companies use mostly water mode because it is more cost effective compared to other transports. In some specific cases, companies use air ways that make able to companies to gets the material and goods in short time. The cost of air transportation is high compared to water transport. The combinational of the public transport and private transport is also a part of the intermodal international logistic. It offers the opportunities to the companies to develop their strengths by overlooking the weaknesses. The need of the intermodal transportation is high because it is based on multiple transports.

The research paper of Meisel, et al., (2011) reached the conclusion that intermodal international logistic process in the helpful for the business operation of the manufacturing companies. In the contrast of cost, an organisation that adopts an intermodal logistic process that feels flexible. In the last years, the cost of the intermodal transportation came down in the international market. On the other hand, the cost of the fuel drayage is skyrocketed. That is why, if a manufacturing organisation wants to deliver their products the outside of the country then it select the intermodal international logistic process which enables the company to save some money in the operation. In support of this, Nossack and Pesch (2013) exhibit that by the use of the intermodal international logistic process, the manufacturing organisation is able to get the benefit of the environment-friendly activities in the business environment. It can be understood through the example, four trucks that transport 40,000 pounds material. During this, each for 3000 miles produces approx 17.4 tons of carbon emission. Beside of this, rail transport instead of trucks only products 7 tons of carbon pollution. Hence, the intermodal logistic process improves the reputation of the operation of the manufacturing organisation.

But, in oppose of this, Vespermann and Wald (2011) state that there are some manufacturing organisations that don’t believe that intermodal logistic is helpful to improve their carbon footprint. It is because they things that intermodal logistic increases the work burden on the logistic department. At the same time, the research study of Craig, et. al. (2013) deny the above statement and posit that intermodal international logistic process improves the efficiency of the operation of the manufacturing organisation. Further posits that the shipping intermodal save the time of operation activities that also directly save the cost or money of manufacturing company. The intermodal transportation helps the organisation as dealing with traffic patterns, and disruptive weigh station and other issues related to fuel secrecy. Therefore, the intermodal logistic enables the manufacturing organisation to transport goods and material with fewer distractions and delays.

Verma, et al. (2012) conducted research on the intermodal international logistic and found that during the peak seasons, the manufacturing organisations in India are liable obliged to minimise their operation activities due to the high cost of transportation. It influences the business and market sales of the company. But, the manufacturing organisations with the intermodal logistic can deal in the business world and deal with the issues of high cost of transportation. Under the intermodal logistic process, the manufacturing firms can transport more quantity of goods at a single time. It is because a train can move the load of 280 trucks that also declines the cost of operation. Thus, an organisation can improve their ability operation and logistic activities. As supporting the above research finding, Sawadogo and Anciaux, (2011) carried out that intermodal transportation is proved safe for the operation of the manufacturing organisation. Transportation by the rail mode is much safer compared to other modes of transportations. It is because the railroad police always consistently monitor the international transportation due to this, there is a minimum chance of losing the shipments.

In oppose of this, Ishfaq and Sox, (2011) explore that international intermodal logistic is depended on two or more modes that are why it may be costly of the operation of the manufacturing company. The result of the failure of intermodal logistic contains the cost of the operation which is associated with moving the goods from one place to another place. In support of this, Cho, et. al. (2012) conducted research on the intermodal logistic and developed a conclusion as lack of communication can affect the cost of the transportation. At the same time, the operation of the company is affected by increased cost because it increases the overall cost of the company. But, at the same time, Chen and Miller-Hooks (2012) found in their research that intermodal international logistic allow the organisation to be flexible for choosing the mode of transportation to move good and material from one place to another place. Through the use of intermodal logistic at the international level, the manufacturing organisations have the opportunities to be creative in order to move the goods or material. It means that the company is fully free to choose the cost effective mode to transport its products (Slack, 2016). The process of the intermodal logistic concerns on two modes of the transport due to this management has full opportunities to choose the two modes so it can save the cost of operation as the possible. In the regard of this, the company or manage should develop and implement an effective plan so that it will be able to save the more capital.

2.4 Recommendation to improve process of intermodal international logistic

Wood, et al. (2012) define that in the current business environment, quality is an essential element in the success of the company that may be related to service or production. In order to improve the intermodal international logistic process, the manufacturing company should try to consolidate management and improve the infrastructure. It is helpful for the company to manage the issues related logistic process. In regard of this, Cho, et al., (2012) provide that in improving the process of intermodal international logistic, companies’ expenses should be aimed to increase the quality of the process. In the business scenario, a company has to expense minimum if it has a good quality of service. Therefore, the company should manage expense to improve the quality.

On the other hand, Lam and Gu (2013) depict that increasing network coverage is a way of improving the process of intermodal international logistic. It is a significant strategy for improving the intermodal international logistic process of the manufacturing company. The company should focus on enhancing its network across the world. It will help to improve the logistic process and identify the budget options in the transportation. Similarly, Rodrigue and Notteboom (2012) suggest that in order to improve the intermodal international logistic process, the organisation should hire a skilled and professional team. It will be helpful to prevent the issues in the logistic process and improve the process. Along with this, the company can also develop and implement a training program for the employees. Through the provide training, the company can improve skills of its employees that will improve the intermodal international logistic process.

In the views of Verma, et. al. (2012), in the order improve the process of intermodal international logistic, it is essential for India to develop and enhance the intermodal transport network with logistic centres. It will be helpful for the logistic department to access the new and different modes and technologies of the transportation. However, the intermodal international logistic has developed at the great extent in the last decades in India. But still, there are many areas where improvement is required. In this concern, the government of India can focus on the development of infrastructure of maritime transportation. Through the development of good infrastructure, the capacity of the water transportation can be improved. In the same concern of this, Miller-Hooks, et. al., (2012) suggest that to improve the process of intermodal international logistic, the primary requirement is to measure the development of intermodal international logistic in India. An intermodal logistic system has to need to maintain the effective combination between the various modes of transportation. For improving this process, the company should develop and implement the effective strategies.

Boschian, et. al., (2014) determine that continuously improvement is necessary to achieve growth in the intermodal international logistic. In contrast, the organisation can bring improvement in the cost of the logistic process because it is a big issue in the international trade. The transportation industry can improve its efficiency of the logistic process. The companies can also develop effectively and stick strategies that will help to gain and sustain competitive advantage. The companies can implement these strategies to utilize the available resources effectively. In support of this, SteadieSeifi, et al. (2014) explore that maximize the storage capacity is a way to increase the efficiency of the intermodal international logistic system. The companies should concern on improving the storage capacity. For this, companies can store, move, and ship products more effectively.

