health

Issues of health and well-being in youth work and community development contents

Introduction

Community development in healthcare encompasses of range of efforts in terms of improving the health status of the people and provide them with better standards of living.

Community development has also become a central element of population-based health promotion strategies that involve communities and groups in determining the purpose and forms of resources for advising community’s health(Green & Haines, 2015).

This report is based upon intervention for children with dyslexia and reviewing on current intervention methods. Dyslexia is termed as a neurobiological impairment that primarily affects reading ability. The signs of dyslexia are shown during the pre-school level, where the children are manifested through difficulties with accurate word recognition in reading and writing.

The theories that are associated with health and well-being concerning dyslexia are the visual theory and cerebellar theory. Evaluating the visual theory of dyslexia it has been identified that this theory reflects upon the visual impairment that gives rises to difficulties with the processing of letters and words.

Whereas, the cerebellar theory describes the dyslexia stage that rises dysfunctional and the number of cognitive difficulties. As the study progress, it will also detail the health and well-being along with its distinction. Moreover, while evaluating the intervention program gaps and limitations will also be identified through the action plan.

Finally, at the end of the report, it will also discuss the anti-oppressive practice with the help of the PCS model.

Critically analyse the name, location, area of work it does, aims and objectives

Intervention for children with dyslexia along with its current intervention methods has been taken into account in this report. The location of this report is in the UK, where the intervention program related to dyslexia among the children has been taken into account.

This program aims to evaluate the intervention of dyslexia among the children along with identifying its intervention methods. Whereas, the objectives that are associated with the intervention program includes.

  • Evaluating the concept of dyslexia
  • Determining the impact of dyslexia among the children
  • Evaluating the intervention method in terms of minimizing the effect of dyslexia among the children

Dyslexia is commonly termed as a neurological issue that describes the disability of reading among the people. Students suffering from dyslexia has shown signs of frequently forgetting words, memory and low self-esteem(Snowling, 2019). Dyslexia affects the children significantly where they suffer from language processing as a result of which the children fail to decode the letters, words and spelling.

It has been identified that about 80-90% of the children suffer from learning disability syndromes. The main factor that increases dyslexia among the children because of impairment in the left temporal lobe of the brain, due to which it rises non-processing of phonemes and makes it harder for the children to recognize words.

Dyslexia is referred to as the weakness of language processing disability, which indicates that it became harder for the students to encoding, decoding, word syntax and retrieval(Ellis, 2016).The most common type of dyslexia includes specific learning disabilities which are termed as the disorder that involves difficulties in speak, listen, write and spell.

Intervention approach that helps in improving dyslexia among the students includes the multisensory approach which helps the children to learn through more than one sense. During the multisensory approach, eight sights of the hearing procedure are being used which includes sound-related or visual(Dilnot, et al., 2017).

English as a foreign language, this form of the procedure is mainly used in those countries where English are not used as the primary language. Teachers through this procedure ensure that students or children learn about a new language that helps them in fighting against dyslexia.

Furthermore, it has also been identified that intervention program for dyslexia also includes academic improvement, effectiveness and the inclusive classroom that helps the children in improving their inability to read, write or spell out words(Piotrowska B, et al., 2017).

Moreover, other specific intervention programs are also being carried out by different care center and teachers among the school which includes providing cognitive training, improving specific domain such as visuospatial skills, psychomotor skills and memory skills.

Critically analyse and discuss theories around health and well-being, particularly in relation to your work/project

The theories that are associated with health and well-being includes multiple discrepancy theory where experiences and emotions are being compared to some extent. During the multiply discrepancy theory, the satisfaction standards of the people are being measured based on their past conditions, people and ideal levels of satisfaction(DeVellis, 2016).

Evaluating this theory it has been identified that multiply discrepancy monitors the daily health activities of the people and provide them specific guidelines and instructions as to how they should lead their life. In respect to maintaining health and well-being, the firm provides instructions to the people to eat and exercise daily so that they can lead a happy and healthy lifestyle.

Furthermore, evaluating this theory it has also been identified that multi discrepancy theory also enables the people in uprising their standard of living by following the guidelines that have been provided by the physicians in respect to improve their physical well-being(Snowling, 2019).

Determining the well-being of among the people are resonated with the biopsychosocial model of health which mainly considers psychological, physiological and social factors of health and illness in mind.

The theory of multi discrepancy also states that the concept of well-being is defined as the ability to adapt and to self-manage which includes the ability of people to adapt to their situation as to their key health. Whereas, one of the major drawbacks of multi discrepancy theory is that it is unrealistic as because it leaves most of the individual unhealthy most of the time(Seidenberg, 2017).

