LD7168 Assignment Sample – People Management in Global Organisations 2022

Introduction

People management is an integral part of human resource management and it is extremely essential in International Management (IM). On the other hand, it may be stated that People management is a process that involves the entire process of talent optimization, talent acquisition which helps to build a strong team. People management also helps to give proper training to the employees which improves the communication skills of a team.

It may be stated that people management helps to manage the behavior of a team that will improve the team bonding in the future. Moreover, it may be opined that people management deals with recruitment, benefits management, learning and development, promotion, organizational development, employee engagement and many more. In this report, a comparison of international management of project teams between the United Kingdom and Singapore will be discussed.

Literature review on the comparison of international project management team

Discussion on organizational structure in the United Kingdom and Singapore

Organizational structure plays a crucial role to evaluate the structure of an organization, though it may be stated that Organizational structure deals with rules, roles, task allocation, coordination and responsibilities that will create a positive effect in the decision-making process of a team. On a contradictory note, it may be argued that leadership skills are extremely important in international management and an integral part of human resource management, though it will help to manage a team properly (Madiet al., 2018).

Furthermore, it has been observed that the United Kingdom and Singapore are developed countries and the human development index of the two countries is extremely high. However, cultural diversity is the main feature in international management such as people belonging to different cultures, religions and languages. The national and official language of the United Kingdom is English, although Malay is the national language of Singapore.

On the contrary, it may be opined that Tamil, English and Mandarin Chinese are also the official language of Singapore which indicates that the language diversity of Singapore is more than the United Kingdom. Moreover, there are some employment rights that define the organizational structure of the UK such as getting the minimum wage, protection against the illegal decision, minimum numbers of paid holiday and minimum rest breaks and many more (GOV.UK. 2021).

Furthermore, it may be opened that the employees of Singapore are protected by The Employment Act, 1968 which deals with the minimum Standard of rules and regulation which will protect the permanent and part-time employees. The Employment Act, 1968 ensures the salary payment, paid annual and sick leave, public paid holidays and many more that will define the organizational structure of Singapore (Sso.agc.gov.sg. 2021).

One of the most interesting features of the Employment Act is it provides paternal and maternal leave and compassionate leave also which is a unique step to motivate and encourage the employees. However, the organization of both countries is designed to improve the effectiveness and productivity of these countries.

Discussion on organizational culture in the United Kingdom and Singapore

Organizational culture plays a crucial role to fulfill the goals and objectives of an organization, though it has been observed that organizational culture creates a positive impact on the productivity and effectiveness of an organization (Warrick, 2017).

Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory is base on the cross-cultural dimension, which deals with power distance, individualism, masculinity, avoidance of uncertainty, long-term orientation and indulgence.

LD7168 Assignment Sample - People Management in Global Organisations

Figure 1: Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension Model

(Source:Stoller, 2020)

 

Factors of Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension Model United Kingdom Singapore
Power distance It has been observed that the performance in power distance of the United Kingdom scores low. The unequal distribution power is the main reason for the low score. The situation defined that the people of the United Kingdom need to reduce inequality. The score is 35 in this segment. It may be stated that Singapore scores 74 in the segment which derives that the people of Singapore believe in equal distribution power which creates a positive effect on society.
Individualism The scores of individualism are high in the United Kingdom which defines that the people of the country give more importance to individuality. A score of 89 is

Relay high in the segment.

 The score of individualism is low (20) in Singapore which indicates that the people of Singapore give less importance to individuality and people of the country are believed in United work or group work.
Masculinity It may be stated that The United Kingdom is a fairly masculine country which indicates that the level of masculine power is a little bit higher than feminine culture, though mainly masculine power dominates the culture (Stoller, 2020). Singapore scores 48 in this segment which derives that the country is dominated by the feminine culture which evaluates the importance of nurture in the country.
Avoidance of uncertainty It may be stated that the people of the United Kingdom follow an informal business attitude which means that the people of the country mentally prepared for any kind of outcome which will help the people to keep the performance in any kind of challenging situation. The people of Singapore believe in a structured form of work and the score is 8 in the segment which indicates that they are not prepared for any kind of outcome. It may be opined that the performance may be affected in the challenging situation.
Long-term orientation The score of the United Kingdom in this segment is 51 which defines that the people of the country generally believe in futuristic and long-time approaches. Singapore scores 72 in the segment which derives that the people of Singapore believe in a long time approach and it is also higher than the United Kingdom.
Indulgence A high score of 69 defines that the society of the United Kingdom is indulgent. The people of the country believe in an optimistic approach which creates a positive effect on society. It has been observed that Singapore is in a neutral position in the segment.

