Leadership assignment

Literature review

Determining relationship between LMX, employee psychological capital and authentic leader.

Authentic leadership indicates the several underlying dimensions that are played by the authentic leader concerning drawing out psychological capabilities that reflects positive behavior and greater self-awareness which fosters positive self-development. The process of authentic leadership are resonated to deep thinking and awareness (Hirst, et al., 2016). The role of authentic leader is to impart the knowledge of self-awareness along with reflecting positive behavior on the employees which helps in growing positive attitude and self-development among the employees. According to Leroy, et al., (2015)leadership of authentic are mainly divided into four-component of capital which-awareness. The relationship between the leadership comprises of authentic relational orientation, authentic behavior, unbiased processing and welfare that it indicates the informal observation of the leader’s behavior towards their subordinates. The relationship that persists between the leaders and employee’s psychological capital distinguish between the, outgroup and in-group members, which is based upon similar characteristics of personality, gender and characteristics (Bauer & Erdogan, 2015).

The relationship that persists between the employees and the management are based upon two stages which includes role taking and role making. The activity of signifies the number of employees takes part in the organization, and the leader takes up the responsibility of assessing the abilities and talents of the members and offers them  of improving their personal characteristics. Whereas, the stage is known as role making, which mainly follows informal process of unstructured negotiation between the employees and management. Determining the relationship it has been identified that authentic relationship promotes honesty and openness that deeply shares values, and goals and mutual respect that aims towards attaining the overall objectives of the organisation. The mutual relationship reciprocates leader self-development as well as understanding the interrelatedness of professional association that inherits authenticity, intentions, and effectiveness. As stated by Northouse, (2017)authentic leaders were responsible for fostering better relationship between the employees and management for achieving success.

Investigating the role of the authentic leader it has been determined that the role of leadership succession as a moderator between LMX and its employees are being evaluated. Transformational leadership and instrumental value system congruence between the follower and the leader does influence the motivation level of the followers to performer their assigned job roles with higher accountability.

According to Sosik & Jung, (2018) the relationship between the the leader-member exchange and authentic leader isleaders along with their followers share a mutual respect capability, sense of mutual trust and obligation for one another. The relationship between the PsyCap and authentic leader is based upon POB that resonates about the prototypical comprises of confidence in terms of successful accomplishment of challenging tasks (Cropanzano, et al., 2017). The third important criteria that arise are of positive form of attitude that tells about the present and future success and finally, the relationship between the PsyCap and leader is that of issues and sustaining. Moreover, exploring the relationship between the authentic leader and psychological capital is that it not only repertoire the behavior of the leader but also it inculcates both positive and negative psychological capabilities. As a result of this, leaders promote moral perspective and process information that are performed with responsibility and accountability.

As stated by (Breevaart, et al., 2015) psychological capacities that play a vital part in the individual by supporting the self-identity. Based on the psychological capabilities it provides a mechanism of development that inculcates an integrative approach towards understanding organizational behavior and leadership. The positive attitude between psychological capital and authentic leader is that of work engagement where firstly, the authentic leaders have experiences of creating engagement between the followers and the leaders (Herman & Dasborough, 2016). The role of facilitation is assisting their employees to realize the potential importance of work and its impact on the organisation. Thirdly, the employees needs to understand the importance of career development where they must focus towards improving their professional career alongside driving success for their organisation. The development of relationship between employees and the leaders help in building cooperative work culture that aims towards improving the efficiency of the business along with achieving great success.

Building psychological capital among the employees

According to Luthans, et al., (2015)Psychological capital are termed as the concept of development in regards of positive state of mind comprising of resiliency and self-efficacy. The concept of psychology is also described as the study of human behavior and their characteristics through analyzing their psychological historic emphasis. There are mainly two types of psychological capital that are being used inenterprises which are as follows. Positive organizational scholarship and positive organisational behavior that focuses on measuring psychological states such as attitudes, performance, and behaviors (Zubair, 2015). There are mainly four types of psychological capital which are optimism, efficacy, hope and resilience. Based on the four component the psychological capital of different employees depends. Most of the organization works towards employee well-being, positive intervention, and engagement where they work towards generating psychological capital. The organisation aims to create a collection of positive psychological capacities, using several constructs that are trainable and have significant effects on results.