Along with this, Bruns and Knust (2012) depicted that the organisation should define the logistic strategies for the industry to improve the intermodal logistic process. It will be helpful to increase the efficiency of the logistic process. It also depicts that in order to improve the intermodal international logistic process, the company should establish goals. In this, it is important that the goals of the company should be associated with mission and vision of the company. Additionally, the transportation company should consider also analysis market because it is effective to provide accurate knowledge of the industry. In support of this, Verma, et al. (2012) developed a conclusion in their research that the company should also review the all the components of a contract. It means that the company should review the cost of procedure, time and police or conditions.

Furthermore, Bruns and Knust (2012) suggested that optimising the transportation is a way of the increasing the efficiency of the intermodal transportation. In order to reduce transportation cost, the organisation should evaluate the each factor of the logistic that can affect the operation of the company. This process starts with the examining the design of the products and packaging. In this, the size and weight are also important that may also be affects the logistic process. It is important because the knowledge of the load and delivery route planning is helpful for the organisation to avoid the issues. Hence, it can be said that the manufacturing companies should seek and utilize the most cost effective packaging and shipping method to improve the intermodal international logistic process. In the same concern, for improving the intermodal international logistics process Boschian, et al. (2011) suggested in their research study that automatic communication is a way effective way that can enhance the organisational performance. The companies should focus on the use of logistic management software to communicate with the various relevant parties of the business. It allows the warehouse and accounting department to maintain the coordination. Along with this, it also allows the accurately deliver the updates to the customers. It is also important to manage the various processes under the logistic process. The logistics management software is also helpful for the organisation to reduce the cost of human resource that directly minimise the cost of operation.

2.5 Summary

This literature review critically analyzes the literature available in authentic sources of data related to intermodal international logistic. From the above literature review, it can be summaries that there is a significant relationship between intermodal international logistic and operation of manufacturing companies in India. The most of the companies use water and road transportation in the international logistic process that also minimise the cost of the operation of the company.

 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

Research methodology is an essential part for conducting any research and plays an effective tool that helps researcher in data collection and to conduct research in a systematic manner. For collecting information, research methodology provides the insight information about research design, research philosophies, research methods & techniques of data collection and research approaches, etc. In addition, it also helps in determining about sampling methodology, sampling size and ethical considerations, etc for the research. Overall, this research methodology chapter helps readers in understanding the different research methodologies and tools which are used by the researcher for conducting the research study effectively and efficiently (Creswell & Poth, 2017).

3.2 Research Philosophy

Research philosophy is the general perspective of the researcher towards understanding the research topic properly and efficiently (Kingsman, 2014). Research Methodology is a method that helps researcher to think and develop understanding and knowledge about the research issue. There are three different types of research philosophy such as realism, interpretivism and positivism, which are mostly used for conducting the research study further (Taylor, et al., 2015). The positivism philosophy helps researcher in using the natural phenomena in an optimistic manner as it is based on the scientific principles & facts and findings. This type of philosophy is best suitable for doing quantitative research. On the other hand, interpretivism philosophy help researcher in conducting research in efficient manner as it provide researcher with subjective comprehension which is also based on the human belief and perception. In addition, realism philosophy is mixed philosophy (i.e., interpretivism & positivism) and it help the reseracher in interpreting the data on the basis of perception and beliefs and thoughts of the people which is based on natural realities (Clarke and Fujimura, 2014).

In order to investigate the impact of intermodal international logistics on the operations of manufacturing companies, interpretivism philosophy is used by the researcher. It is a useful technique to develop a subjective understanding of the research issue. It also helps the researcher to answer the research question as well as achieve the research objective effectively (Maxwell, 2012). Through the interpretivism philosophy, the researcher can use beliefs on preventive the results. On the other hand positivism philosophy is overlooked because it is not effective this research study. In this research study, there is no requirement to measure the correlations between both variables (Di Francesco, et al., 2011). At the same time, realism philosophy is overlooked because it is inappropriate for this research.

3.3 Research Approach

In this research study, research approach is a logical method of presenting the data in order to achieve the research objective for which research approach contains two different types of research approaches i.e., inductive approach and deductive approach (Miller, et al., 2012). These two types of research approach are widely used by the researchers as these approach helps in providing appropriate explanation for the research methods (Bazeley and Jackson, 2013). In this deductive approach, researcher develops hypothesis by considering the existing theories as this approach is based on general ideas and views. This deductive approach is appropriable with positivism research philosophy. On the other hand, inductive approach is a approach which develops new theories i.e., approach is flexible in nature because for collecting data, researcher don’t require any pre-determined theory. However, this approach is related with interpretivism philosophy, which is effective as it helps researcher in developing theories by concsidering views and perception of respondents (Mackey and Gass, 2015).

For this particular research study, reseracher is using the inductive approach is used in comparison to the deductive approach. The use of inductive approach will support the researcher to identify and understand the relationship between internal capabilities in and training & development practices of operation activities of manufacturing company. With the help of this approach, the researcher will develop its own theory rather depending on existing theory.

3.4 Research Investigation

The main aim of this research is to analysis the impact of the Intermodal international logistic on the manufacturing companies. For accomplishing the research objectives, the research investigation is a significant process. In the research methodology, the researcher can use the quantitative and qualitative method to achieve the research objective. In this, the quantitative research permits the researcher to use the numerical data in the research. It is an objective approach that contains the quantitative data to generate the valid and reliable outcomes. On the other hand, the qualitative research is a subjective research approach that is based on the theoretical research data (Chen, et al, 2013).

In this research, the researcher focused on the both qualitative and quantitative research methods that enable the researcher to get the benefits of both methods (Macke and Gass 2015). The use of the both research method helps the researcher to get the benefit of the both research method. Along with this, the researcher will also be able to fulfil the gap between the required data and available data. In this, the quantitative researcher method becomes able the researcher to develop the theoretical understanding about the research issue by making an in-depth analysis (Kingsman, 2014). At the same time, by adopting quantitative research method enables the researcher to conduct statistical research manner and collect the adequate amount of data for resolving the research issue significantly. By the help of both research methods, the researcher also analyzed the views and perception of participants to generate valid and reliable outcomes related to the impact of intermodal international logistic on the operation of manufacturing companies (Hair, 2015).