Table 1: Factors of Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension Model

(So urce: Self-Created)

Discussion on corporate governance practices between the United Kingdom and Singapore

Corporate governance practices are a set of principles or regulations which deal with the internal management of a company. On a contradictory note, it may be defined that Shareholders do invest in a company, it is the duty of the corporate governance to track the distribution of revenues in a company. It may be stated that it will maintain the strategic, financial and operational objective of a company.

Corporate governance in the United Kingdom conducts some code that helps to manage a company and it also takes some decisions for the development of the company. On the other hand, it may be argued that the corporate governance system in Singapore is quite the same as the United Kingdom, though it needs to take a more realistic approach to manage the company.

Moreover, good corporate governance is extremely healthy for the company, though it has been observed that both of the countries strictly implement the rules which will definitely create a good impact on the developments of the company. The only difference is that the Corporate Governance Act in Singapore is currently updated in 2018.

Discussion on evaluation of self-reflection

Discussion on psychological factors impacting the behaviors of the international project team

In order to carry out a successful teamwork in any field of work effective communication is held responsible as communication is one of the pillars on which a proper teamwork. In both the countries of the UK and Singapore, project teams collaborate among themselves in order to generate exceptional output. On the other hand, it needs to be opined that the influence of psychology is of immense importance as psychology is directly related to the behavior patterns of individuals.

However, it may be stated that teamwork has become extremely necessary where individual effort also becomes crucial. In recent times, international project teams have been collaborating extensively in order to accomplish several international projects and the countries such as the UK and Singapore have made some outstanding efforts in managing international project teams.

All teams are created according to a particular need and in order to meet a particular demand. An ideal teamwork consists of three essential factors which are coordination, communication and adaptability (Salas et al., 2018).

Furthermore, it has been observed that the team members of the UK are more collaborative as well as communicative. Due to rapid spread of globalization, a rapid increase in international projects have taken place where workers and laborers migrate to several new countries for suitable international projects.

It needs to be mentioned that shared understandings and beliefs are regarded as an essential parameter of international project teamwork. One of the crucial issues that deserves special mention is that of the power of decision making. Psychology of the team members casts a long lasting effect on the working capability of the workers which ultimately affect the performance of a company. Trust is regarded as one of the most significant factors in any teamwork and in case of the international project teams of the UK and Singapore, trust among the team members is commendable.

Discussion on social and cultural factors impacting the behavior of the internationalProject team

The behavioral factors are a major issue in terms of international project teams where the teams from UK and Singapore participate in accomplishing several projects. Creativity, innovation and commitment are all necessary factors which impact the international project teams to a great extent (Khan and Mashikhi, 2017).

Some of the most important socio cultural factors that influence the behavior of the international project teams are culture, language, religion, level of education, customer preferences and the attitude of the society towards foreign goods and services. Employees from different cultural backgrounds have different cultural values which separate them from other individuals.

On the other hand, cultural values and ethical considerations are deeply connected with one’s spiritual values and beliefs which has a deep impact on the behavior of the international project teams. However, a team consists of a group of individuals who are adaptable and undertake certain roles to fulfil certain outcomes (Vaughan et al., 2019). Furthermore, language serves as an extremely important factor which deeply impacts the international project teams.

It may be opined that language serves as an ideal mode of communication which ultimately improves the overall communication process. The use of effective language and communication is regarded as one of the pillars in international project teams. The UK project teams communicate in english whereas the Singapore project teams usually communicate in Tamil and Mandarin Chinese.