Moreover, it has also been identified that in most cases it fails to take into account, not just about the temporary spells of the ill health, but also the growing number of people living with chronic illness and disabilities.

Furthermore, the drawback that it consists of it is very individualistic approach and takes little account of wider determinants of health. As this approach is focused towards individualistic, therefore, it has little scope to promote it as a human right.

The visual theory reflects light on the long-standing study of dyslexia that gives rises of visual impairment and difficulties in terms of processing words or letters. Evaluating the theory of visual crucial factors has been unearthed such as it emphasizes on visual contribution to the reading problem among the children.

The signs of dyslexia among the children start from their growth age where it has been noted that children find it difficult to speak, learn, write and pronounce words. Undermining this theory it has been identified that children suffering from dyslexia show signs of deficiencies in visual processing via parietal cortex to visuospatial attention and abnormal binocular control(Saksida, et al., 2016).

Undertaking the visual theory concerning dyslexia it can be noticed that children before reaching his/her school-age shows signs of dyslexia where they find it difficult to grasp basic learning and fails to understand the meaning of the words.

One of the drawbacks of the visual theory is that it mainly focuses towards improving dyslexia through a visual program such as improving the cognitive ability of the children through video representation where words and letter are shown to the children(Goswami, 2015).

The video representation makes it harder for the children to identify the word and grasp the knowledge which increases complexities with this procedure. Moreover, it has also been seen that in visual theory decreased sensitivity in magnocellular range increases the risk of low spatial frequencies and high temporal frequencies in dyslexia.

Cerebellar theory of dyslexia helps in controlling the difficulties that mostly arise among the children such as learning disability, writing and identification of words. Cerebellar theory plays a major role in controlling dyslexia such as in the role of motor control, where speech articulation are being designed for the children which helps them in improving their ability to learn and speak the words(Nicolson & Fawcett, 2018).

The second crucial benefit that cerebellar theory undertakes is that automatization of overlearned tasks which comprises of reading and typing. The risk that is associated with the cerebellar theory is that the causal link between articulation and postulated relies on an outdated view of motor theory speech.

Therefore cerebellar theory helps in providing a supportive structure to the children, through which they can improve their cognitive ability to identify words, learn, read and write which helps them in controlling over dyslexia(Levinson, 2019).

The magnocellular theory also details about the stages and processes that help in improving dyslexia among the children. The process of magnocellular dysfunctions is not only restricted to visual pathways but it also undertakes another proactive process(Stein, 2019).

This process undertakes visual, tactile and auditory processes that help the children in improving their dyslexia over the period. The major weakness of this theory includes the inability to explain the occurrence of sensory and motor disorders among children.

Furthermore, it has also been identified that magnocellular theory is that it replicates findings of auditory disorders in dyslexia, hence it became harder to minimize the issue of dyslexia among the children.

Critical discussion around definitions of health and well-being and its distinction

The concept of health and well-being are interlinked with each other as because it indicates the two-way relationship between wellbeing and health, health influences wellbeing and wellbeing itself influences health. Wellbeing and health are classified in the form of physical and mental aspire, which indicates about the people’s overall health status(Karimi & Brazier, 2016).

Although this two are interlinked with each other they contrast in terms of definitions such as defined by World Health Organisation (WHO) health is considered as a state of complete mental, physical and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

Moreover, evaluating the concept of health it has also been identified that its primary determinants include economic, social, and physical environment along with the person’s behaviour and characteristics without distinction of religion, race, political belief and economic condition.

Whereas, according to the World Health Organisation well-being is termed as the optimal state of healthy individuals and groups expressed as a positive approach of living(Who, 2019). Additionally, well-being is also termed as the active and dynamic process of change and the growth to reach one’s fullest potential and aims towards enhancing the overall wellbeing.

Well-being also comprises of eight difficult components which include environment, emotional, financial, intellectual and spiritual wellness.

The difference between health and well-being has a direct influence on overall health which becomes essential for living a happy, healthy and fulfilled life. The primary difference between health and well-being is that health is goal and well-being is the active process of achieving it.

Health is the state of living a good and healthy lifestyle, whereas well-being is the process of choice to eat a balanced diet along with scheduling regular doctor visits. Being healthy refers to diseases free both from mentally and physically, some of the ways through which health can be improved include exercising, avoiding food that causes diseases, eating nutritious food and maintaining normal blood pressure(Sánchez-Álvarez, et al., 2016).

Whereas, on the other hand, it has been noticed that well-being involves various aspects specifically emotional, occupational, social, environmental and intellectual, it also includes physical health that helps the people in living a healthy lifestyle. Well-being among the people can be maintained by eating a balanced diet and keeping themselves away from smoking and drugs.

