An Investigation Towards Analysing Construction Project Management In India: A Study Of Restaurants.
The Indian construction sector is an important secondary industry sector that has 7.90 % contribution towards Gross Value Added (GVA) in 2018-19 in the Indian economy (Statistics Times, 2019).
There have been a high volume and facility of construction projects are being undertaken for socio- economic development of the country since last decade.
In particular restaurant industry in India, the project management (PM) approach is being followed where the project management skills and role of project managers has gained recognition in India for commercial construction projects to complete construction on time, within budget, meeting quality specifications/ standards without changing the project scope.
However, there has been high incidence of time overruns (delay), cost overruns and project failure and the outcomes of restaurant construction project are affected due to poor project management (Mulla and Waghmare, 2015). This can be due to several reasons like poor or inadequacy of project management practices, improper planning and coordination among project stakeholders, communication breakdown, inability to identify potential risks and poor risk management, and less or inadequate use of project management tools and software packages which affect the overall performance of the construction project. The restaurant construction is on rise in India which creates more needs and demand for an effective project management system. Also, there are needs towards quality control and risk management for construction projects in India (Shibani and Arumugam, 2015). In addition, the performance of majority of construction projects in India has been poor due to disputes, cost and time overruns, contacts and governance issues (Doloi et al., 2012). Thus, there is a need to analyse the project management and practices in India construction projects with focus on restaurant construction. This study put forward the investigation to analyse the project management in India construction with focus on restaurants projects to mobilize resources, improve its performance and achievement of project and strategic goals through an effective use of the PM approach, process, practices and tools for the design, implementation and completion on the restaurant construction projects in India.
The central aim of this research will be to present a critical analysis of project management in construction projects in particularly focus on the restaurant construction in the context of India. To accomplish this aim, the following objectives are indentified which will be addressed:
- To explore and comprehend the project management vision, concept, tools and practices in construction project in India with particular focus on the restaurants construction projects.
- To identify the factors affecting the performance of construction projects in restaurant construction context along with costs, economic, social, technological, and environmental implications
- To identify the performance and related issues for the management of the restaurant construction in different stages/ phases of project.
- To determine ways how the project management solution can be effectively applied and used in restaurant construction
The following question will be addressed and answered in this study:
- What is the existing image and development trend towards project management in India?
- What are various factors affecting the performance and management of restaurant construction in India?
- What are the issues faced in different project stages/ phases in managing the performance of restaurant construction project?
- How can project management be improved for restaurant construction in India?
The application of project management has been high in organizations and in society of developed nation as they are high in practice with project management approach, tools and technique. In developing nation like India, the implementation of project management processes and procedures has gained momentum (Wale et al., 2015). Thus, the area of project management is crucial part for development in developing nation like India. The need for project management in India has been intensified since last ten years. The approach of project management and its processes tools and techniques is applied in various industrial sectors and in particularly construction sector. But, if it is not applied effectively the performance of the construction project suffers in terms of cost, time and quality aspects and can lead to overall failure of the project. In India, the concept of project management has been familiar but is not applied effectively to a certain extent in construction projects (Shibani and Arumugam, 2015).
In construction projects, the project management involves complex activities that are both dependent and independent in nature and is directly applicable for large projects (Jha, 2011). However, in restaurant construction projects (which are mostly considered under the small to medium projects), the project management use and application is not always direct (Bhatla et al., 2016) and there is less justification given to the use of project management for restaurant construction. Thus, there is an inspiration to analyze the project management environment in restaurant construction in India to identify the current situation and status towards the project management and related practice, factors that are affecting these projects and problem related towards poor performance of construction projects. Also, to highlight the advantage of project management to consider its application for improving the project management for restaurants in India there is a need for examine the project management for restaurant construction. Considering the poor performance of construction projects in India, there is also a need to examine project management to achieve the project objective and strategic business goals. There is no direct and significant literature on project management dedicated for restaurant construction as per the researcher knowledge which forms another grounds to take up this investigation for contribution the existing literature in construction project management with new information.
This investigation poses significance to identify the current status and development for the project management environment in India for the small to medium sized construction projects with focus on restaurants. The study determines the factors related to the project performance of the restaurant construction projects keeping the perspective of the project management which highlight the practices of project management followed and the call for of effective project management in the restaurant construction. The research finding and outcome are useful for the restaurants owners, project/ construction managers from the construction and restaurant industry towards gaining more understanding and knowledge of the project management and its challenges that impact and concerns the project performance in different project phases and overall accomplishment. In addition, this research is also significant these managers to give attention to the project management approach, processes and instruments for the planning, design, development and completion of small to medium construction projects of different restaurants. The research provides analysis of the project management in the restaurant construction with information to manager, academicism, scholar and field experts to improve the application of project management for the restaurant construction in India and to carry the research forward in the project management domain in the Indian context.
The outline of the research is alienated into six chapters for methodical addressing the research aim and objectives and accomplishment of overall research.
Chapter 1 – The first chapter is ‘Introduction’. This forms the introductory section which introduces to the area of investigation and explains the setting and problem. It also presents the aims and objectives of the research topic and list the questions that the researcher addressed. It provides rational for the investigation. It provides fundamental information for understanding the research direction to set the layout of the entire study.
Chapter 2- The second chapter is ‘Literature Review’. This chapter provides a review of existing published & grey ‘literature from sources such as journals, research articles, news articles, books and published market research and viewpoints, arguments and findings by other researchers for theoretical understanding. It also indentifies the gap in knowledge to justify the research.
