LONDON SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND FINANCE

LONDON SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND FINANCE

Abstract

Purpose – This analysis project aimed to analyze the impact of social media on shopper shopping for behaviour within the UK high-street attire market.

Literature review – Relevant theoretical frameworks touching on shopper shopping for behaviour and social media were presented and analysed.

Methodology – The deductive approach and therefore the survey strategy were adopted. Shopper analysis via a web questionnaire (quantitative method) was conducted among social media users.

Originality/value – The study  contributed to bridging the analysis  gap indicated in the tutorial literature review relating to the shortage of data on the result of social media at every stage of shopper call creating method and lack of knowledge relating to the importance of individual social media channels as influencers on consumers‘ shopping for.  The findings of the analysis can enable businesses within the attire trade to develop a lot of economical and effective social media selling ways.

Findings – Social media were proven to be a valuable selling communications tool to influence shopper buying of high-street attire within the UK.  The social media usage patterns of UK shoppers in relation to attire brands were identified, highlighting the

Importance of Blogs- The impact of social media on the attitudes of UK shoppers towards clothing and footwear brands was established to be important enough to influence buying. The analysis proved that the foremost outstanding social media channel impacting shopper buying of high-street attire is Face book. The acquisition decision-making stage at those shoppers is littered with social media most is want recognition. Publicity via social media channels is deemed the foremost applicable tool of social media selling to encourage shoppers to buy H&M clothing, footwear or accessories.

Research limitations – The sampling frame included the users of 1 social media channel (Facebook) and therefore the analysis was done inside restricted timescales.

Keywords – Facebook, Social media, Web 2.0, Social Media Marketing, consumer decisions, Consumer behaviour.

 Chapter One: Introduction

Introduction

Consumer behaviour and their decision making process are very important to run the business for a long time. Influences of these processes are helps to develop the business plans and their segments in the field, these run the business for a long time according to consumer buying behaviour. But in today’s time the market have been get digitalised and many sites provides the shopping opportunities to customers to buy the things online. The website like face book, twitter and you tube provides the facility of getting the information of the latest market trend and change their buying behaviour. Through these web sites people are sharing the products and discussing about the features of those products, and these things creates the new market.

Social media play an important role in the marketing mix of any organisational products and this may be any kind. The social networking sites provide the opportunity to explore them self on the internet and business world. All organisations that may be small and big all are giving the presence on the social sites.  Practically all organisations, big or small, belonging to any industry sector, have acknowledged their presence.

Social media creates its own virtual worlds, and in this virtual world people share their experiences with their friends. In other words mouth publicity is more in a virtual world in comparison to the real world. In 21st era people start believing suggestion by their social media friends and will prefer same brand and product in the future. With this kind of changes big players has to change in their basic strategy to find customers. In traditional marketing two ways communication with a customer is tough but with the help of social media two way communications is simple. Now companies direct get feedback from their customers and for continuous improvement work on that feedback.

Perfectly conscious of this market trend, one in every of the globe leading world clothing retailers Hennes and Mauritz (H&M) of Sweden, has actively embraced the employment of social media sites for selling functions with a robust presence across simply a couple of channels , particularly Face book, Twitter, YouTube, LOOKBOOK.nu, and Blogs. The question but remains: will social media presence of this complete extremely encourage engagement with the complete and drive traffic to their on-line or retail stores? Or, in alternative words, do social media influence client shopping for choices, i.e. increase the probability of an acquisition instead of solely have a control on complete awareness and/or complete reputation?

Objectives of research

The objective of this study is to know the impact of social media sites on the buying behaviour of the consumers of UK in the high street apparels market. These are some of the research objectives and research questions are identified for this research paper.