3.5 Research Strategy

The research strategy helps the researchers for effectively attaining the research objectives and research solution to the issues by applying appropriate tools for collecting data and information (Clarke and Fujimura, 2011). With the help of research strategy, the researchers will able to enhance the research quality by properly understanding the research aims, objectives and research issue. There are some techniques in researcher strategies such as case study analysis, interview, observation, experiments and survey, etc are used for collecting relevant and sufficient data & information for conducting the research further.

In the contrast of this research study, literature review and survey strategies are used by the researcher to reach the specific conclusion. Survey and literature review are helpful to enhance the quality of the research outcomes. Survey through questionnaire enabled the researcher to collect the views of participants related to the impact of intermodal international logistic on the operation of manufacturing companies (Geerts, 2011). At the same time, by the help of literature review, the researcher can compare the finding of various researchers.

3.6 Research Purpose

According to Salkind (2010), the purpose of conducting a research study is highly depends on the nature, aim and research objective. In this, research can be descriptive, explanatory or exploratory research. The descriptive research is used by researcher as it describe data collected and characteristics for particular research topic whereas, explanatory research is a widely used research that helps researcher in explaining and clearly defining the research problem effectively. On the other hand, exploratory research is a research which helps researcher in collecting new data that has not been found previously (Miller, et al., 2012).

In order to analysis the impact of intermodal international logistic on the operation of the manufacturing companies exploratory research design used by the researcher. It helps the researcher to develop the understating of intermodal international logistic. At the same time, it is also helpful to explore the relationship of the intermodal transportation and operation of companies. The descriptive research is overlooked because it did not match with the objective of this research (Mackey and Gass, 2015). Likewise, the explanatory research is avoided by the researcher because it is not effective to explain the difference aspect of intermodal international logistic.

3.7 Data Collection Method

Data collection process is a significant part of the research methodology because it enables the researcher to collect the appropriate data and information through the use of various resources to achieve the research objective. There are two data collection methods that are used by the researcher involving primary data collection method and secondary data collection method. In this, primary data is collected through the survey, interview, researcher, etc. and secondary data is collected through books, literature, journal, internet and newspaper (Vaioleti, 2016). In this, the researcher used both data collection methods. In this, secondary data is collected through journal and books while primary data is collected by conducting the survey.

In the reference of this research study, both data collection methods are used by the researcher to accomplish the research aim and objective effectively because both the data collection methods helps researcher is collecting the required data and actual data which is needed to research (Hair, 2015). For secondary data collection, researcher accesses the existing resources such as authentic websites, articles, books, journals and annual reports.

Further, for collecting primary data researcher is doing survey through questionnaire method. For this, researcher targets selected participants for collecting large amount of data and information and helps in analyzing the collected data to generate valid and reliable outcomes in relation to the research issue (Salkind, 2010).

3.8 Sampling Method

Sampling is a process of selecting the respondents from the large population in order to collect required data for the research study. During research study, the appropriate sampling method helps the researchers to identify and select the right observations or target respondents from the defined population. In sampling method, there are two types of methods such as probability and non-probability sampling methods which are used by the researchers to target their research respondents (Holloway & Galvin, 2016). In Probability sampling, researcher provides an equal chance to respondents or participants to get involved in the research study. This sampling method is effective as it reduces the biasness while conducting a research but, somewhere creates difficulty in controlling the whole research. In contrast to it, the non-probability sampling does not provide an equal chance to participants to get selected in research target group (Green, et al., 2012). This sampling method in research increases the biasness but it is less expensive and quick process.

For this research study, probability sampling is used by the researcher in which random sampling method is used in comparison to non-probability sampling. Through this sampling method, the researcher will select the target participants on a random basis (Neelankavil, 2015). At the same time, researcher avoid to select the non-probability sampling method for this research study, as for collecting data the participants are selected on the basis of skills, knowledge, and experience in order to get reliable outcome and result.

For conducting this research, researcher target respondents through questionnaire survey in which 60 operation managers of different manufacturing companies are targeted. However, all these operational managers are selected from different operational & geographical area, which support the researcher for collecting the effective and comprehensive data and information in relation to the research issue. Due to this, the researcher will enhance the reliability and validity of research as the selected samples are supporting for achieving research aim and objectives significantly (Lynggaard, et al., 2015). For conducting the survey with the help of manager, the proper permission is taken from the head authority of the manufacturing company by providing the detailed & complete information about the purpose of the research study.

3.9 Data Analysis Method

By the help of data analysis technique, the researcher can get valid and reliable data that helps to achieve research aims and objectives. In the research methodology, the researcher can use various data analysis techniques such as conversational analysis, statistical analysis, disclosure analysis and thematic/content analysis (Smith, 2015). These techniques are used according to nature of data and objective of the research.

In this research, the researcher used statistical analysis technique with the help of Ms-Excel and SPSS software. It makes able the researcher to generate accurate and effective results. With the help of this technique, researcher will able to get the reliable results as it will analysis the collected data from different statistical test such as regression test, t- test, correlation and so on. However, SPSS software helped the researcher in making attractive and creative presentation of collected data in form of graphs, tables, etc will helps reader in understanding the research study and also helps in making the result more effective (Robson and McCartan 2016).

3.10 Ethical Consideration

Ethical issue is a central element of the research methodology as it assist the researchers in conducting a research properly because if researcher doesn’t follow ethical step during the research process then researcher will not able to complete the research on time and face research issues. In this research study, ethical consideration refers as a research guideline that helps researcher in conducting the research in an ethical and valid manner.

For avoiding the ethical issues, the researcher is required to follow an ethical behavior for accomplishing the research study effectively and in a reliable manner. In this research study, the researcher also required to concern on the proper referencing, eliminating plagiarism and on data manipulation, etc. (Goodman, et al., 2013). For secondary data collection, the researcher required to provide proper referencing to the data in order to eliminate the ethical issues. In addition, researcher is also keep the personal information of the respondents secured for avoiding ethical issues.

3.11 Research limitation

In order to accomplish the research objective, there are various issues that affects directly or indirectly to the research study. While conducting a research, there is limited time frame which restricts the researcher to complete the research study on time by using effective methods or ways. Moreover, researcher also faced problem in collecting the primary data as it is very difficult to access to all targeted participants or respondents at same time. In order to meet this issue, participants are communicated through e-mails and questionnaires (Hair, 2015). On the other hand, the other limitation in research study is research budget which restricts or set the limits in data collection in terms of area and scope from where large amount of data is collected by targeting large respondents.