Chapter 3: The third chapter is ‘Methodology’. This chapter introduces the research approach, tools and techniques that were preferred to conduct the research process with their reason for selection. This section explains the researcher approach to carry out the research in an efficient and methodical manner to collect the research data and its analysis and interpretation. The section discuss the research design, methods, data collection and analysis methods, sampling, response rates and the research ethics along with the validity and replicability aspects for this investigation.
Chapter 4: The fourth chapter is ‘Data Findings and Analysis’. This chapter presents an analysis of the collected data, its interpretation and the findings and emerging themes. The findings are presented in form of tables, chart and graphs.
Chapter 5: The fifth chapter is ‘Discussion of Analysis’. This chapter is ‘Discussion’ that discusses the research findings and links the findings to the literature review for theoretical implications.
Chapter 6: The sixth and last chapter is ‘Conclusion’. This chapter presents the summary of key points and findings to highlight to what extent the research aim and objectives are met. The section include recommendations for the managers in the project management and restaurant industry in India based on the analysis, findings and discussion and consider area of future work.
This chapter is important to develop theoretical understanding o the research topic and use this knowledge in conducting the research effectively. In this chapter, researcher focuses on the theories and concepts related to the research issue that is significant to understand the research aspects and integrate with the primary data to provide the meaningful findings. In relation to this study, this literature review is useful to review the theoretical aspects regarding the project management practices in construction projects with focus on restaurants. Apart from this, this literature review is also crucial to assess the factors that impact on the performance of construction projects with emphasis on costs, technological, social, economic, social, and environmental aspects. It will also helpful to develop the understanding of the issues in the management of construction projects in restaurant industry. Overall, this literature review is helpful for the researcher and readers to understand the concept of project management practices in the restaurant construction works for the betterment.
The construction firms adopt project management tools and techniques to handle the project and deliver the project objectives efficiently. It is crucial for the construction companies to consider the project management concept and practices. Under the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), a project is defined as a short-term endeavour to supply a distinctive product/ service. In construction context, Jha (2011) defines project to be a building or a kind of constructed facility as its product and design, planning, control and execution as its service. According to Burke (2013), a construction projects is an assemblage of several infrastructure which needs to hold on to preset performance goals and objectives. Several studies in project management literature describe project as a venture that differentiates for other similar ventures having a definite beginning and ending point, as a human endeavour involving unique scope, budget and time for value creation, as a venture business case with unique set of deliverables, resources, risks, role and responsibilities. Thus, there is no universal definition of project and it can be described in multiple ways considering the venture output, impermanent nature and executed to manifest the strategic and performance objectives of the organization.
According to Collyer and Warren (2009), project management is considered to be a set of practices to initiate and end the work meeting scope and success criteria within specific time. Similarly, Kerzner (2013) states project management is undertaking of various practices like initiation, planning, organizing, managing and controlling for accomplishing set goals for an endeavour completion. The book of Burke (2013) mentioned project management a set of processes and methods to start and end a work task by application of knowledge, skills, and experience. Thus, it can be said that project management an integration of different processes, tools and practices and know-how to achieve the project objectives.
The basis of modern project management can be traced back to the industrial revolution for construction projects (Burke, 2013). In India, the demand for project management has increased since the last decade as there has been an increase in number of building and commercial construction projects from different industrial sectors (Jha, 2011). Many industrial sectors are seizing the concept and tool of project management for managing small to large residential, building, commercial projects in the country. Jha (2011) pointed that project management has given organisation a systematic approach in managing their endeavour and ability to improve project performance. The study of Ahuja et al. (2009) highlighted increases demand of project management in construction sector has led to the adoption of information and communication technologies for managing projects in India.
The project management is constantly evolving in the construction sector and embracing new technologies and project management tools and methodologies. Nouban and Ghaboun (2017) analysed the gradual shift of project managers towards the use of hybrid method over the separate use of traditional approach and agile approach in the scheduling of construction projects and for optimisation of time and cost factors.
The study of Rahman et al. (2013) reveals the project management tools and techniques used in the construction projects. This study depicts that the work breakdown structure is the project management tool that is used to break down the whole project in different tasks and subtasks. This tool is crucial for the project team to understand their roles and responsibilities separately and in a team and respond the instructions properly. The use of WBS is crucial to reduce the complexity of the project activities during the construction project and make the project activities simpler by breaking down the whole project. Through this, it becomes easy for the project manager to oversee the tasks more effectively than the complex activities.
On the other hand, Kikwasi (2013) considers the critical pathway method (CPM) as an effective project management tool to manage the construction projects successfully. This project management tool is effective to determine the critical path that is important for the project managers and team to set schedule of the activities in the construction industry. It determines how much time and resources will be required to accomplish each activity of the project. It is helpful to determine the critical activities to complete the project on time. At the same time, the study of Memon et al. (2011) focuses on Gantt chart as the effective project management tools used in the construction industry. In construction project management, there is need to schedule the tasks and communicate construction schedule to guide the workers working toward the same project goal. It is possible to schedule and assign the work to the workers and subcontractors and share the construction schedule with the customers and stakeholders. Gantt chart is effective to observe what’s up next in a project and which tasks are on schedule. It is significant for the project team to determine time overruns in the construction project. On the other hand, the study of Meng (2012) reveals that PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique) chart is effective project management tool that is used to schedule, organize, and coordinate tasks within a project. Construction firms use this tool to present the numbered nodes either circles or rectangles to represent events, or milestones in the project. Through this, it becomes easy to determine the sequence of the tasks and provide directions to the project team to perform the tasks and subtasks in the project. In relation to this, John & Itodo (2013) depict that project managers use the PERT chart to assess the tasks and minimum time for the completion of the project.