  1. To identify the usage of social media in UK, how the consumers are uses them while buying the apparel for them.
  2. Evaluate the effect of the social media in the UK consumers in the changing scenario of the buying behaviour of the consumers.
  3. To determine the role of social media as it is the influencer on H&M customers in UK, and at what stage of the consumer buying behaviour.
  4. Identify the most usable social media channels and know the impact of that on the consumer buying behaviour in UK.
  5. Propose the recommendations for H&M, that how to use the social media websites so that consumer can use these for the best for them.

 

Research Questions

 

  1. What are social media usage patterns among UK consumers in relation to clothing and/or footwear brands and/or products in terms of the frequency of visits to social media websites, the experience of use, the purpose of use and the engagement?
  2. How do social media websites change UK consumers‘attitudes towards clothing and/or footwear brands?
  3. How strong is the influence of social media websites on H&M customers in the UK at each stage of buying decision-making process?
  4. Which social media channel has the greatest impact on consumer buying of H&M clothes, footwear and/or accessories in the UK?
  5. How can H&M use Social Media websites to encourage consumer purchasing of H&M products in the UK?

 

 

Rationale for choosing the topic for research

Behind every work there are some of the motives and the objective, and other than this the rational of those things is very important. And the rational for choosing the topic is that the impact of the social media and the consumer buying behaviour of the high street of UK, this main topic. This topic that recognised as the significance role in the today environment and this can be use batter in this time. This important at every stage we can use these in the commercial paper and for the companies also. First thing is very important that the clothing’s and footwear accessories are very important things that are used by people on the regular basis and people are using these things on the regular basis. UK apparels market worth very huge amount and this is one of the important markets for the people as well as for the companies. In this market there are lots of consumers that are spending lots of money every day and want to know about the lots products for the personal use.

This is notable things that most of the companies are success in this street. But in our research this is very important to know the impact of social media on the buying behaviour of the customers. About H&M we can say that this one of the leading and the global brand in UK, and this sale the high street clothing’s in the UK. This company has the 100 inner global brands and Zara according to Dow Jones.  Furthermore this is more important to our topic because this is one of the top brand that is actively participates in the social media sites. It spread it marketing through the social sites and put the event on the site and makes the followers on that. In this research we will be able to know the impact of the social media on the buying behaviour of the customers. The decision making process of the consumer is different on the different stages. The finding of this research will help in the business to generate the more sales and the technique that can be use for the betterment of the company.

Context of research

The context of research is the related of research means in which contest we want to done the research. UK clothing and footwear market is composed of three things, in this the biggest sector is the clothing sector which covers the 78.7 % of the market, second thing is the footwear sector that covers about the 15 % market, and third one is the accessories such as handbags and other human accessories and it covers the 6.5 % market.

Market trends

  1. In this the online and offline purchasing is covered, this is estimated that the 5% of the off fashion apparels are purchased online and at after 2 and 3 years this figure get double. H&M has also recently opened the online store in September 2010. And this has the opportunities to generate the larger customers.
  2. Fast fashion is the factor that is influencing the customers on high street. The retailers of here are replicating the cat walk and try to sale the material quickly. The retailers are able to provide the fashion cloths on the affordable price because they are know that the turnover of the sale is high and that’s why this things is possible here. Fast fashion is attracting the more customers and wan to sale the more and more products in the company.
  3. The cost of raw material is one of the things that can be measure a lot in this field. The cost of the raw material is increasing and the price of the material is affecting due to this things. Govt. Is increasing the VAT and provides the main and the important cost for the producers.
  4. In recent census this UK population is 61.8 Million people and it forecasted on the past trend that it will grow by 0.7% per year. That means the population will grow rapidly and the demand of the clothing industry is expected to increase. To cater the future market big players start focusing on their current status in the market. With this kind of statics big players try to search new way for target market and try to assume the trend of fashion.
  5. Gender in keeping with Keynote (2010b), the balance of the population can still rest in favour of ladies – a favourable trend for the trade, as a result of spending on feminine attire is beyond spending on male attire. In 2009, women’s wear accounted for £18.75 billion of the clothing market (a fifty 1.7% share), followed by menswear (£10.9 billion, 30%) and children’s wear/baby wear (£6.6 billion, 18.2%). Footwear divides in a very similar approach between women‘s (50.7%), men‘s (28.7%) and children‘s (20.6%) products‘.
  6. Age the marketplace for kids wear/baby wear is predicted to extend in worth attributable to the minor baby boom within the UK.