3.12 Summary

From the above study, it can be summarized that research methodology help the researcher in the understanding of different research method that helps in accomplishing the research in systematic manner. In this chapter, the use of interpretivism philosophy, inductive approach, mixed research design, and survey research technique enables the researcher to collect an adequate and large amount of data & information in order to develop the appropriate valid  outcomes in relation to the impact of the intermodal international logistic on the operation on the manufacturing companies.

 CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Introduction

The fourth chapter of the thesis is data analysis and discussion. It is important chapter of any research study that is based on the analysis of collected data. This chapter analysis and interprets the analysed data in order to generate the valid and reliable outcomes. This chapter is also important because it represents the collected or analysed in the effective form where reader can easily understand the findings. It represents the data in the tabulation and graphical form that is helpful that is helpful for researcher enhances the creativity in the research. Additional, it provides the attractive looks to the research. In the contrast of this research study, the researcher used statistical data analysed method to analyse the collected data. By the help of this method, the researcher achieves the aims and objective of research study effectively.

4.2 Data Analysis and Discussion

In order to collected primary data, the researcher selected 60 operation managers of the different manufacturing companies. This sample size is effective to analysis the impact of the intermodal international logistic on the operation of the manufacturing companies in India. In this survey, the researcher sent the questionnaire to participants through the use of mail and obtained the responses in the same manner. In reply of questionnaire, the all 60 operation managers provided their response with the response rate of 100%. Therefore, it is summarised that there are 60 completed (100% agreed responses) questionnaires to make further research and complete the research significantly.

4.2.1 Reliability Analysis

In the research methodology, reliability analysis is a technique of measuring the reliability of the conducted questionnaire in the research. This technique helps the researcher to analysis the accuracy of the questionnaire through the help of Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient. The below table shows the reliability statistics of the questionnaire:

Table 1: reliability statistic

The above table depicts that the conducted questionnaire has a positive value of Cronbach’s Alpha (.446). It means that the level of the accuracy and validity is acceptable in the research study. In the same concern of this, it also shows that the replies of the participants are valid to accomplish the research aims and objectives effectively.

4.2.2 Demographic Result

In this research, the researcher has selected participants on the basis of different demographical bases including gender, age and their experience. In the questionnaire, the first question was on gender of the participant. In this response, the outcomes are below.

Table 2: Gender of participants

The above table depicts that in the conducted survey, the both gender were participated. But, at the same time, it is found that 35 participants were male while 25 were female participant in the survey. The male participants were (58.3) in the majority as compared to the female participants.

Figure 1: Gender

Furthermore, on the basis of age, the research selected the participants in the different criteria. As concerning of the age, the outcomes are in below table:

Table 3: Age

Figure 2: Age

The above table and graph show that in the survey, the participants were from the different age group. But, it is identified that mostly participants (40%) from the 26-34 age group and there were also 7 persons that were above the 60. In the demographic section, the last question was asked the experience of the participants. In this concern, the responses of the participant can be seen in the below table.

Table 4: Experience of Participants

From the above table, it can be stated that there are differ employees those have the different year experience in the operation management. But at the same time, from the above table, it can also be depicted that most of the people have the 4-8 years experience in the operation management. It is because in order to handle the all operation effectively, the experience is required for the employees. In the same concern of this, in the research of Meng and Wang, (2011), it is determined that there are different works in the operation departments such as, maintenance, distribution of material and good and managing the personnel that is managed by the employees effectively for better operation management. So, in regard to this, if the employees who handle the all operation department have experience in this field can easily manage the all operation management effectively. But at the same time, the above table also states that there are different employees who also have the 8-12 years experience in this field that show the requirement skills and knowledge in the operation department.

4.2.3 Concept of intermodal international logistic

This is a significant section of this research in which the researcher asked the questions related the concept of the intermodal international logistic. In the contrast of this section, the first question is that whether the intermodal international logistic process is conducted in your organisation. In response this, the below results are made:

Table 5: The intermodal international logistic process is conducted in your organisation

From the above graph, it can be determined that in order to sustain in the market and to have a good customer base, there is a vital role of the intermodal international logistic for the firms. At the same time, it can also be determined that the companies use the intermodal logistic process to meet their logistics and transport objectives. In this, it is analysed that there is high involvement of the organisations in the intermodal international logistic process that enables the multinational companies to supply their produces out of its local location.

Furthermore, the researcher asked by the questionnaire that in the contrast of intermodal international logistics, which one in the following combination is used by your company most of the time. The responses of participants are as follow:

Table 6: Combination is used by your company most of the times

The above response table points out that there are various the combinations that were used by the organisations to transport the goods and material. In this, it is identified that water and road (31.7%) is the main combination that is used by the manufacturing companies. The water – rail (26.7%) is also a combination that is used by companies at the time of the international deal. Along with this, the companies air-road, rail – road are also some combination that is useful in the international logistics.

In the contrast of next question, the researcher asked that how much you are agreed that intermodal international logistic has an impact on your company economic performance. Concerning, the responses of the participants are as below table:

Table 7: You are agreed that intermodal international logistic has an impact on your company economic performance

On the basis of the above table, it can be determined 49 (81.7%) participants out of 60 agreed that there is a great impact of the intermodal international logistics on the economic performance of the company. It means that they participants believe that intermodal logistic process affects the financial situation of the company. But, it is not certain that how to it affect in the positive manner or negative manner. In the support of this interpretation, Meng and Wang, (2011) state that the logistics are a process that is linked with procurement, maintenance, distribution of material and good and managing the personnel. The logistics process is helpful to get products and services to supply forward to fulfil the needs and desire of the customers. It keeps the significant role in the economic growth of the company

Further, in this section, the researcher asked the participants that the intermodal international logistics is effective for your company to feel free regarding the selection of transport mode. In response to this question, the below responses are obtained

Table 8: The intermodal international logistics is effective for your company to feel free regarding the selection of transport mode

From the above table, it can be determined that the use of the intermodal international logistic enables the organisation to feel free regarding the selection of transport mode. It is because 68% participants provided their response in support of this. According to them, intermodal logistics allows the firm to be flexible regarding the selection of modes of transportation. By the help of intermodal logistics, the manufacturing company can select any transportation mode according to their need. Hence, it helps the companies to be flexible regarding the selection of intermodal logistic.