However, the study of Shehu et al. (2014) recognizes that the use of project management software is significant for the construction companies to design and schedule the project effectively. It is because it is effective to automate the reporting of whole project management and achieve the desired project objectives efficiently. In addition, this software is useful to develop task lists, timelines and timesheets along with the CPM, Network diagram and Gantt chart. But at the same time, the use of software can result in the increase in costs of the project handling.
It is important for the firms to manage the performance of construction projects to achieve the business objectives as well as meet the customer specifications. In relation to this, the study of Shehu et al. (2014) reveals that it is mandatory for the firms to meet the cost specifications of the construction projects to fulfil the project objectives within the set budget. The increase in costs of the projects affects the performance of the construction projects because due to increasing costs, the project team and managers influence the quality of the project. In relation to this, Rahman et al. (2013) depict that the rising cost of labour and raw materials and other resources including tools and machineries may raise the cost of overall project resulting in reduction of the performance of the project. Raising cost of the project may lead to dissatisfaction among the clients and also affect the overall objectives of the construction projects.
According to Panayiotou et al. (2011), social factor has a significant impact on the performance of the construction projects. Social factors are associated with the skilled workforce present in the community that is crucial for achieving the high performance in construction project. Lack of skills among the workers in construction industry is crucial social aspect that may cause an adverse impact on the achievement of the project objectives on time and within the cost limitations. Supporting to this, Fisher (2011) also depicts that it is crucial to have required skills and knowledge to perform the project activities during the construction work. But if the workers are not competent the construction activities, then it is difficult to provide the project deliverables as per the customer specifications. Unskilled and incompetent labor causes wastage of the resources that also increases the cost of the project and affects the performance during the construction project.
On the other hand, the research conducted by Olawale & Sun (2010) focuses on the economic factors that have a significant influence on the performance of the project. It is because the economic factors have a considerable impact on the price of used resources in construction project that also influence the costs of the project. The used resources may include raw materials, labour and tools and equipment that may be affected due to imbalance between demand and supply and also change the cost of the construction work. In relation to this, Özbilgin &Imamoğlu (2011) depict that the changes in economic conditions such as increase in price of materials, change in exchange rate, interest rate, government policies related to construction industry, etc. cause a significant change in the price of the construction material and planning of construction companies adversely impacting the project performance.
Meanwhile, as conducted by Memon et al. (2011), technological factors are significant for the constructions firms to achieve the desired performance. The use of new technologies is effective for the firms to make the project work more efficient and conduct the project activities in more efficient way. Apart from this, Kikwasi (2013) states that the use of advanced technologies makes it easy for the project team to conduct the project activities in effortless way and on time leading to improvement in performance of the project. At the same time, the study of Meng (2012) recognizes environmental factors including weather conditions, temperature, humidity, and raining patterns as the considerable aspect in the performance of the project. All these environmental factors are significant for the construction projects as these factors are uncontrollable for the organization that affects the performance of the project in terms of time and cost. Due to bad weather conditions, there is an adverse impact on the accomplishment of the project activities on time. Construction work is highly vulnerable to the bad weather conditions including rain that cause the stoppage of the construction work and delays the accomplishment of the project objectives on time (Oke & Ugoje, 2013).
It is significant to accomplish the project by following different phases of the project including planning, execution, and control. But at the same time, there are several issues related to performance of the project that are faced by the construction firms. Regarding this, Fugar & Agyakwah-Baah (2010) depict that in planning phase, it is troublesome for the project managers and team to properly design and plan the project due to lack of required skills and needed fund. It is mandatory for the project team to focus on project planning with the help of the needed resources. Without the availability of the resources, it is not easy for the project workforce to plan the project accordingly. But at the same time, Hegazy, Said & Kassab (2011) depict that without the management support, it is not easy for the project workforce to plan the project of construction work. It is because in planning phase, it is needed for the project team to get the support of the management team to arrange the required resources and also get the full support to design the project. On the other hand, the study of John & Itodo (2013) reveals that it is difficult for the project workforce to plan and design the project due to changes in customer specifications. Sometimes, customers change their specifications suddenly that makes it difficult for the project managers to consider those changed requirements of the manager and integrate in the undertaken project affecting the performance related issues. It raises the need for the project team to make change in the scope of the project that causes performance related issues.
Meanwhile, the study of Sweis (2013) recognizes that time and cost are the important aspect of the project execution but these are related to the project planning. It means of the project team can solve the issues related to performance during the planning phase, then it is effective to save time and cost during the execution phase. In relation to this, Shehu et al. (2014) depict that early involvement of trade partners and subcontractors is critical. Delay in this involvement causes the issues related to performance that is associated with project planning phase. This stage is crucial for preparing and implementing a successful project.
In project execution, team development is a significant issue for the project manager working on the construction projects. The project team consists of different team members from different cultural background as they have differences in their views and opinions and also have conflicts on some decisions due to cultural differences (Oke & Ugoje, 2013). Conflict among team members causes performance issues for executing the project activities within time and cost limitations. In relation to this, Rahman et al. (2013) depict that an integration and coordination among the team members bring the successful execution of the project activities resulting in the project performance.
