KF7011 System Analysis and Design with UML
I. Class and Method Design
In the secure banking management systems, after collecting the requirements of the project the functional requirements of the project has been defined. The next step in the project development life cycle is the class and method design. This is one of the significant processes in the design phase.
Now it is the time to define the classes and its methods or the already defined classes can be reused if it is appropriate for this project.
The classes should be defined with its attributes and methods. The classes which are very much needed for the project only will be defined. The set of classes of this system is LogInManagement, AccountManagement, FundTransfer, PayBills and BeneficiaryMaintenance.
In a class diagram, the top section contains the class name, the middle section contains the attributes of the class and the bottom section contains the methods of the class. Usually the nouns are considered to be the classes and the verbs are considered to be the methods (Agile Modeling, 2020).
Contract is the agreement between in two parties involving in a business or project to exchange services or goods for money. In the project management, there are mainly three types of contracts.
- Fixed Price contract
- Cost plus contract
- T and M (Time and Materials) contract
The fixed price contract is also known as Lump Sum contract. Both the parties will fix an amount for exchanging of goods or services. Cost plus contract is also known as Cost reimbursable contract where the cost of the project will be reimbursed by the client during project delivery (Heydari, 2020).
The method specification is given by preconditions and postconditions which defines the behavior of the method. The precondition defines the initial conditions to trigger the method. The postcondition defines the effect or result after the method is executed.
II. Data Management Layer Design
Data management layer of a system is designed in four steps. The first step is choosing the structure of the storage. The second step is transforming the classes of the given system to the chosen structure. The third step is to enhance the storage structure to operate effectively.
The last step is to design the required data processing classes. In the first step, the different types of storage formats like sequential and random reading files, RDBMS, ORDBMS and OODBMS. From these types of formats, choose the suitable storage format for the Banking system.
Then the identified classes are mapped to the suitable storage format. This is the second step of database design. In the third step, the performance of the storage structure has been enhanced.
This includes enhancing the efficiency of structure of the storage and removing the empty and duplicate values. The data reading speed can be improved by using the normalization methods, clustering techniques and indexing techniques. The normalization methods are used to decrease the data processing duration. The clustering technique is used to combine the identical data at one place. The indexing methods are used to identify the schema entries rapidly.
In the last step, each class in the banking system is translated to data access and manipulation class in the Object Relational DBMS and many number of classes are required in the case of Relational DBMS. The relational schemas in the secure banking management system are Branches, Employees, Branch_Employees, Loan, Credit_Card, Savings_Account, Loan_Account, and Customer. The attributes with their data types are given in the relational schema design of Secure Banking Management System (Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden, 2009).
III. Human-Computer Interaction Layer Design
This design helps to know how the computer will communicate with the other external sources. This communication includes getting inputs for triggering a function and displaying the results to the external source. This design defines the different layouts, forms and reports for each process of the project. The design should be in such a way that the information contained in the interface should be easily understood by the users.
It should also be user friendly as the users of the banking system are from different level of computer proficiency. It should also give a pleasant experience to the users. The interface design should be in uniform manner throughout the banking system application. The design should be in such a way that the user should perform their intended operations in quicker and easier way.
The placement of menus and icons should follow any standard layout. The content of the form should be divided properly as top portion with title, middle portion with the content and bottom portion with the status information and it should follow some logic.
Text design, size, colors and patterns are chosen in such a way that it should be pleasing to the eyes of the user. The most significant concept in interface design is the consistency. The user should be able learn to use the system after some duration of using this system. This process of designing user interface is iterative where the designer can move backward and forward for any modifications. (8 – Human–Computer Interaction Layer Design, 2020)
IV. Physical Architectural Layer Design
In this phase, an architecture which defines how the system can be implemented using software and hardware in each computer is designed. It also considers the efficiency, security and cost of the components in the architecture. By using this architecture design, the required hardware, network components and softwares can be planned for requirements.
This also defines the set of software applications implemented in set of hardware. The physical architecture of a system will have four types of logic such as data storage and access logic, application and presentation logic. Based on this logic, there are three types of architecture. They are server based, client based and client-server based architectures. In the server based architecture, all the four logics are implemented on the server side.
Since all the logic is in server, the response time of application based on this architecture is very slow. In client based architecture, except storage all the three logics are implemented at the client side. The storage logic is implemented at the server side. In the client server architecture, presentation and application logic are implemented at the client side and data access and storage logic are implemented at the server side.
This architecture has many benefits when compared to other architectures. Client server architecture is suitable for Secure Banking Management System.
V. Lessons learnt in System Analysis and Design
- SAD life cycle and methodologies
The System Development lifecycle has six phases. They are Preliminary Study, Feasibility study, System analysis, System Design, System Implementation and testing and maintenance. In the first phase, the actual problem definition, scope and objective of the project are studied. The project schedule and budget are planned at this stage.
The second phase is feasibility study. This is done based on the all the aspects whether the requirements of the project can be implemented with the planned budget, scheduled time and other operational aspects (NYS Project Management Guidebook, 2020).
- Systems Analysis
System analysis is the process of finding different processes for implementing a application. For each process involved in the system, a detailed analysis should be done. These processes are very much important for the implementation of the entire project. At the end of the analysis, the functional requirements required for implementing the system are identified.
- Systems Design
This phase involves designing of classes and methods, database, interface and the physical architecture. The classes and methods based on the requirements of the client are designed using the class diagram with class name at the top portion attributes of the class at the middle portion and methods at the bottom portion.
The database design involves selection of storage structure, transforming the classes into relational schemas or classes and then normalizing the database to improve the performance of the data storage. The interface design involves the designing of layouts, menus, contents and display formats. The physical architecture design helps to determine the different physical devices and components with software needed to implement the application.
- Systems Analyst
System analyst is a person who performs the process of analysis, modelling and implementation of a system to satisfy the requirements of the client. He/she acts a mediator between the system development team and business client. He/she coordinates with the system development team in all the activities from initial stage to the final stage (Ecomputernotes, 2020).
- Team project experience
With the concepts of system analysis and design learnt in the academic study, it helps to understand the chosen project. It is very interesting to apply the learnt concepts in real time. The insights of the learnt concepts were understood when dealt with that in this project. The project assessment done in group helps to understand the team playing and team coordination activities. It provides the deep understanding of how the requirement of a project is transformed into a complete system using the system development lifecycle.
Human–Computer Interaction Layer Design. (2020). https://sites.google.com/site/ustcomp2com/human-computer-interaction-layer-design , 1-1.
Agile Modeling. (2020). UML 2 Class Diagrams: An Agile Introduction. http://agilemodeling.com/artifacts/classDiagram.htm#Classes , 1-1.
Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden. (2009). Data Management Layer Design. In Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden, Systems Analysis and Design with UML (pp. 1-10). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Ecomputernotes. (2020). Role of System Analyst. http://ecomputernotes.com/mis/information-system-planning/systemanalyst , 1-1.
Heydari, A. (2020). Types of Contract in Project Management. https://www.slideshare.net/aliheydari/types-of-contract-in-project-management , 1-19.
NYS Project Management Guidebook. (2020). System Development Lifecycle. https://its.ny.gov/sites/default/files/documents/phase.pdf , 1-189.
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