In next question, it was asked to the respondents that whether the intermodal international logistic helps the organisation to deal with traffic patterns, and disruptive weigh station and other issues. Regarding to this question, the responses are obtained as follows:

Table 9: Intermodal international logistic helps the organisation to deal with traffic patterns, and disruptive weigh station and other issues

Figure 3: Intermodal international logistic helps the organisation to deal with traffic patterns, and disruptive weigh station and other issues

From the above table, it can also be stated that there is a significant role of the Intermodal international logistic to help the organisation to deal with traffic patterns, and disruptive weigh station and other issues. The above table also present that most of the respondents have their positive view on that. It is because there are different ways that are used by the Intermodal international logistic firms that made way the firms to handle the all traffic issue and to timely deliver the products for the customers on time and effectively.

In support of these findings, in the research of Craig, (2013) determined that intermodal logistic firms use the multiple transport mode to deliver the products from the firm to end customers. Because of this, there are not any traffic issue that is faced by the firms at the time of using the intermodal international logistic. In like manner the above table also represent that some of the respondents have their neutral view about this. It is because they are not exactly clear about that is there any role of the Intermodal international logistic firms to manage the traffic and to deal with traffic patterns, and disruptive weigh station.

4.2.4:  Relationship of Intermodal International Logistic and Operation of Manufacturing Company

There is a crucial relationship of intermodal international logistic and operation of manufacturing company. The reason behind this is that it makes easy the manufacturing firms to keep safe the extra cost and better delivery of the product for the customers. There are different modes of the transport in the international logistic that mean firm can move to international logistic at the time of using the international logistic. Because of this, it can be stated that there is a vital role of the international logistic in the manufacturing firms.

Table 10: The intermodal international logistic allows the manufacturing company to keep the cost of logistics low

From the above table, it can be determined that most of the respondents have their positive concern on that intermodal international logistic allows the manufacturing company to keep the cost of logistics low. The reason behind is that the manufacturing firms use the logistics to deliver the products from one location to another location. But at the same time, when, firm use the intermodal international logistic that means there are lots of options of the transport to the manufacturing firms. So, the firm can select any mode of transport as per their choice and the minimum cost. Due to this, it can be determined that there were positive concerns of the respondents towards the use of intermodal international logistic by the manufacturing firm to keep safe the cost.

These all findings are also supported in the research of Soysal, et al., (2014) by stating that there is multiple operation are available for the manufacturing firm at the time of using the intermodal international logistic because of this they have the choice to use the cheap and better transport mode. So, by concerning the all aspects, it can be defined that the use of intermodal international logistic is quite better for the manufacturing firms in order to keep safe the cost and to better control on the transportation.

Figure 4: The intermodal international logistic allows the manufacturing company to keep the cost of logistics low

The above table shows that most of the respondents were agreed on that intermodal international logistic allows the manufacturing company to keep the cost of logistics low. It is because there are multiple options are available for the firms to use the transport. Because of this it can be stated that it is an issue for the intermodal international logistic to keep their price low. In the same regard to this, from the research of Önke Behrends (2012), it is illustrated that due to dependency on the different mode of the transport, it is necessary for the firm to keep low the logistics prices otherwise it can create the financial issue for the firms and also affect the overall business of the logistic firms. Due to this, it can be finalized that international logistic allows the manufacturing company to keep the cost of logistics low.

Table 11: In the context of the intermodal international logistics, issues are faced by your company

From the above table, it can be determined that there are different issues that are faced by the manufacturing firms at the time of using the service of intermodal international logistics. But at the same time, from the above table, it can also be determined that high cost, time, ineffective strategy, legal issue, lack of communication are the major issues that are faced by the firms. It is because sometime due to the emergency situation, firm increase the logistics cost that crates the financial issue for the firm and affects business of the firms as well. Additionally, most of the employees those have approx 12 years experience stated that time is the major issue that is faced by the firm at the time of using the logistics services. It is because there are different formalities that are followed by the firm at the time of using the logistics services.

Because of this, time is the major issue that is faced by the firm manufacturing firms. In like manner, from the above table, it can also be determined that employees those have 4-8 years determined that the ineffective strategy is one of the major issues that is faced by the firm during the use of logistics firms services. The reason behind this is that there is not any effective strategy that is used by the intermodal, international logistics firms. It is because they always try to provide the service when they have the adequate supply. Because of this, it can be determined that the ineffective strategy is the major issue for the firm in the business process. As well as, it can also be determined that legal issue and the lack of communication are also the major issues that are also faced by the firm at the time of using the service of from intermodal, international logistics firms. It is because there are different legal issues related to tax, vat, etc that also creates the issue for the firm to manage the logistics process. In addition, lack of communication is also the issue because the respondents stated that the employees of the intermodal international logistics firms don’t react and communication properly that create the issue for the firm to manage the logistics process and to develop a good customer base.  In the same concern of this, Verma, et al. (2012) defined that time, communication, proper management, etc are the major reasons that affect the working process of the firm as well as the logistics behaviour of the firm. Because of this, sometime manufacturing firms face the so many issues at the time of using the intermodal international logistics.

Table 12: The intermodal international logistics process is helpful for your company to take the benefit of the market opportunities

    

The above table shows that most of the respondents were agreed on that the use of intermodal international logistics provides the lots of market opportunities for the firm and also help to develop the good customer base for the firm. In the survey analysis, it is found that 28 participants were agreed that the intermodal international logistics process is helpful for your company to take the benefit of the market opportunities. The above interpretation can also be supported by the literature review findings of Gil, et. al., (2011) posit that intermodal international logistic process allows the companies to produce more goods and sell in more quantity. Therefore, a manufacturing company can get the benefit of the market opportunities. It also improves the brand image of the company in the manufacturing industry. Further, this next question was asked by the participant that whether the intermodal international logistic process is helpful for manufacturing companies to enhance the operation activities. In the regard of this question, the obtained outcomes below:

Table 13: The intermodal international logistic process is helpful for manufacturing companies to enhance the operation activities

 

From the above table, it is identified that 30 participants out of the 60 participants were agreed that intermodal international logistic process is helpful for manufacturing companies to enhance the operation activities. They believe that intermodal logistic process facilitate the organisation to increase the operation activities and also increase overall capabilities of the product. In the support of above interpretation, Craig, et. al. (2013) said that shipping activities through the intermodal logistic process help the company to save the time and cost on the shipping of goods that directly minimise total cost of the company. Intermodal logistic process helps the manufacturing companies to increase the quantity of the production.