The role of religion is also considered extremely important as personal faith and belief impacts the international project teams. Conflicts arising due to the difference in faith is sometimes observed among the employees which often leads to reduced work efficiency. On a contradictory note, it may be stated that the level of education varies from person to person which affects the entire process of international project teams.

If the workers are well educated, the international project teams will definitely enjoy an added advantage in handling different situations easily.

International project teams in Singapore and the UK

It may be opined that international projects in the UK and Singapore follow a slightly different structural pattern where both the countries focus on making premium quality projects. Any organization needs to follow a basic structure and rules and regulations also need to be followed so that projects are completed easily.

In the case of the UK, whenever a project is started, a board of members is formed where senior officials are appointed and under their able supervision junior officials are appointed. Under the board of members several departments are formed such as the finance department, human resource department, marketing department and construction department. All these departments regularly report to the board of members.

On the other hand, all the departments have one senior manager and some junior officers who work collaboratively to complete the projects. Apart from this, a warehouse and production department is also created and a safety officer monitors the overall project. In today’s dynamic world, multinational companies prefer to work with a culturally diversified workforce (Henderson et al., 2018).

On the other hand, in the case of Singapore, whenever a new project begins, in the top most position a general manager is appointed. Under him several departments including research and development, production and supply department, financial department and human resource department is created. Each department has one senior manager and one junior manager to look after the entire project.

On the other hand a separate department is created which is known as a safety assurance department which pays attention towards the safety features of the project. Safety manager is assigned who monitors the overall safety process of the project.

Critical discussion on options generated

It is extremely essential for the manager of an international project team to manage the entire team in the proper way, though the manager may face some challenges and barriers which have to be solved quickly for the success of the team.

Cultural challenges and barriers of International Teams

An International project team may face some cultural barriers and challenges which harm the team, though it is the duty of the manager to resolve the cultural problems. On the contrary, it may be asserted that the manager needs cultural diversity and its news to be resolved quickly which will improve the communication skills of the team members.

Furthermore, national culture may affect individual behavior, though language diversity is the main cultural challenge in an international team. The manager of the team needs to communicate in the same language such as English, French to resolve the problem which will improve the communication skills among the team. The managers of the team need to implement cross-cultural management to enhance the communication skills that will mitigate the incidents of conflicts arising from cultural differences (Imakwuchu and Billy, 2018).

Discussion on different Time Zones

It is extremely important for the manager of the international team to deal with difference time zone, although it is extremely difficult to handle the different time zone. In the modern era, it is needed to resolve the problem, although the manager may use some technologies to solve the problem. On the other hand, it may be opined that the manager needs to establish time zone rules which will definitely solve the problem.

Moreover, maintaining proper communication will reduce the problem, though it will help the manager to manage and handle the team successfully. The manager of the team needs a proper plan such as proper designing of working hours will surely help the manager to reduce the problem. Additionally, it may be asserted that the manager of the team news to use the strategy of split shifts, which will also help to enhance bonding of team and reduce the problem in a significant way.

Protection of Home Team

An international project team may face some problems in other countries, though it may be stated that the manager of the team will protect the home team in any condition. On the contrary, it may be opined that the manager will defend the team from the stakeholders and co-workers also which indicates that protecting the team will definitely increase the motivation of the team.

It has been observed that the team may be criticized by the stakeholders, although the manager needs to defend the team otherwise it will demotivate the team members and create a negative effect on the performance of the team. It may be stated that motivation is an integral part of success, without motivation a team will not be able to achieve success and the leadership style of the manager is extremely essential to motivate and protect the team (Rahbiet al., 2017).

Challenges regarding Split locations

The managers of the team may face the problems of split location, though it will help the manager if the entire team works in the same location such as the same building or same floor of a building. On a contradictory note, it may be opined that the manager needs to increase the communication skills of the team it will help the team to work in a different location. Furthermore, the manager needs to build a strong relationship to improve the performance of the team in a challenging situation.

Resolving the Communication Gap

An international team faces many problems such as cultural problems, language barriers, communication problems and many more. On the other hand, it may be stated the manager needs to take some steps to resolve the problems which will increase the communication skills of the team.