In the views of Aaltonen (2011), lacking skills among the works is a crucial issue that is mitigated by using training practices to enhance the skills and knowledge of the workers to use the project management tools and techniques effectively. The training and learning practices are oriented towards the skill development of the employees to execute the project activities efficiently as per the given instructions that helps to achieve the project performance. By using these programs, the construction companies develop expertise and capabilities among the project members to execute project activities on real time basis. A better understanding of the project management and tools can be significant for the project team to avoid the complications during the project execution and achieve the high success in implementing the project activities (Kasimu, 2012). On the other hand, research of Albogamy, Scott & Dawood (2012) focuses on the significance of effective market research for determining the changes in economic environment that leads to better prediction of the costs of the resources and ensure the better performance of the project. In relation to this, it can be stated that the in-depth market research is crucial to evaluate the market trends and future changes in the costs of the technologies, labor supply, employment laws, government policies, economic conditions, business cycle, labour cost and price of raw materials. However, Alzahrani &Emsley (2013) argue that it is crucial for the construction companies to focus on the procurement management to handle the price changes of raw materials and other required resources. It is because the effective procurement management is useful to arrange the required resources on time and in cost effective way and execute project tasks effectively even in dynamic economic environment. Along with this, Hassanain et al. (2013) depict that the contracts and agreements made with the suppliers is crucial way for the construction companies to avoid the impact of adverse economic changes on the performance of the projects. Valid agreements and contacts with the reliable suppliers enable the firms to reduce the chances of the price change of raw materials and other resources and keep the cost of the projects as per the customer specifications. On the other hand, Jarkas &Younes (2014) suggest that the project scheduling and weather forecasting are effective measures that need to be taken to address the issue related to adverse weather conditions. A proper scheduling enables the organizations to start and finish the project activities on time without getting affected by the adverse weather conditions.
At the same time, Solis-Guzman et al. (2009) suggest that it is required for the construction firms to engage the stakeholders efficiently to get their support and execute the project activities on time and within the budget limitations. It is mandatory to develop better engagement with the trade partners and sub contractors to get the required resources on time and execute the construction projects so the project deliverables could be achieved on time. Similarly, Kasimu (2012) argues that the better communication can be effective way to engage the stakeholders to make the project successful. For better communication, different communication media including meetings, status reports, emails, messaging apps, etc. are better tools that can be useful to convey the status of the project timely and develop better engagement with the stakeholders. Meanwhile, Sweis (2013) suggests that the use of stakeholder register is crucial to identify and track the interactions between project and each stakeholder. To update the register regularly helps to determine the concerns of the stakeholders and make changes in the construction project on time to meet the changing specifications of the clients.
On the other hand, Oke & Ugoje (2013) point out that project manager needs to measure the progress of the project time to time to determine the effectiveness of the team members in executing the project activities in construction work. The updates of the field team are required to gauge the execution of the activities of the construction project. Regarding this, Zhao et al. (2009) depict that the inclusion of advanced technologies can be significant to improve the effectiveness of the project management tools and techniques and achieve the project objectives in the construction work. Different technologies like lasers, drones, sensors and cameras can be useful for the project teams to keep the views on the activities of the team members during the construction work and determine the non-productive activities on the construction site. It can be significant to enhance the work efficiency of the workers on site and complete the assigned roles and responsibilities on time.
From the above section related to issues in project management, it is identified that there are high chances of the risk occurrence during the project that should be avoided or managed properly for better execution of the project. Regarding this, Ssegawa-Kaggwa et al. (2013) suggest that it is crucial for the construction firms to consider the risk management plan to identify the potential project risks and take effective measures to manage these risks appropriately. Some risks are easy to identify or some are less obvious. There is need to develop risk checklists developed from past experience. Likelihood and impact of these identified risks needs to be assed to mitigate the risks during the construction project.
In addition, Hassanain et al. (2013) opine that the team development is the important aspect for the execution of the project activities successfully. For avoiding team conflicts during the construction project, it is required for the project manager to manage the conflicts among the team members. Regarding this, it is essential to develop trusting relationships with each stakeholder as high level of trusts brings low defence by the workers and high information sharing to reach a mutually acceptable solution to the project issue in the construction work. So, it can be stated that it will bring reduction in team conflicts due to low conflicting situations over the project issues. However, the study of Shehu et al. (2014) recognizes that it is necessary to connect the team members regularly through meetings, emails, and phone calls from starting to end of the project. Better communication among the team members helps to reduce the conflict situations and solve the issues related to misunderstanding leading to better coordination at workplace during the construction project. But, Shehu, Endut &Akintoye (2014) reveals that it is needed to treat all team members fairly and equally to demonstrate the competence, honesty and respect for all members. It leads to increase confidence among the team members and empowers them to open to conflict resolution.
The section formed an integral part of the research process for its initiation and conduct in a methodical manner (McCusker and Gunaydin, 2015). The purpose of this chapter was to outline the research methods and methodologies that were considered and implemented by the researcher in undertaking this research. Here, the most suitable research approach, tools and techniques that were selected by the researcher to sources and collect the data, to analyze the collected data and to present the analysis and findings for meaningful interpretation was discussed. Thus, this section discusses and provides justification for the chosen methods and recognizes the limitations for the selected research design and methods. The section also provides information on the population of interest for the different methods of research and study participants and how the different kinds of samples were sampled. This section cover the research philosophy, approach, design and method, data collection and analysis method, sampling method, response rates, and research ethics and reliability and validity aspects of research.
The philosophies of the research served as a foundation in the initiation of the research process to guide the researcher assumption and its formation to take apt decision for the selection of research approach, strategy, design and other research tools and techniques to obtain and analyze the data based on the chosen philosophical values with the ultimate aim to answer the research questions in an efficient manner. According to Bahari, (2010), the research philosophies support to gain and understanding of the research nature and characteristics and to recognize and develop the background knowledge.