Evaluating the two it has also been identified that the difference between health and well-being is health is more of considered as the state of improving their daily lifestyle. Whereas, well-being is considered as getting the most perfect balance of all dimensions(Michalos, 2017).

Being in the state of well-being means that people and individual are free from diseases which indicates that the people are enjoying their good health. Health is a state of physical and mental wellness whereas, well-being is considered as gaining a general balance in all six dimensions.

Health is more of a goal where being fit and healthy should be the primary focus of the individual and people, whereas well-being is considered a way of lifestyle that seeks to maintain the right balance if all dimensions of health. Health is also considered with the process of treatment where diseases are identified and then control measure actions are being taken to minimise the risk(Bradshaw, 2016).

Well-being is considered as the healthcare approach that is concerned with boosting the immune system and sustaining a good balance within the body. The main aspect that health is concerned with is improving the mental, physical and social wellness.

Whereas, the process of well-being is concerned with intellectual and emotional wellness. Health is more related to western medicine, contradictory to its well-being is concerned with complementary and alternative medicine.

Therefore, evaluating both the health and well-being it has been understood that health is concerned with the overall wellness of the people free from disease, whereas well-being results in the health of the people.

Critically evaluate the project, what are the gaps/limitations and areas of development that could improve it with an intervention action plan

Evaluating the report which is based upon evaluating the intervention of dyslexia among the children along with identifying its intervention methods. Performing this report it has been identified that there are gaps associated with this report which consists of lack of intervention methods that can improve dyslexia among the children.

Children suffering from dyslexia shows signs of disparity which includes children suffering from dyslexia can’t find ways to socialize with other children as because they fail to respond to them.

Other notable issues have also been identified such as kids facing dyslexia might not pick up the body language, facial expression and other cues due to their failure to understand them(Hulme & Snowling, 2016). Moreover, it has also been noted that children suffering from Dyslexia also fail to recall specific words or details, this leads to the growth of confusion among them.

The gaps and limitations that have been identified through the report that lack of intervention plan has made it harder for the children to improve their improving their compatibility towards learning words, listening, writing and pronunciation.

Another gap that has been identified that there was no prevention care treatment procedure for dyscalculia which makes it harder for the children to calculate numbers and learn about the differences between dyscalculia and dyslexia(Keith & King, 2017).

Moreover, due to the lack of preventive care towards dyslexia has also lead to the growth of dysgraphia which inertly affects the child’s ability to spell as a result of which they suffer from dyslexia.

Besides other notable gaps and limitations has also identified during analysing the impact of dyslexia such as care and support that needs to be provided from the schools in terms of minimising the negative impact of dyslexia among the children.

The areas of development that needs to be work upon in terms of improving the risk of dyslexia from the children are providing them interactive class session where they can learn and know about the formation of words, languages, letters and speech that can help the children to cope up with the disease of dyslexia.

One of the great development through which dyslexia can be improved is improving the learning disability of the children through digital technology of I-Pad.

The app in I-Pad contains titles if individual letters and numbers, which are developed by a teacher from all around the world(Anderson & Meier-Hedde, 2017). Children through this app can learn sounds, processing words and learning spellings which helps the children in building their knowledge in regards to learning words and sentence constructions.

The open web is also a free browser which is specially designed for the children those who suffers from learning disability. Open web converts the text into a more understandable and easier format which makes it easier for the children to better learn and understand the words and abbreviations.

The expert professor is also needed in terms of helping the children suffering from dyslexia. With more skilled and professional teachers it becomes easier to minimize the gaps such as other growing constraints that hinder in the path of development for the children.

Professor takes up different types of intervention program where the first and foremost task is to provide instructions, counselling and diagnosing the children and identify about the stage of dyslexia through which the children are suffering(Tilanus, et al., 2016).

Reading professor in school teaches the children about fluency of reading comprehension along with teaching usage of abbreviation and pronunciation to the children which helps them to improve their problem of dyslexia.

Dyslexia among the children can also be improved if psychological testing is being conducted among the children in terms of understanding the mental health which further helps in determining the cause of dyslexia which includes social problems, depression or anxiety.

Furthermore, the children can also take a few reading tests which indicate about the quality of reading skills and analysing reading ability.

Action plan

Policies Plan of action Time
Good practice in SLPDChange response mode which helps the children in fine motor response3 months
Record of SPLD courses attended by staffsEncourage the children towards learning through visual graphics4 months
Guidelines and strategies in school handbookUpdated training module for the teachers in regards of resolving dyslexia issues2 months
Intervention programUsing advanced technologies to educate the children3 months

Source- Author

Anti-oppressive practice, PCS model and aspects of social policy

Anti-oppressive practice is termed as an interdisciplinary approach which is primarily rooted within the practice of social work that focuses on ending socioeconomic oppression.