Language difference is one of the biggest reasons for communication gaps, though the manager needs to communicate in the same language which will help to mitigate the problems of language barriers. Moreover, it may be asserted that the communication gap is extremely harmful to the team, though it will create a negative impact on the performance of the team.

Communication gaps may create some problems such as conflict among the team members, although the manager needs to use leadership skills to reduce the incidents of miscommunication. However, effective communication is extremely important to establish a healthy and friendly working environment which will enhance the performance of the team.

In the perspective of human resource management, interpersonal communication skill is the only way to reduce the communication gap and it will also enhance the performance of the team (Hardjati and Febrianita, 2019).

Recommendations for the development of International Project Teams

Globalizationis one of the most significant driving forces in the industries which have changed the ways of operations in all the organizations. Furthermore, globalization has opened up the international market for new entrants to show their talents and skill sets and prove themselves as an elite organization within the industry.

Globalization has further opened up platforms for the employees of the same organization working in an international project operating from different countries have developed the cross cultural communication of the employees among each other (Brière and Auclair, 2020). However, it may be stated that the management of the employees are quite challenging while working on international projects. The most challenging part of managing an international project is to maintain the effectiveness and efficiency of the employees in the organization.

Moreover, the time differences between UK and Singapore have also been identified as a major challenge as leading a team on an international project in separate timelines becomes a massive challenge to fulfill for the management. In the process of improvement of the effectiveness of the team a set of recommendations have been provided to the project team.

Global business environment in the United Kingdom and Singapore

Proper analysis of the global business environment of the UK and Singapore is crucial for completing an international project effectively and successfully. The international project managers need to be aware of specific issues such as international currency, international market, international finance and internationaleconomy in order to complete the international project successfully (Rao, 2021).

All of these factors are highly important in the effective and efficient management of the project management team. Furthermore, analysis of the global business environment of the UK and Singapore is crucial in the development of decision making ability of the project manager which in turns improves the effectiveness and efficiency of the team.

Moreover the cross cultural environment within the employees in the team enhances the experiences of the team members in the international project as cross cultural communication helps the team members in learning and development of skill sets. The team work abilities of the team members also develops which results in the achievement of the organisational goals in the form of the international projects.

The political and legal situation in the United Kingdom and Singapore

It is very essential for the project manager to be aware of the major legal and political situation in the UK and Singapore before implementation of the international project as several laws and regulation may have impact on the operations of the project.

The political situation of the UK and Singapore may have a significant impact on a project as the political views of the country may not match with the project of the organization which may cause operational problems in the completion of the project. Furthermore, the legal situation in the form of laws and regulations may prove to be a stumbling block to the project completion as the projects may have several parts which are not legal within the country of project operation (Mark et al., 2017).

Moreover, if any of the regulations of the country is challenged by the international project, the government of the UK and Singapore may take steps in stopping the project to be completed.

Managing of Integration

Horizontal management refers to the management of a company across countries and regions whereas, vertical management of an organization means the management within the organization (Wang et al., 2020). The project managers of the international project between the UK and Singapore should be able to integrate these styles of management within the team in order to successfully complete the project.

The international project along with their objectives should be managed effectively within the organization in such a way that they should align with the organisational goals and the completion of the project. Moreover, the management should implement various processes through the project manager in order to complete the project across Singapore and the UK keeping in mind regarding the cultural diversity and cultural differences among the employees.

All these factors should be checked by the project manager in order to increase the effectiveness of the employees and complete the international project within the given time frame.

The organizational structure of the project

The core structure of the organization should be made flexible and decentralized in order to structure the international project which could be collaborated and formulated within the organisational structure. This step will help the team of the UK and Singapore to collaborate in an effective way and meet the customers and clients needs in a more effective and efficient process.

Furthermore, the improvement in the organisational structure will aid in the completion of the international project within a given time frame and by using the minimum resources of the organisation. All these steps will have direct impact on the organisational goals and revenue in both short and long term objectives of the organization.

Global procurement management

The global procurement management is a major challenge in the international projects as the project managers find it challenging in finding the best possible sources of several resources as there are no boundaries in an international project. The resources which are scarce to find in an international project are the raw materials and labors (Masudinet al., 2021).