For this study, the four main research philosophies were identified as positivism, interpretivism, realism, and pragmatism. These philosophies provide a strong foundation for the overall research to help the researcher in gaining relative knowledge, an understanding of the research nature and to guide the researcher assumptions. Out of these four philosophies; pragmatism research philosophy was adopted by the researcher. Pragmatism philosophy considers several ways of interpretation, assuming, and making inquiries and also considers the presence of multiple realities (Saunders et al., 2009). This philosophy gave a solid foundation to initiate the research process and to gain sufficient contextual knowledge about the project management domain in construction. Pragmatism was also preferred over other philosophies as it allowed the researcher to gain a new position as a modified philosophy on the continuum among the extreme ends taken by positivism and interpretive philosophy (Morgan, 2014). The selection of this philosophy was appropriate as it allowed the researcher to merge the interpretivism and positivist considering the nature of research questions and supported the integration of different research strategies in the capacity of this single investigation. The pragmatism philosophy has also helped in gaining a good understanding of the research problem for the development of assumption to settle on the research methods and instruments in order to obtain relevant and logical information. The researcher by adopting this philosophy has undertaken a scientific approach and has used a structured framework for the investigation to meet the data requirement and to arrive at findings which can be relied.
The research approach in the process of investigation was useful to offer justification regarding the decision for the methods of source and collecting the required data for the investigation purpose. It also extends the justification for the analysis of the collected data and its clarification in moving from broad statement to wide-ranging data interpretation. Tashakkori and Teddlie (2010) considered the research approach in the setting out the research planning and the course of action from wide premises to specific research methods by justifying the methods for the collection and analysis of the research data.
The main research approaches indentified are adductive, deductive and inductive reasoning approach or for the purpose of theory development. Out of these, the researcher has adopted the abductive approach to offer explanation for the choice towards the research strategy for data collection (qualitative and/or quantitative) and for the analysis of the collected data. According to Saunders et al., (2009), abductive approach is used to explore a phenomenon by identifying themes and clarifying the patterns to produce a new theory or to modify the existing premises by additional data collection method. In this study, the abductive reasoning has been adopted to explore the project management and identify themes from the collected data and also to develop theory with the use of accompanying data collection method. This reasoning approach has been useful to explore and seek explanation for project management in the restaurant construction. Moreover, the preference for abductive approach has been fitting with the pragmatism philosophy.
According to Bahari (2010), the design of a research offer a support system to outline the research processes to conceptualize issues of the research with apt preference towards the different methods of research. The methodology of the research comprises of the theoretical statements that helps in recognizing the design and method to obtain and analyze the research data.
The research has preferred to adopt mixed-methods research design that combines the designs of both qualitative and quantitative research method instead of selecting any single design. This design was selected as it adequately fulfills the data requirements by combining the research design and eliminating the weakness associated with an individual design (Creswell, 2009). The mixed research method was effective to achieve the research aim and objectives with valid and reliable outcomes. Thus, the research strategy includes qualitative and quantitative. The use of qualitative design was to collect data that was supportive to understand the background information from wide data coverage, to understand the approach and to contextualize the research with different written documents while the use of quantitative design was to place priority to analytical techniques for analysis and interpretation of the data to build up link among the known and observations and to develop a new concept due to measurable nature of the research (Tashakkori and Teddlie, 2010).
At the same time, the use of mixed-methods research design was time consuming for the study in terms of planning and interpretation of results and required more resources to conduct the research under this chosen design. The method of research was document analysis under this research design. Thus, the mixed method research design was emphasized to generate reliable outcomes by analyzing the documents and the measurable factors. The selection of research design and methodology that fits with the research characteristics and nature of research questions has assisted the researcher in carrying out the research to explore the project movement in India that addressed each research objective in a methodical way.
The following step followed was to identify the appropriate methods for the collection of the research data.
This forms one of the most important steps in the overall research to obtain the research data and fulfill the data requirements from a variety of sources to successfully and efficiently address each of the research questions. The choice for the method of collection of data is largely directed by the nature of investigation (O’Leary, 2014), type of variable involved and defined in the study (Choy, 2014), availability of resources, time, cost and effort and considering the skills of researcher like researching skills and analytical skills. The primary method allow to collect quantifiable data with the use of survey, interview, questionnaire methods using closed or open ended and Likert questions for the collection of new/ fresh data.
However, for the existing study, the data requirements of the study demanded the data to be collected from a range of different sources to address the research question in an effective way. Considering the research nature, the choice for data collection methods was secondary methods of data collection. Under the secondary method, the data was collected from the news articles, personal documents like blogs, websites, research articles, journals and other published market research for the review of literature as a comparable data and as written documents for analysis. For document analysis, the secondary data can be collected from public records like companies’ documents, policies manual, annual reports, planning documents’ (Marshall, and Rossman, 2014) and from personal documents like blogs, posts, journals, news article and reports from India. The use of secondary data collection was conducted to gain a theoretical understanding, to answer research questions with detailed understanding and to develop the validity and reliability for the overall research.
Here, the data collected from the document analysis method was used to explore the trend and current status of the project management in the restaurant construction in India and to identify the themes and pattern for developing a conceptual framework. The limitation associated with document analysis method was that it was very time consuming and also required high investigative skills (Flick, 2013) as single document was not sufficient to provide all the required information to answer the research question accurately thus, several documents was required needs to be searched and investigated to gather small amount but useful/ relevant piece of information.
The procedure for sampling in a research is considered to be a sampling procedure is a decisive part to explore and identify a correct sample that representative of the target population. The sampling practice consists of selection of sub-group from the population of interest to contribute in the research process so that wide generalization can be formed for the larger group of populace. The procedure for choosing sub-groups has been divided into two broad sampling methods under probability and non-probability. Probability sampling methods provide the all the participants in the population an equal chance of getting selected while non-probability sampling methods does not provides an equal change for every unit in the population to get selected.