Hope-Hope within organisation is defined as process where important factors persists namely successful feeling and pathways concerning goal orientation determination are being executed. Hope acts as a positive motivation among the employees because if the hope among the employees is alive then they can perform the task with better understanding and achieve expected results(Lizar, et al., 2015). Whereas, it has also been identified that loss of hope among the employees makes them weak where they fail to integrate the task and perform them systematically to achieve positive results for the management. Hope among the employees was developed through a set goal which motivated the employees to perform better to achieve the objectives of the firm. Whereas, if the enterprise fails to set a goal then it raises ambiguity where negligence and avoidance raised resulting in increasing complexities.Whereas, if the enterprise fails to set a goal then it raises ambiguity wherenegligence and avoidance raised resulting in increasing complexities.

Self -efficacy-Self-efficacy in general term is known as the process when people possess the confidence of performing a task within a given time frame. Self-efficacy among the people defines about the belief in regards of their ability to performing a challenging job. The higher the efficacy expectancy of the employees, the harder they will be working towards achieving their assigned goals. As stated by Youssef‐Morgan & Luthans, (2015)Key ingredients to self-efficacy include outcome expectancy where the employees perform the task that needs to be done, efficacy expectancy where the employees examine their capability to do what needs to be done. Leaders and management aim towards developing self-efficacy through different options such as developing cognitive ability, motivation and beliefs among the employees. The management also aims towards increasing affection and regulates behavior towards improving the overall process of management and achieve success(Amunkete & Rothmann, 2015).

Optimism-An optimism is defined as the internal or external events that are not fixed. Optimism in Psycap is defined as the process where employees fails to perform the job of their own. Optimism among the employees helps them to be motivated and perform their assigned job with higher authority in regards to achieving success. Organisation and enterprise develop optimism by motivating employees, appreciating their work and providing them guidance for future work process (Cenciotti, et al., 2017). Whereas, on the other hand it has been noted that lack of optimism and enthusiasm amongemployees makes them weak and vulnerable and fails them to accomplish their task. Whereas, on the other hand, it has been noted that if the management fails to develop optimism then it becomes harder for the management to focus on their success and create situations that uplift negative experiences that made it harder to perform the task of the firm.

Resilience-Resilience is defined as positive psychology which helps the employees in fighting with distress and risky situation. Within organisation, resilience is also termed as the process that aims towards reducing conflict among employees and make them informed about taking responsibility. Resilience among the employees is being generated through positive thinking where their creativity and ideas are being checked (You, 2016). Employees were also told to improvise where they went through brainstorming sessions through which different ideas are being generated in terms of performing the task with higher efficiency. Whereas, on the other hand, it has also been noted that employees fail to contribute towards the development of organisation due to the lack of coaching sessions and ideas.Employee’s resiliency also describes about the strength about accessing situation and then taking decision that brings success for the management. Therefore, resilience plays a vital part within management for performing task with integrity.

 

Impact of emotions on performance of the employees

According to Hagemeister & Volmer, (2018)emotions among the employees impact on their performance, it has become vital for the employees to maintain balanced emotions in their responsibilities towards work. It has been noted out that employees who are accountable towards holding emotions while working has shown better performance alongside improved their characteristics. Therefore, it is necessary for the employees to inculcate emotional intelligence within their behavior and develop higher emotional intelligence. Emotions are termed as the state of feeling that changes the mindset of the employees along with provides them the opportunity to control their actions(Wang, et al., 2015). Employees working within the organisation are impacted by the employee’s performance which comprises of attachment, self-emotions and cognitive emotions. Cognitive emotions impacts on the employee’s performance that comprises of two aspects such as productivity and behavior, it is also important for the employees to maintain good behavior, interpersonal relations and attitudes to maintain productivity for the management.

As stated by Edgar, et al., (2017) it has been observed emotions within the employees helps in developing creativity that helps them in performing their task with higher efficiency and productivity. Moreover, it has also been noticed that management also provides training to the employees to build emotional intelligence among themselves as a result of which they successfully builds up cooperativeness among team member(Ahmad, et al., 2015). Moreover, it has also been noticed that emotions do impact on the performance of the leaders because if the emotions of the managers or leaders are high then they can take decisions that impart positive results for the management. Moreover, it has also been noticed that negative image also rise due to contextual performance of the employees as because they fail to uplift the performance of the employees and also fails to motivate the basic instinct of the employees as a result of which it becomes harder for the employees to perform their assigned task and activities(Noe, et al., 2017).