An effective global procurement management team is to be established in the UK and Singapore who would specifically take care of the procurement of several resources for the completion of the international project.

Leadership management and trust establishments

An effective leadership should be implemented by the project leader in order to lead the team towards the completion of the international project as an effective, though leadership is significant for efficient and effective management of the available resources and the team members.

An effective leader is vital in the establishment of trust within the team which in return increases the overall performance of a team as a whole (Cortellazzoet al., 2019). The organization should choose a leader who can motivate the employees in the completion of the international project between the UK and Singapore.

Conclusion

From the above discussion it may be clearly concluded that in today’s fast changing and dynamic world, the importance of international projects may never be underestimated and neglected. In order to increase the market share, multinational companies always focus on acquiring projects that will fetch more profit and increase the brand worth as well as brand image of a particular company.

In case of international projects teams, both the countries such as the UK and Singapore follow certain rules and regulations in order to stand apart in the industry.

 References

Brière, S. and Auclair, I., 2020. Toward gendered projects in international development: Paradoxes, resistance and convergent approaches. International Journal of Project Management, 38(8), pp.500-514.

Cortellazzo, L., Bruni, E. and Zampieri, R., 2019. The role of leadership in a digitalized world: A review. Frontiers in psychology, 10, p.1938.

GOV.UK. 2021. Employment status. [online] Available at: <https://www.gov.uk/employment-status/worker#:~:text=Employment%20rights&text=getting%20the%20National%20Minimum%20Wage,minimum%20length%20of%20rest%20breaks> [Accessed 8 May 2021].

Hardjati, S. and Febrianita, R., 2019. The power of interpersonal communication skill in enhancing service provision. Journal of Social Science Research, 14, pp.3192-3199.

Henderson, L.S., Stackman, R.W. and Lindekilde, R., 2018. Why cultural intelligence matters on global project teams. International Journal of Project Management, 36(7), pp.954-967.

Imakwuchu, O. and Billy, I., 2018. Cross-Cultural Team Management. The Business & Management Review, 9(3), pp.575-580.

Khan, S. and Mashikhi, L.S., 2017. Impact of teamwork on employees performance. International Journal of Education and Social Science, 4(11), pp.14-22.

Madi, S.A., El Talla, S.A., Abu-Naser, S.S. and Al Shobaki, M.J., 2018. The Organizational Structure and its Impact on the Pattern of Leadership in Palestinian Universities.

Mark, M.A.T.S.U.N.E., NAITOi, H. and ITO, T., 2017. Acquiring English Communication Skills in Global Business Environments.

Masudin, I., Safitri, N.T., Agata, R.A.W., Prawita, R.P.P.H. and Restuputri, D.P., 2021. Indonesian Higher Education Student Perception on Procurement Manager Skills and Competencies. In Handbook of Research on Disruptive Innovation and Digital Transformation in Asia (pp. 234-254). IGI Global.

Rahbi, D.A., Khalid, K. and Khan, M., 2017. The effects of leadership styles on team motivation. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 16(3).

Rao, S., 2021. International business environment. Himalaya Publishing House.

Salas, E., Reyes, D.L. and McDaniel, S.H., 2018. The science of teamwork: Progress, reflections, and the road ahead. American Psychologist, 73(4), p.593.

Sso.agc.gov.sg. 2021. Employment Act – Singapore Statutes Online. [online] Available at: <https://sso.agc.gov.sg/Act/EmA1968> [Accessed 8 May 2021].

Stoller, R.J., 2020. Sex and gender: The development of masculinity and femininity. Routledge.

Vaughan, B., Yoxall, J. and Grace, S., 2019. Peer assessment of teamwork in group projects: Evaluation of a rubric. Issues in Educational Research, 29(3), pp.961-978.

Wang, W., Sakata, K., Komiya, A. and Li, Y., 2020. What makes employees’ work so stressful? effects of vertical leadership and horizontal management on employees’ stress. Frontiers in psychology, 11, p.340.

Warrick, D.D., 2017. What leaders need to know about organizational culture.Business Horizons, 60(3), pp.395-404.

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