Competitive structure

Competition is very high in clothing industry, because lots of players enter in this market. With the entry of new rivals big and old player has to share market share. Retail giant also launch their own brands and sale only at their stores, with this  kind of condition it happen with big players that retail players are not interested to sale other players cloths in their stores. Now this market is perfect market where lots of players and lots of customers. In one the research this thing is observed that customer prefer to buy clothes from big players and who have their own clothing chain like Denim, Wrangler, and Gap. Online shopping affects the traditional market now people prefer online shopping because they don’t want stay in long queue.

H&M Hennes & Mauritz UK Ltd

H&M is the Sweden based company that is active in the clothing’s and fashion apparels retail industry.  This is founded in 1947 and it has the 2200 stores around the 38 countries according to record of year 2010. The main task of this industry is to design, production and retailing of that products in the market, it includes the sportswear for all age people for both man and woman, cosmetic products, under garments, accessories, footwear and some of other things that are related to fashion. It offers the facility of online retailing in the eight countries including UK.  H&M Hennes & Mauritz UK Ltd (H&M), a subsidiary of H&M AB, was established in 1976 when the first H&M store outside Scandinavia was opened. H&M currently operates 192 retail outlets in the UK (HM, 2010) and employs 4,562 people. This company is developing very well in the European market, the turnover of this company is huge and the subsidiary of this is also making the good turnover in every year. This company has developed a strong brand image that is so much believable and people like this in clothing and shopping and provides the affordable price range for the customers. This company is position itself in the upper class fashion retailer in the affordable price range. In the field of advertising this company higher the international celebrity and like Madonna and many others and these make the more famous in the mind of customers. It is estimated that the 5% of the off fashion apparels are purchased online and at after 2 and 3 years this figure get double. H&M has also recently opened the online store in September 2010. About this company we can say that H&M is one of the leading and the global brand in UK, and this sale the high street clothing’s in the UK. This company have the 100 inner global brands and Zara

Structure of the study

Chapter 1

In the initial chapter of the analysis named “Introduction” we have a tendency to describe the analysis topic intimately. During this chapter we have a tendency to provide detailed note on organization background, analysis objective and plan behind selecting the subject for analysis. This chapter conjointly offers plan of primary analysis that describes the first analysis question which might be thought-about for obtaining answer.

Chapter 2

In the second chapter of analysis named “Literature Review” we have a tendency to are attending to discuss concerning the considerations of the studies that has been done previously and what are the new concepts may be innovate on the bases of previous studies concerning an equivalent.  By together with the study of previous analysis’s we are going to be able to grasp the rationale behind the research topic additional accurately. Thus we are able to do best analysis on this subject and that we can give a suitable result.

Chapter 3

In the third chapter of analysis named “Research Methodology” we have a tendency to are attending to discuss concerning the considerations of the methodology that were utilized in the analysis for analyzing the info collected from the first and secondary sources.  What are positive and negative points, the strategy that we have a tendency to are attending to use in analysis is in a position to supply doable answer or not and also the finish we are going to get finish of the analysis is suitable or not. Thus during this chapter we discover out best methodology for analysis study.

Chapter 4

In the fourth chapter of the analysis study named “Data Analysis and Interpretations” we have a tendency to tend to say the result that generated when analyzing the info. Additionally, these result and findings are discovered by using content analyzing methodology. These findings and result can facilitate in achieving aims and objective of analysis study.