The non-probability sampling method was adopted in this research under which judgmental sampling method was preferred. It is stated by Vehovar et al. (2016) that non- probability based sampling methods provide an effective selection of samples from the target population for a qualitative or exploratory research. The researcher has not make use of any random selection to undertake the investigation. This sampling method was selected based on two grounds; first, this sampling method allowed the researcher to choose the document samples based on the researcher own decision as considered to be most appropriate for the existing study (Levy and Lemeshow, 2013) and second, as the project management area under investigation was specific. Thus, for the document analysis, the judgmental sampling method was followed to select the document sampling based on the pre-specified criteria. Thus, this non-probability sampling methods helped the researcher to determine set of documents that were most likely to meet the aim and objective of the research and also avoided the need to examine every document which added to the time –effectiveness in selecting the documents for analysis. The limitation associated with this non-sampling method is that the documents were selected based on the personal judgment of the researcher which according to Vehovar et al. (2016) give rise to element of subjective judgment and can also includes the element of selection or personal bias (Sharma, 2017). For document analysis, different documents were retrieved and selected from the internet for a period of 2011 to 2019 with different categories.
This step has been critical as the analysis of the collected data needed to be carefully evaluated and in a systematic way to address the research question in an efficient manner to indentify the answers and outcomes that were conclusive in nature. The data analysis required the researcher to carry the analysis of the documents with carefulness. This was required to make certain that each of the research questions are addressed in an effective and efficient manner towards realizing the research aim and objectives.
All together, to analyze the collected document a qualitative document analysis was followed using the method of thematic content analysis (Bryman, 2016). This has provided flexibility in analyzing complex report of data and range of data descriptions (Denscombe, 2014) and provided a clear data content. Here, the use of thematic analysis was helpful in forming and recognizing the pattern within the collected data in documents. This has led in the identification of emerging themes from the collected data for its analysis. The researcher have re-read and reviewed the collected written data to uncover themes that were applicable to a project management in restaurant construction. However, the limitation lies in the fact that this method does not permitted the researcher to make argue over the use of language when compared to other methods (Marshall and Rossman, 2014).
According to Ponterotto (2013), it is essential in to hold on to the ethical standards in undertaking a research process for avoidance of misrepresentation/ falsification and inaccuracy. Thus, it was made certain by the researcher that ethical norms were followed in this research which was valuable to achieve the research aim and objectives, to avert error and get support of knowledge and genuineness in accomplishing them.
During the conduct of the research process, the research ethics has been taken into account by the researcher in review of literature, in research methodology steps like data collection, data analysis and reporting and documentation of results (Zikmund et al., 2013). The issue of copyright information, patent information (Orcher, 2016) and plagiarism policy of the university, academic referencing and practice of in-text citations was considered in undertaking this research work. This was done to avoid the ethical issue from arising in review of existing work by other researchers and in collection of secondary data and information from different sources.
The researcher has considered the ethics in the research methodology for collecting the research secondary data. Thus, the considerations to follow the ethical standards and practices in this research have been an integral part to gain knowledge and accomplish the research outcome without cropping up any kind of ethical issue or dilemma.
The issues related to validity and reliability aspects for this investigation was important for the researcher to consider as its affects the relevance of the overall research. These aspects have been concerned with the methodologies of the research (O’Leary, 2014). In the research context, the reliability is considered to be the degree to which the investigation outcomes or result can be attained/ generated with the use of same research tools and instruments when conducted or repeated the investigation for several time in same set of conditions (Drost, 2011). Validity is considered to be the degree to which the research methods are followed systematically all through the course to generate the findings from the investigation (Orcher, 2016). Thus, it is stated that the reliability and validity aspects of the investigation have been highly depended on the appropriateness of the research methods and tools that were used for collecting the data and achieving outcomes (Bowen, 2009). A suitable methodology was selected for this research by considering the research nature and characteristics (Ihantola and Kihn, 2011). The researcher has considered the content validity to meet the requirement of methodical research mode in generating the research outcomes to maintain the validity aspects of the research. The researcher has taken care to demonstrate objectivity in terms of selecting the written data/ documents, analyzing them and also in representing the collected data and findings in a fair manner. The researcher has taken care in selecting the research tools, methods and processes to answer the research questions and also in the choice of data sources and documents to ensure the research validity in the document analysis (Bowen, 2009). The researcher have taken care that the measurement procedures are reliable so that the results are consistent in the context of the restaurant construction in India and can be replicable with the use of similar processes and for results.
This segment has been important to analyze the documents from that are already available in the internet as secondary sources and to present the findings with regards to the study aim and objective to address them in an efficient way. Here, the data was obtained from published material on internet, news articles, authentic websites, blogs and published reports of Indian construction industry to reveal the project management in the restaurant construction projects in India.
It is analysed that the project management in India is growing which is evident from the increase in project management-oriented employment i.e. new positions/ jobs in the project management as per Project Management Job Growth and Talent Gap 2017-2027 report by Project Management Institute’s (PMI). According to the Economic Times (2017), in the next ten years India will have need of around 70 lakh skilled employees in the position of new project managers. The below figure also highlight the growing job opportunity in the area of project management in India.
It is analysed from a consultancy review report that in construction projects the work is still labour intensive and less use of project management tools and techniques (Consultants Review, 2019). However, in private construction its relevance and understanding as well as implementation is increasing as it provides professional expertise, ensure proper balance among the machinery and labour requirements, proper induction and high level of training to workers and safe work practices proper and also ensures environment health & safety regulations are followed on the construction projects in India.
It is analysed that there have been changes in the project management environment in India such as increase in capacity of restaurant projects, increase in Public Private Partnerships (PPP) under the model of Build Operate Transfer (BOT), improved project management practices, project financing from within India. This has been improving the existing image of project management practices.