At the same time, through the next question the research ask from the participants that whether the intermodal international logistics allows your company to participate in the environment – friendly activities in the business environment. The response of this question is collected in the table:

Table 14: The intermodal international logistics allows your company to participate in the environment – friendly

 

The above presented table depicts that 41 (68.3%) participants out of the 60 were agreed that the intermodal international logistic process allows the manufacturing companies to participant in the environment – friendly activities in the business environment. It allows the companies to choose the best option that is supportive to environmentally friendly activities. In the shipping the goods, there are different modes of transportation such as road, rail, air and water. In this, each transportation mode has different level of the carbon emission. As supporting the above interpretation, the views of Nossack and Pesch (2013) exhibit that there is the involvement in the intermodal international logistic process allows the company to get the benefit of the environment friendly activities. It enables the companies to contribute environment protection activities with the purpose of welfare of society. In this research, it is also analysed road transport explore more carob compared to the rail so that company can choose rail transport to provide their goods. It minimises the carbon emission by the company.

In this section, the research asked from the participants that do you think that intermodal logistic process can be helpful for the company to get reliability, capacity and safety advantage. The response of the participants is recorded in the below table.

Table 15: You think that intermodal logistic process can be helpful for the company to get reliability, capacity and safety advantage

 

The above graph represents that 41 participants were agreed that intermodal logistic process can be helpful for the company to get reliability, capacity and safety advantage. They think that the use of the intermodal international logistic process is safe and reliable to transfer the goods from one place to another place. By this method, the companies can move their good in with full safety. The above interpretation can be supported by the literature findings of Nam and Song (2011) determined that intermodal logistic at international level also provides reliability, capacity and safety advantage to the manufacturing companies. Through this, the company can access to equipment and standardized transit schedules.

4.2.5:  Strategy to Improve the Process of Intermodal International Logistic

This is next section of the questionnaire that involves the question on the strategy to improve the process of intermodal international logistic. In this, the first question was asked by the participants that whether to consolidate management and improve the infrastructure can be helpful to improve the process of intermodal international logistic. In regard of this, below responses are obtained.

Table 16: To consolidate management and improve the infrastructure can be helpful to improve the process of intermodal international logistic

 

The above table draws that approx 66% participants were agreed that to consolidate management and improve the infrastructure can be helpful to improve the process of intermodal international logistic process. They believe that it is a significant way of improving the intermodal international logistic process. It enables the company to make better the logistic process that benefit can be seen an increase in the profit of the company. This interpretation is also supported by literature finding of Wood, et al. (2012), it posits that in the current business environment, there is significant role of the quality of service. The company should be better in the term of quality. To make better the intermodal international logistic process, the manufacturing company concern on to consolidate management and improve the infrastructure. It will be helpful for the company to manage the issues related logistic process. In this section, by the help of next question the researcher asked that can an organisation improve its intermodal international logistics process by focusing on quality of service. The generated outcomes are in below table:

Table 17: Can an organisation improve its intermodal international logistics process by focusing on quality of service

The obtained outcomes show that 40 participants were replied yes and remaining 20 participants were replied no. Participants that were replied yes think that organisation can improve its intermodal international logistics process by focusing on quality of service. Beside of this, the remaining 20 participants think opposite of 40 participants. A manufacturing organisation can improve its intermodal international logistic process through the focus on quality o service. These findings are supported by the views of Cho, et al., (2012) said that in improving the process of intermodal international logistic, companies’ expenses should be aimed to increase the quality of the process. In the business scenario, a company has to expense minimum if it has a good quality of service. Therefore, the company should manage expense to improve the quality. The result of this question can be understood through the below graph:

Figure 5: Can an organisation improve its intermodal international logistics process by focusing on quality of service

After this, in the survey questionnaire, the researcher asked by the participants that are you agreed that the increasing network coverage is a way of improving the process of intermodal international logistic. In the reference of this question, the researcher was generated below outcomes:

Table 18: The increasing network coverage is a way of improving the process of intermodal international logistic

 

The above result depicts that increasing the network coverage is a way of improving the process of international intermodal logistics. 36 participants out of the 60 participants were replied that a company could improve its intermodal international logistic activities through increase the network coverage. It allows the company increase their sales and reach in more countries. This strategy is also helpful for the development of the manufacturing process of the company. Lam and Gu (2013) supported the above interpretation and determined that an organisational can get the benefit in the terms of logistic process by increasing the network coverage. The manufacturing companies in the business scenario should focus on improving the network coverage if they want to improve the intermodal international logistic process.

Moreover, in this section, the researcher asked that to hire a skilled and professional team can be effective for organisation to improve the logistic process and its efficiency. In response of this, the researcher collected bellow answers:

Table 19: To hire a skilled and professional team can be effective for organisation to improve the logistic process and its efficiency

 

The above response table describes that 40 participants out of the 60 participant were agreed and strongly agreed that to hire a skilled and professional team can be effective for organisation to improve the logistic process and its efficiency. A skilled and professional logistic team minimises various logistic issue in the business operation and keeps safe the organisation from the conflicts. Rodrigue and Notteboom (2012) supported the above interpretation and suggests that the company should hire a skilled and professional team to improve its intermodal international logistic. It provides both monetary and non monetary benefits to the company. Along with this, it is also helpful for the company to deal various issues in logistic process at the international level.

In this section, the next question was asked by the researcher that whether to maximize the storage capacity is a way to increase the efficiency of the intermodal international logistic system. In reference of this, the below responses obtained

Table 20: To maximize the storage capacity is a way to increase the efficiency of the intermodal international logistic system

 

From the above table, it is found that there approx 60% participant were agreed that an organisation could improve its intermodal international logistic process by increasing the store capacity. In the business environment, to increase the store capacity is a way of improving the international intermodal theory. They participants said that companies should always seek to maximize the store capacity if they want to improve the efficiency of the logistic process. In support of above interpretation, SteadieSeifi, et al. (2014) determined that that maximize the storage capacity is a way to increase the efficiency of the intermodal international logistic system. The companies should concern on improving the storage capacity. For this, companies can store, move, and ship products more effectively. As the last question, the researcher asked that whether development and implement the effective strategies in the logistics management can be helpful to improve efficient of logistics process. In the reference of this, the researcher collected below responses.

Table 21: The development and implement the effective strategies in the logistics management

 

From the above table, it is identified that the approx 66.7% participants were agreed and strongly agreed that the development and implement the effective strategies in the logistics management is helpful to improve efficient of logistics process. Participants believe that an organisation can improve it international intermodal logistic process through the implementation of the effective strategy with the workplace. The literature review finding of Miller-Hooks, et. al., (2012) supports the above interpretation and depicts that in order to improve the efficiency of the logistic process an organisation should develop and implement an effective strategy. During the decision making process, the management and logistic department should analyse the each concept clearly.