Chapter 5

In the fifth chapter of the analysis study named “Recommendations and Conclusion” have looked on variations with respect to literature review section including during this report. During this chapter we offer doable recommendation for managers, entrepreneurs and researchers for extra studies throughout this regard on the idea of our findings.

Conclusion

First chapter of this analysis paper is Introduction. During this chapter we have a tendency to mention the introduction a part of the analysis and plenty of alternative things that are necessary to mentioned during this chapter just like the organisation background, ration for selecting for topic, analysis queries, aims and objectives of the study etc. Through this chapter we would like to introduce with the analysis and understand the motto of the study that why we have a tendency to do this study and what’s the most reason behind this analysis. This study will facilitate the competitors to know and focus that how the branding helps in creating a picture within the minds of its customers. They will additionally perceive major pitfalls that the marketers can face throughout positioning and presenting their product.

Chapter Two: Literature Review

 

Literature review refers to a description and critical analysis of what other authors have written‘. This chapter aims to review the most relevant and significant research on the chosen topic. Overall, the literature review will

Cover:

  • Key academic theories on consumer buying behaviour;
  • Social media characteristics and typologies;
  • Monitoring of studies measuring impact of social media on consumer buying behaviour.

By critically reviewing the work done by academics in the fields of consumer buying behaviour and social media, the author aims to enhance her subject knowledge and discover any gaps and current trends that have emerged in these areas.

 

2.1 Consumer Buying Behaviour

Understanding buyer behaviour is essential to marketing management. According to Dibb & Simkin (2001), consumer buying behaviour refers to the decision processes and acts of individuals involved in buying and using products for personal and household use ‘and marketers should endeavour to understand consumers ‘decision-making, the influences on this process, and in what way they can manipulate their marketing programmes to reflect these consumer needs and expectations‘(Dibb & Simkin, 2001). Berkman & Gilson (1986), suggest that the field of consumer behaviour explores why people make certain purchasing decisions, what products and services they buy, where they buy them, how they use them, the frequency with which they purchase them, and the consumer decision process in action‘. Consumer buying behaviour is a thoroughly studied and extensively debated research area across many disciplines, including anthropology, sociology, psychology, marketing research and economics. There are a number of theoretical approaches that have had a great influence on thinking about buyer behaviour but most of them have their roots  in one of the three psychological orientations: Freud‘s psychoanalytical theory, reinforcement theory and cognitive theory (Fill, 2006). Cognitive theory is the most popular current approach to understanding individual consumer behaviour (Berkman & Gilson, 1986). According to this theory, individual’s use and process information derived from external and internal sources, to solve problems and make considered decisions. Personality, perception, learning, attitudes and aspects pertinent to the wider environment and each purchase situation are major elements of the problem-solving approach (Fill, 2006)

2.1.1 Consumer Buying Decision Making Process

When consumer takes a call the choice they need uncountable method in their mind and when creating the method the take decision. The behaviour of client and their responses ought to be ascertained for the higher call creating of the patron and better sales potential for the corporate. The reaction of the client are often judged and then, the patron behaviour are often recognized for the higher clarity on consumer behaviour moreover because the market. the patron behaviour are often said as an exchange method that is followed during a chain manner like the purchasers have a necessity that searches the merchandise, the selection is to be created for the merchandise and also the product has been used to fulfil that specified want. The merchandise has been used to meet the necessity of the purchasers, and when once using it ought to be disposed. This chain method is outlined to clarify the choice creating method of the patron that has a vital relation with the whole choice within the organization. The buyer behaviour additionally is additionally said to be as a logical method that return up with the thoughts of consumer and also it embrace the sensation and skill of the purchasers. It conjointly shows the action in consumption method. The opposite issue like external factors and internal factors conjointly have an effect on the choice creating method

Figure 1: show the consumer decision making process

Source: guuui.com

  1. Drawback or would like recognition

According to Solomon (2004), drawback recognition happens whenever the patron sees a major distinction between his or her current state of affairs and a few desired or ideal state‘. Marketers could induce drawback recognition by suggesting that the present state isn’t fascinating or by demonstrating how shoppers will tell whether or not they have the same problem‘(Fill, 2006). H& M Facebook fan page standing may be a sensible example of that:

Don‘t apprehend what to wear for the weekend? Pop in to H&M and prepare for a weekend of fun! What is on your would like a list? (Facebook.com/1 October, 2010).