The process of anti-oppressive requires the practitioner to examine the power imbalance inherent in an organisational structure with regards to the larger socio-cultural and political context in terms of developing strategies for developing an environment that is free from racism, oppression and other forms of discrimination(Burke & Dalrymple, 2016).

Anti-oppressive practices in social services help in inclusively delivering welfare services. In social policy anti-oppressive aims to function and promote equality and social relation between various identities.

Social policies can be determined through anti-oppressive practice model which mainly consists of three stacks of barriers, which includes personal, cultural and structural. Evaluating anti-oppressive practices determines the constructive power in a way that will address the systematic inequalities that operate simultaneously and at the individual group to produce and reproduce oppression.

Personal/individual oppression- The personal or individual oppression includes values, feelings and beliefs that are held by individuals that affect interpersonal relationships(Fraser & Seymour, 2017). It is a process that focuses on both outcome and process and a way of structuring the relationship between individuals that aims to empower users by eradicating the negative effects of hierarchy in their immediate interaction.

Cultural oppression- During cultural oppression language plays a vital part as because it develops a social structure that helps in creating cultural values. The cultural constructs among the individual must be identified in respect of beliefs, culture and religion(Thompson, 2016). The cultural oppression also needs to be examined with respect for diversity and inherent different cultures in respect to minimize the potential threat to equality.

Structural/ Institutional oppression- In respect to community practices, AOP functions addresses the problem that arises due to structural imbalance. Professional practitioners are well aware of the power imbalance between the service users and its provider that reflects in practice(Berg-Weger, 2016). Although structural oppression aims to use different legitimately to empower others and reduce the experience of powerlessness and culture of silence.

Conclusion

This report was based upon evaluating intervention of dyslexia among the children along with identifying its intervention methods. During the initial stage of the report, the aim and objectives of the report have been briefly explained along with the intervention program that helps in minimising the growing issue of dyslexia among the children.

Different theories have been briefly explained during this report which includes visual theory which helps in providing a visual representation of the text and words that can be learned by the children. Other theories were also been evaluated such as multiply discrepancy theory which monitors the health status of the people and provides them specific guidelines and instructions that help the people to improve their lifestyle.

Furthermore, the theories identified for dyslexia include cerebellar theory, which provides the children with a supportive structure through which they can improve their learning and speaking disability.

Difference between health and well-being has also been briefly explained in this research, where health is considered as living a healthy lifestyle, whereas well-being has been resonated as the way through which people can maintain their health and live a better lifestyle. The limitations that have been identified during this report is the lack of proper intervention method for improving dyslexia among the children.

Development stages such as using advanced technologies along with the action plan for the teachers and students have briefly been explained in this report. Anti-oppressive practices has also been identified in this report where PCS model has been undertaken in respect to evaluate the three core factors of personal oppression, cultural oppression and structural oppression. Relationship between the PCS model and in society has also been briefly examined during the report.

Reflection

The issue that I have identified while working for caregiving units were lack of intervention plan in respect of curing dyslexia, as a result of which children were suffering and most of them were deprived of resonating words or letters(Knott & Scragg, 2016).

While I was actively engaged in social caregiving unit I identified that the number of children suffering from dyslexia was increasing as a result of which the children were suffering and were being deprived of their basic education. Example- a 5-year-old boy has been admitted in social caregiving unit, where he was suffering from the primary stage of dyslexia. The child was hardly reading and was failing to identify words and letters.

I felt very emotional at that point as because this was not the only case with one child, but cases of dyslexia were rising constantly as a result of which it became harder for the caregiving unit to control the situation.

Therefore, considering this grave situation I along with my team interpret the situation where primarily we identified children who were suffering from a different stage of dyslexia. Evaluating, all possible ways I developed an intervention stage which helps the children in fighting with Dyslexia.

The intervention plan that I developed focused towards creating an interactive game session where children will be made aware of the words, letters, abbreviation and pronunciation that will help the children in learn quickly and fight with dyslexia(Johnston, 2017).

Furthermore, evaluating the issues I also identified that schools were also lacking proper intervention method through which dyslexia can be treated. Through my analysis of interpreting the impact of dyslexia among the children, I have identified that it deprives the children of having basic education, is socializing with others and improve their self-image.

Therefore, based on all this above factor, I gathered a team meeting and developed an intervention method where I suggested the school management to use digital technology through which they can provide better access and facilities to the children in terms of learning and identifying words and letters.