There has been increase in number of restaurant construction projects in recent years in terms of size as well as capacity. Some of these are Sunrise Garden Restaurant, project site in Bangalore, Karnataka state with an area of 730.0 m2 (project year – 2018), Think of it! Restaurant, project site in Surat, Gujarat state with an area of 3500.0 ft2 (project year – 2018), An Interlude – NH 75 Restaurant project site in Bangalore, Karnataka state with an area of 38550.0 ft2 (project year – 2018), Dock 45 Restaurant, project site in Hyderabad, Telangana state, India with an area of 910.0m2 (project year – 2017), AJA Restaurant project site in Chandigarh, India with an area of 900.0 ft2 (project year – 2014), Auriga Restaurant project site in Mumbai, Maharashtra state, India with an area of 335.0 sqm (project year – 2013). These restaurant construction projects made high use of project management tools such as Microsoft Project and Primavera for project planning and scheduling. Some of the restaurant construction consultancies in India have been also using cloud based software tools for the different stages in project life cycle. In addition to this, PRINCE2 methodology is also applied in these restaurant construction projects. It was analysed form the blog by Zigurat Global Institute of Technology (2018) that there has been adoption of technologies like Building Information Modelling (BIM) in India for managing the construction project by around 30 to 40 thousand people but according to India BIM Association, the application of BIM is mainly used for construction projects outside India.
In restaurant construction, the project management is evolved where the restaurant project manager focus on the Construction Project Management for the planning, coordination and control of the restaurant project from its idea conception, initiation to its completion. The project management trend in India is also towards project management consultancy services for hospitality in planning, design and scheduling and construction of restaurants in India. One such player is MINT -360° Hospitality Consultancy that is actively providing Contracting & Project Management services for restaurants construction in India for projects like MOETS Shack restaurant, The Mind Cafe India and Mute Health Bar.
From the analysis of different published documents related to project management in Indian construction industry, it was found that the traditional project management methodologies like waterfall are still common in India which pose problem as there is lack of good planning in the initial stages to deliver outcomes related to costs and time. The six sigma methodology for the improvement of construction processes is also gaining relevance in India by giving focus on the technical aspects in the construction projects. It was also analysed that this is not common in the restaurant construction projects. In addition to these, the construction industry in India make use of Critical Chain Project Management to improve their approach of traditional waterfall approach as well as make use of Event Chain Methodology for the management of project activities that can have negative impact on the project time and scheduling. In some projects, the methodology of agile project management is also being used to ensure for development of building projects. It was also found that the project management standards followed by construction projects are the Project Management Body of Knowledge” (PMBOK) by PMI and based on this standard, the Project Managers in Indian can undertake certification for Project Management Professional (PMP). There is also certification for PRINCE2 and MS project in India. The below figure highlight the trend towards adoption of project management technology by year 2020 by small and medium business (with 73 percent in construction sector alone).
It is analysed from the below figure that project management practices in construction sector highlight that majority of construction projects in 2011 have been majorly affected by slow progress in areas other than civil work followed by contract awards, weather and government clearance, and other factors and then by funds constraints.
It is also analysed from the article of Alias et al. (2015) and Vidhyasri and Sivagamasundari (2017) that there are different factors that affects the performance of restaurant construction projects in India.
Project delay due to material shortage as well as late delivery of material
Increase in costs of construction (raw material cost and transportation costs)
Low quality of construction equipment and materials
Poor project leadership skills
Poor financial control and planning (incorrect estimations methods)
Less availability of construction resources – inadequate labour supply
Unavailability of skilled and experienced project management personnel
The broad phases of project management in restaurant construction project are initiation stage, planning and design stage, implementation or execution stage, performance monitoring and project evaluation stage and project completion/ closure stage.
From the article in NBM&CW (2019), it is analyzed that in the initiation stage and planning stage there are issue towards undefined or unclear goals which negatively impact on the development of poor communication as well as performance goals. In the implementation stage, the project manager faces issue related to changes in scope of the construction project beyond the original defined goals and objectives. Since these changes are not planned, this affects the performance of the construction project in terms of time (project delays) and cost overrun. Thus, in such case it is found that project manager have no or less time to evaluate the change requests and initiate their implementation this has a negative impact on the project budget and schedule. Another issue faced by project manager in implementation stage is supply of inadequately skilled labour or project personnel as required competencies in project management area are not easily available in India which affects project performance. Thus, there is pressure towards outsourcing many of the project related jobs and seek consultancy which adds to the cost of the project. Also, in almost all the project stages, the project manager face issue owing to the lack of accountability for the assigned goals and responsibilities, action and decision taken in construction projects in India. This also highlights the issue of poor leadership towards the team in clarifying their goals and making the project team members accountable towards their job. In the planning stage and implementation/ execution stage, there is also issue of inadequate risk management plan and control measures which affect the performance of the projects with regard to risk tolerance and trust among project team members and also issue of poor communication which is a delay mechanism. Similarly, there are issues towards vague contingency plans in the planning stage which is also affecting the performance of construction projects in India. In the closure stage, it is analyzed that unrealistic deadline for project completion results in ignorance of quality, work conditions and safety factors of workers which are reasons of delay, short labour supply and lower worker productivity affecting the project performance. In addition, the lack of stakeholder engagement is analyzed to be a factor affecting performance of the construction project during all the project stages.
It is analysed from the blog by Zigurat Global Institute of Technology (2018) that increase in awareness of the new technologies such as BIM in the design phase can remove the restriction towards the adoption of this technology to manage restaurant construction projects in India. Similarly, educating the project management personnel in new technologies, tools, and approaches of project management and their advantages in terms of cost, time, monitoring, risk management and control and effectiveness, efficiency and performance tracking can be effective to bring improvement in this area towards restaurant construction projects.