The intermodal international logistic provides significant opportunities Godrej Consumer Production Ltd. It provides benefits to the reducing the cost of the logistic with reducing the carbon emission. Transportation through the intermodal international logiest minimise Godrej transportation cost by 15 – 40 percent. The decline in the logistic cost directly increases the overall organisational profitability.  The study on the logistic process of Godrej shows that intermodal international logistic allows the companies to save three or four time fuel efficiency. It directly reduces the cost of the company. The implication of the intermodal logistic is helpful for company to collaborative planning, forecasting and replenishment create greater economies of scale. It also helps Godrej to decrease inventory levels and cost with focusing on the core competencies.

At the same time, it is also found that in the application of the intermodal international logistic, Godrej does not require to invest more on this process. It is because intermodal international logistic process in the company is conducted by the third party. Godrej only pays the services charge of the transportation. Additionally, in the context of the staff, it is identified that in the implementation of the intermodal international logistic, there has not need to extra staff or department. The logistic depart can complete all the requirements related to intermodal logistic.

The above diagrams shows that how intermodal international logistic process of Godrej Consumer Product Ltd. In this process, company goes through the various steps to deliver goods at the final destination.

4.3 Summary

From the above discussion, it can be concluded that the role of the intermodal international logistic is important to deliver the goods outside of the country. In the business scenario, in the process of intermodal international process mostly companies use the combination of the water and road transportation. Intermodal logistic process helps the organisation to select an appropriate combination of the transportation along with this. Moreover, it is also summarised that there is a significant relationship between the intermodal and international logistic and operation of the manufacturing company. It influences the cost of the company.

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

The main objective of this thesis is to evaluate the impact of intermodal international logistics on the operations of manufacturing companies: in the context of Godrej Consumer Products Ltd. On the basis of data analysis, it is found that there is a significant impact of intermodal international logistic on the operation of manufacturing companies of India. In the international logistic process, companies are free to choose more than one transportation mode to deliver the good form one place to another place. In this chapter, the researcher prepares a conclusion of the data collected and analysed. This chapter makes conclusion on the basis of objective of the research study. At the same time, this chapter also makes recommendation for Godrej to improve its intermodal international logistic process. Moreover, this chapter also discuses research limitations that are faced by the researcher during the research study and it also provides opportunities for the further researcher. The researcher prepared conclusion on the basis of objective that is below:

Conclusion

Concept of Intermodal International Logistic

This research objective is studied by the researcher with the full concentration. In context of this objective, it can be concluded that intermodal international logistic play a vital role in the organisation to improve logistic process of the company. On the basis of survey analysis, it is concluded that in the business environment, firms that are involving in the international logistic that also use the intermodal transportation to deliver the goods. In regard of this, it is found that there is a significant role of international logistic in supplying process of the company. At the same time, it is also concluded that there are various form of the intermodal logistic in the business transportation. In this, the combination of the water and road is major that is used by the mostly organisation and the combination of the water and rail transportation is also used at the great extent.

At the same time, in the context of this research objective, it is also concluded that there is great impact of the intermodal international logistic on the economic performance of the company because it save the cost of the company. The logistics are a process that is linked with procurement, maintenance, distribution of material and good and managing the personnel. The logistics process is helpful to get products and services to supply forward to fulfil the needs and desire of the customers. It keeps the significant role in the economic growth of the company. It facilitates the organisation to feel free regarding the selection of the mode of transportation. By the help of intermodal logistics, the manufacturing company can select any transportation mode according to their need.

Additionaly, it is also concluded that intermodal international logistic helps the organisation to deal with traffic patterns, and disruptive weigh station and other issues. The intermodal logistic allows company to select more than one mode of transport that helps the organisation to remain safe from traffic patterns, and disruptive weigh station and other issues.

Relationship of intermodal international logistic and operation of manufacturing company

In the context of this objective, it can be said that researcher has accomplished this objective at greater extent by covering different perspectives of the previous study and survey respondents. By the study of this research issue, there is a crucial relationship between the intermodal international logistic and operation activities of manufacturing companies. In this, it is concluded that the intermodal international logistic allows the manufacturing company to keep the cost of logistic process low. It is because under the intermodal international logistic process there multiple options are available for an organisation. Due to this, the organisation can select a cheap way of transporting the goods and product. It facilitates the organisation to select the transportation according to their cost and budget.

Furthermore, it is also concluded that there are some issues that have to face an organisation at the time of involving in the intermodal logistic process. The major issues that are faced by firms such high cost, timing issue, ineffective strategy, legal issue and lack of communication. In this, it is found concluded that time issue and ineffective strategy are major. The reason behind this is that there is not any effective strategy that is used by the intermodal, international logistics firms. Moreover, it is also summarised that the intermodal international logistics process is helpful for your company to take the benefit of the market opportunities. It is because intermodal logistic process allows the organisations to deliver the more goods in the market. It directly facilitates the organisations to take the advantage of the market opportunities.

Along with this, it is also concluded that the intermodal international logistic process is helpful for manufacturing companies to enhance the operation activities. It is because organisations believe that intermodal logistic process facilitates the organisation to increase the operation activities and also increase overall capabilities of the product. As increasing the production and supply an organisation can improve its operation activities. In additionally, intermodal international logistic is also helpful for business firms to participant in the sustainability practices. The intermodal international logistics allows manufacturing company to participate in the environment – friendly activities. It is important to minimise the pollution level in the environment.

Al the same time, it is also concluded that intermodal international logistic process is also helpful for a manufacturing firm to get reliability, capacity and safety advantage. The intermodal international logistic process is safe and reliable to transfer the goods from one place to another place. It is because in the intermodal logistic process, a firm chooses always a reliable mode that can deliverer its goods with full safety.                        

Strategy to improve the process of intermodal international logistic

Concerning of this objective, it can be concluded that this research objective is accomplished by the researcher through keeping attention on the review of the literature and primary research responses.  By the study of this research objective, it is concluded that to consolidate management and improve the infrastructure are helpful to improve the process of intermodal international logistic. if an organisation wants to improve its process of intermodal international logistic than it should consolidate management and improve the infrastructure. Along with this, it is also concluded that a manufacturing companies should try to improve its quality. It is also a way to make better to the intermodal international logistic process.