Contradictory to it, it has been noted that emotions among the employees help them in improving their performance through acquiring training and accessing feedback. Effectively communicate with the management in terms of sharing the resources and comprehend the ideas so that it helps them in planning and organizing. Furthermore, it has also been noted that customer-oriented behavior becomes increasingly important because organisation put greater emphasis on customer services. Therefore, based on the above facts it can be stated that emotions do play a significant role in improving employee performance as a result of which the overall performance of the management increases. Emotional intelligence among the employees helps in shaping their characteristics along with their behavior which helps them in keeping their emotions in control and performing the task with higher authority to derive success. Therefore, the role of emotional intelligence within the organisation becomes necessary to achieve success and future growth opportunities.

 

References

Ahmad, T., Farrukh, F. & Nazir, S., 2015. Industrial and Commercial Training. Capacity building boost employees’ performance, 47(2), pp. 61-66.

Amunkete, S. & Rothmann, S., 2015. Authentic leadership, psychological capital, job satisfaction and intention to leave in state-owned enterprises. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 25(4), pp. 271-281.

Bauer, T. & Erdogan, B. e., 2015. The Oxford handbook of leader-member exchange. London: Oxford university press.

Breevaart, K., Bakker, A., Demerouti, E. & van den Heuvel, M., 2015. Leader-member exchange, work engagement, and job performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30(7), pp. 754-770.

Cenciotti, R., Alessandri, G. & Borgogni, L., 2017. Psychological capital and career success over time: The mediating role of job crafting. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 24(3), pp. 372-384.

Cropanzano, R., Dasborough, M. & Weiss, H., 2017. Academy of Management Review. Affective events and the development of leader-member exchange, 42(2), pp. 233-258.

Edgar, F., Geare, A. & Zhang, J., 2017. Personnel Review. A comprehensive concomitant analysis of service employees’ well-being and performance, 46(8), pp. 1870-1889.

Hagemeister, A. & Volmer, J., 2018. Do social conflicts at work affect employees’ job satisfaction? The moderating role of emotion regulation. International Journal of Conflict Management, 29(2), pp. 213-235.

Herman, H. & Dasborough, M., 2016. Leadership and leader–member exchange (LMX). In Encyclopedia of Human Resource Management.. London: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.

Hirst, G. et al., 2016. A multi-level investigation of authentic leadership as an antecedent of helping behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 139(3), pp. 485-499.

Leroy, H., Anseel, F., Gardner, W. & Sels, L., 2015. Authentic leadership, authentic followership, basic need satisfaction, and work role performance: A cross-level study. Journal of management, 41(6), pp. 1677-1697.

Lizar, A., Mangundjaya, W. & Rachmawan, A., 2015. The role of psychological capital and psychological empowerment on individual readiness for change. The Journal of Developing Areas, 49(5), pp. 343-352.

Luthans, F., Youssef, C. & Avolio, B., 2015. Psychological capital and beyond. London: Oxford University Press, USA.

Noe, R., Hollenbeck, J., Gerhart, B. & Wright, P., 2017. Human resource management: Gaining a competitive advantage. London: New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Northouse, P., 2017. Introduction to leadership: Concepts and practice. London: Sage Publications.

Sosik, J. & Jung, D., 2018. Full range leadership development: Pathways for people, profit, and planet. London: Routledge.

Wang, G., Huang, H. & Zheng, Q., 2015. Effect of Chinese employees’ emotional creativity on their innovative performance. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 43(7), pp. 1147-1160.

You, J., 2016. Learning and Individual Differences. The relationship among college students’ psychological capital, learning empowerment, and engagement, 49(1), pp. 17-24.

Youssef‐Morgan, C. & Luthans, F., 2015. Stress and Health. Psychological capital and well‐being, 31(3), pp. 180-188.

Zubair, A., 2015. Authentic leadership and creativity: Mediating role of work-related flow and psychological capital. Journal of Behavioural Sciences, 25(1), p. 150.

 

 

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