In different blogs, the contribution of training towards adoption of project management practices and towards positive return on investment in use of PM technology was considered important. It is stated that training of the project manager and team members are effective to simplify the use of PM tools and software. Thus, another way to bring improvement is analysed towards the increase efforts towards training of workforce to ease out the adoption of project management approaches and software and fill the gap of poor education in the area of project management in India. It is also analysed that development of stronger policies towards adoption of project management tools in construction sector can be effective to improve project management practices in Indian restaurant construction.
From the website of Project Management Institute (PMI), it is found that there needs development of a project management culture in Indian as well as government organisation to promote project management practices and adoption of project methodologies and tools in the different projects. It is also stated that project management solution can be effectively applied when organisation undertakes maturity and existing capability assessments to understand in qualitative and quantitative terms on their strengths and limitations towards their project management evaluation so that they can develop project management capability and project-based functions and efforts to gain desired results and return on investment. This is also found to be effective in developing a feasible project management structure for the project organisation.
It is also analysed from the PMI (2018) website that for an effective application of project management solution in construction sector there is a need for methodology development that ensure a customary process that integrate PM activities, procedures, tools and technologies for successful implementation of project management approach in construction sector for avoiding time and cost overruns. It was also found that project execution support was considered as a critical improvement factors towards application of PM skills and knowledge in the construction projects. It is analysed the support is required from project leaders, consultants, and coaches (internal or external) that smooth the process of knowledge and skills transfer to the activities of the project and support the implementation of project management approach.
It can be discussed from the findings that in India that the trend of project management is evolving which would be creating the need of project managers and different position of project management personnel. It can be said that the trend will be of project management-oriented employment in different areas including construction. It can be discussed from the findings that construction sector in India is not efficient as it has not adapted to change considering the labour intensive operations which means that there has been less adoption of project management approach or methods in restaurant construction. It can be conferred that there is lack of application of project management methodologies and technologies to raise the standards of construction projects. Thus, it can be discussed that the current level of project management in restaurant construction project is India is still on the low side even in situation when the construction sector is growing. It can also be discussed from the finding that there is existence of project management in private construction which is contributing to enhance the image of project management practices in India in construction projects. The key project management tools, methods and technology used are Microsoft Project, Primavera, PRINCE2 methodology and Building Information Modelling (BIM). The findings also highlight the trend towards project management consultancy services for restaurant construction projects, it can be discussed that the role of PM consultancy services are more relevant for time-sensitive projects and to improve the project performance.
It can be discussed that affected by slow progress in areas other than civil work, awarding of construction contract, Indian weather condition and long process for obtaining clearance from government clearance and funds constraints are the major factor that are impacting the performance of construction projects in India. Apart from this, material shortage, low quality material/ equipment, construction costs, leadership skills, financial control and planning, skills labour availability are factors that affect project performance.
It can be discussed that there are several issues faced in the management of restaurant construction performance in various project stages. It can be discussed that unclear gaols in the early phase of the project impact on the poor planning and poor communication which affects the performance goals. Also, change in scope and less labour or material supply in the execution stage have a negative impact of the performance goals.
It can discussed that education and training in the area of project management concepts, tools, methodologies and technologies can be positive towards improving the practices of project management for restaurant construction projects in India. It can be discussed that this can be effective to remove the barriers towards the project management application in restaurant construction and can also fill the knowledge gap in the area of project management. It can be conferred that a stronger policy in this area can be also bring encourage towards the adoption of PM practices in construction projects. It can be also discussed that development of PM culture can be useful to bring improvement in this area for restaurant construction projects to develop a viable PM structure and methodology.
This section summarizes the key points of the investigation to reveals the findings to determine to what extent it meets the aim and objectives of the study and gives recommendations to managers on the domain of project management. The researcher have investigated on the area of trend and development of project management area in India, factors affecting the performance of restaurant construction, issues faced by project manager in different project stages in managing the project performance and on ways to improve project management practices for restaurant construction in India.
It can be concluded that the project management in India is going forwards which is estimated to increase project management job position, however, in majority of the construction projects there is ineffective use of project management tools and technologies but many projects are making use of PM technology like BIM, applying PRINCE2 methodology and making use of use of Microsoft Project and Primavera for their planning and scheduling of projects. The focus in India has increase on construction project management and also for the use project management consultancy services for restaurant project. It was also found that the restaurants construction projects make use of different methodologies such as waterfall approach along with six sigma methodology, critical chain project management and event chain methodology and agile project management and follow PM standards, PMBOK by PMI. It was found that there are several factors affecting the restaurant construction projects performance in India. These are slow progress in non-civil works areas, contract awards, weather conditions, government clearance, funds constraints, material shortage, late delivery, rise in construction costs, low quality equipment and materials, inadequate financial control and planning, poor leadership, inadequate resources and labour supply and shortage of skilled and experienced PM personnel. The findings also reveal the issues faced in different project stages in managing the restaurant construction performance. The issues are unclear goals, inadequate risk planning and vague contingency plans in the initiation-planning stage, changes in scope, absence of required competencies and supply of inadequately skilled labour or project personnel, trust issue in the implementation stage, lower worker productivity and unrealistic deadline during the closure stage. It was also found that there have been lack of stakeholder engagement and lack of accountability for the assigned goals and responsibilities in each project stage. It was found that education to increase in awareness of the new technologies and in PM concepts, training, development of stronger policies towards adoption of PM approach and project management culture development are some of the ways to bring improvements in the project management area for restaurant construction projects in India.
Considering the overall investigation, it is recommended to increase investment in education and training on the tools, methodologies and technologies of project management and benefits over its costs. It is also recommended to construction project managers to allocate separate resources towards PM area. For area of future research, it is recommended to conduct a survey with restaurant project managers, restaurant PM consultants to gain an understanding from objective aspects and also to identify the gaps of the existing study for a more reliable generalization of the study findings.
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