In the same contract of this, it is also concluded that an organisation can improve its intermodal international logistics process by focusing on quality of service. In the current business environment, quality is significant factor that attract everyone in the business environment. In order to improve the process of intermodal international logistic, companies’ expenses should be aimed to increase the quality of the process. In the business scenario, a company has to expense minimum if it has a good quality of service. Moreover, it also summarised that the increasing network coverage is also a way of improving the process of intermodal international logistic of the manufacturing organisation. An organisational can take the advantage in the terms of logistic process by increasing the network coverage in the business environment. The manufacturing companies in the business scenario should focus on increasing the network coverage if they want to improve the intermodal international logistic process.

During the study of this objective, it is also found that in order to make better the intermodal international logistic process, the manufacturing company should hire a skilled and professional team can be effective for organisation to improve the logistic process and its efficiency. A firm always gets the benefit if it has the skilled and professional team. It allows the organisation to effectively deals with issues in logistic process. Therefore, the company should hire a skilled and professional team to improve its intermodal international logistic.

Along with this, it also resolved that maximize the storage capacity is a way to increase the efficiency of the intermodal international logistic system. The manufacturing companies should focus on the increasing the store capacity so that it can improve the intermodal international logistic process.

In the similar manner, in the regarding of improving the intermodal international logistic process an organisation should develop and implement the effective strategy in the logistic process. It will help the company to achieve the goal and objective of the intermodal logistic process. Additionally, the company should also analyse the each concept clearly during the decision making process.

Recommendations

On the basis of above conclusion, following are some recommendation for Godrej Consumer Products Ltd.

  • On the behalf of above conclusion to the Godrej that it should consolidate management and improve the infrastructure of the company that will help the company to improve the capacity of deliver the goods more quickly in the international market. It will also help the company to achieve the competitive advantage.
  • Godrej is also recommended that the company should concern on improving the quality of logistic service and for this possible initiative should be taken. The company should provide training to employees of the logistic department that will also help the company to improve the quality of the logistic process.
  • At the same time, it is also recommended that Godrej should hire skilled employees in the logistic department that have significant knowledge about the intermodal international logistic process. To have the skilled and professional employees keep safe the organisation to from various issues and problems.
  • On the basis of above discussion, it is also concluded that Godrej should develop and implement the effective strategy and should take effective decision regarding intermodal logistic. The strategy and decision should be made after the analysis of each factor that can affect the logistic process.
  • In the intermodal international logistic process, there is significant role of the selection of the modes of transportation. Godrej is recommended that it should make the combination after the evaluation of cost and requirement. Through the make an effective combination, Godrej can improve its intermodal international logistic process in the business scenario.

Limitation and Future Research

This research study is care conducted by the researcher and it has been successful to achieve answer of all research questions. Along with this, the researcher also achieved all the research objectives. But, at the same time, this researcher is faced some issues in achieving the research issue and answering the research question. The researcher faced some limitations related to data collection due to cost and time restrictions. Moreover, the researcher completed this research by taken a small sample size that can affect the quality of the research. Hence, due to these reasons there is possibility of affecting the quality and reliability of the research outcomes.

As concerning of the above limitations, there are many opportunities for the future researchers in the context of impact of intermodal international logistic process. In this, future researchers can take large sample size and also concern on the aspect of the time and cost restrictions. At the same time, other research approaches, method and strategies such as focus study, interview, observation and experiments can be also used by them. It will provide opportunities to them to meet high quality of the research study.

Additionally, the future researchers can use quantitative data and information to make the research more effective. In reference of this, researchers can take advantage of opportunities to conduct research more effective manner with use the appropriate research strategies, approaches and method.

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Appendices   

Questionnaire

Exhibit 1: Questionnaire

In this research methodology, this questionnaire is prepared to ask the question form the participants to achieve research objective as to evaluate the impact of intermodal international logistic to on the operations of manufacturing companies in the context of the Godrej Consumer products Ltd. In this research, the collected data by the participant will be only used to academic purpose. The personal information of the participants will not be disclosed without the permission of the participants.  Along with this, participant will be flexible to leave the questionnaire.

  1. Demographic Information

1 Gender

  • Male
  • Female
  1. Age of participant
  • 18- 25
  • 26 – 34
  • 35 – 44
  • 44 – 60
  • 60 above
  1. Experience in the firm
  • 0-4 years
  • 4-8 years
  • 8-12 years
  • 12 years or more
  1. Concept of intermodal international logistic
  2. Whether the intermodal international logistic process is conducted in your organisation?
  • Yes
  • No
  1. In the contrast of intermodal international logistics, which one in following combination is used by your company most of the time?
  • Air – road
  • Water – road
  • Rail – road
  • Water – rail
  • Other
  1. How much you are agreed that intermodal international logistic has an impact on your company economic performance?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree
  1. The intermodal international logistics is effective for your company to feel free regarding the selection of transport mode?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

  1. Whether the intermodal international logistic helps the organisation to deal with traffic patterns, and disruptive weigh station and other issues.
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

III. Relationship of intermodal international logistic and operation of manufacturing company

  1. In your views, whether the intermodal international logistic allows the manufacturing company to keep the cost of logistics low?
  • Yes
  • No
  1. In the context of the intermodal international logistics, what issues are faced by your company?
  • High cost
  • Timing issue
  • Ineffective strategy
  • Legal issue
  • Lack of communication

  1. The intermodal international logistics process is helpful for your company to take the benefit of the market opportunities?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree
  1. The intermodal international logistic process is helpful for manufacturing companies to enhance the operation activities?

Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

  1. The intermodal international logistics allows your company to participate in the environment – friendly activities in the business environment?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree
  1. Do you think that intermodal logistic process can be helpful for the company to get reliability, capacity and safety advantage?
  • Yes
  • No
  • Neutral
  1. Strategy to improve the process of intermodal international logistic
  2. To consolidate management and improve the infrastructure can be helpful to improve the process of intermodal international logistic?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree
  1. Can an organisation improve its intermodal international logistics process by focusing on quality of service?
  • Yes
  • No
  1. Are you agreed that the increasing network coverage is a way of improving the process of intermodal international logistic?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree
  1. To hire a skilled and professional team can be effective for organisation to improve the logistic process and its efficiency?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree
  1. To maximize the storage capacity is a way to increase the efficiency of the intermodal international logistic system?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree
  1. The development and implement the effective strategies in the logistics management can be helpful to improve efficient of logistics process?
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly disagree

 

 

 

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