I also took up the role of leadership while performing the team activity such as while developing an intervention method every individual were providing distinctive ideas and suggestions(Schön, 2017).

Being a leader I listen to their suggestions and then put my expertise within it, which helped me to develop an intervention method that focuses on mitigating dyslexia from the children. Furthermore, I also developed a future intervention plan where I developed strategies and methods through which I can contribute my bit towards resolving the challenge of dyslexia among the children.

References

Anderson, P. & Meier-Hedde, R., 2017. Dyslexia in Adolescence. In Dyslexia in Adolescence . In: London: Routledge, pp. 1-14.

Berg-Weger, M., 2016. Social work and social welfare: An invitation. London: Routledge.

Bradshaw, J. e., 2016. The Well-being of Children in the UK. London: Policy Press.

Burke, B. & Dalrymple, J., 2016. Critical Issues in Social Work Law. Anti-oppressive Practice and the Law, 1(1), p. 26.

DeVellis, R., 2016. Scale development: Theory and applications (Vol. 26). London: Sage publications.

Dilnot, L., Hamilton, B., Maughan & Snowling, M., 2017. Child and environmental risk factors predicting readiness for learning in children at high risk of dyslexia.. Development and psychopathology, 29(01), pp. 235-244, DOI: 10.1002.3uo4u890348-6.

Ellis, A., 2016. Reading, writing and dyslexia (classic edition): a cognitive analysis. 01 ed. london: Psychology Press, ISBN: 98234653313223.

Fraser, H. & Seymour, K., 2017. Understanding violence and abuse: An anti-oppressive practice perspective. London: Fernwood Publishing.

Goswami, U., 2015. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. Visual attention span deficits and assessing causality in developmental dyslexia, 16(4), p. London.

Green, G. & Haines, A., 2015. Asset building & community development. London: Sage publications.

Hulme, C. & Snowling, M., 2016. Current opinion in pediatrics. Reading disorders and dyslexia, 28(6), p. 731.

Johnston, C., 2017. Teaching Business & Economics. Reflective practice, 21(1), pp. 19-21.

Karimi, M. & Brazier, J., 2016. Pharmacoeconomics. Health, health-related quality of life, and quality of life: what is the difference?, 34(7), pp. 645-649.

Keith, S. & King, J., 2017. Effective reading interventions for students with dyslexia. London: Routledge.

Knott, C. & Scragg, T. e., 2016. Reflective practice in social work. London: Learning Matters.

Levinson, H., 2019. In Feeling Smarter and Smarter. In: Kathy and the Mistaken Theories of Dyslexia. London: Copernicus, Cham, pp. 63-75.

Michalos, A., 2017. Education, happiness and wellbeing. In: In Connecting the quality of life theory to health, well-being and education. London: Springer, Cham, pp. 277-299.

Nicolson, R. & Fawcett, A., 2018. In Reading and Dyslexia . In: Procedural learning, dyslexia and delayed neural commitment. London: Springer, Cham, pp. 235-269.

Piotrowska B, M. J., A, W. & J, K., 2017. Investigation of visual aspects of developmental dyslexia in children. Journal of Vision, 17(01), pp. 640, DOI: 10.1005.132365.94930584-4.

Saksida, A. et al., 2016. Developmental Psychology. Phonological skills, visual attention span, and visual stress in developmental dyslexia, 52(10), p. 1503.

Sánchez-Álvarez, N., Extremera, N. & Fernández-Berrocal, P., 2016. The relation between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being: A meta-analytic investigation. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 11(3), pp. 276-285.

Schön, D., 2017. The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. London: Routledge.

Seidenberg, M., 2017. In Reading acquisition. In: Dyslexia in a computational model of word recognition in reading. London: Routledge, pp. 243-273.

Snowling, M., 2019. Dyslexia: A Very Short Introduction. London: Oxford University Press.

Snowling, M., 2019. Dyslexia: A Very Short Introduction. London: Oxford University Press.

Stein, J., 2019. Neuropsychologia. The current status of the magnocellular theory of developmental dyslexia, 130(1), pp. 66-77.

Thompson, N., 2016. Anti-discriminatory practice: Equality, diversity and social justice. London: Macmillan International Higher Education.

Tilanus, E., Segers, E. & Verhoeven, L., 2016. Dyslexia. Responsiveness to intervention in children with dyslexia, 22(3), pp. 214-232.

Who,2019.Mental_health.[Online]Availableat:https://www.who.int/features/factfiles/mental_health/en/[Accessed 7 August 2019].

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Leave a Comment