  1. Data search

Once a haul or a necessity arises, shoppers would like adequate data to satisfy it. data search is that the method by that the patron surveys his or her surroundings for acceptable knowledge to create an inexpensive decision‘(Solomon, 2004).Scholars distinguish between the inner search (the shopper searches his or her memory) and external search (family, friends, reference sources and advertising). The web incorporates a nice influence on repurchase data search. rather than visiting a store to search out a couple of products, shoppers usually tend to travel on-line to search out data on the merchandise they’re considering shopping for (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2009). These electronic sources could embody company websites, social networking websites, comparison sites and plenty of others.

 

2.1.2 Levels of consumer decision making

Not all consumer decision making situations require the same degree of information search. Depending on the degree of effort involved, one can distinguish three specific levels of consumer decision making (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2009):

1) Extensive problem solving

The consumer needs a large amount of information concerning the product, mostly from an external source, to satisfy the evaluative criteria. This level of decision-making is typical for products that are unfamiliar and the levels of perceived risk are quite high.

2) Limited problem solving

The consumer has experience of a product or a brand and information search is largely done internally; very little or no external search is necessary.

3) Reutilized response behaviour

The buyer has experience with the product category and a well-established set of evaluative criteria (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2009). Choices are made automatically with little or no conscious effort (Solomon, 2004). Only internal search is necessary. Low-value items that are frequently purchased fall into this category, such as household goods. As Solomon (2004) notes, Consumers don‘t necessarily engage in rational search process where they carefully identify every alternative before choosing one they prefer‘. In most cases, external search for the majority of products is minimal. However, as Solomon (2004) notes further, when consumers shop for clothing items, they often undertake much external search, which mainly involves seeking the opinions of peers.

  1. Evaluation of alternatives

Following information search, consumers start evaluating potential solutions in order to make the best choice. During this stage they normally use two types of information, according to Schiffman & Kanuk (2009):

(1) The evoked set (a list of product or brand options that are actively considered) from which they plan to make their selection; and 10

(2) The evaluative criteria (the dimensions used to assess each option). As Solomon (2004) notes, criteria on which products differ from one another carry more weight in the decision process than do those where the alternatives are similar.‘

  1. Purchasing decision

Once various options have been evaluated, the buyer may develop a predisposition to make a purchase‘(Fill, 2006). Marketers distinguish between planned purchases and unplanned purchases. Planned purchasing assumes there is an intention to buy (Berkman & Gilson, 1986), whereas unplanned or impulse‘purchasing is more emotionally driven and often occurs in response to stimuli such as the retail environment or promotional messages.

  1. Post-purchase behaviour or evaluation

The final stage of purchasing decision-making process describes whether the purchase meets a consumer‘s expectations and whether he or she is satisfied or dissatisfied. Schiffman & Kanuk (2009) argue that consumers may adopt one of the following

strategies a result of their purchase analyses: They may rationalize the decision as being wise; they may seek advertisements that support their choice and avoid those of competitive brands; they may attempt to persuade friends or neighbours to buy the same brand (and thus confirm their own choice); or they may turn to other satisfied owners for reassurance‘.

It is important to bear in mind that not all purchases pass through all five stages. Depending on the degree of involvement and levels of perceived risks, some of the stages may not feature. In order to tailor a marketing mix programme to appeal to the targeted consumers, it is essential for marketers to understand which stages feature. For the purpose of this project, it will be necessary to look at the role of social media in each stage of the purchase decision making process.

2.1.2 Influences on Consumer Buying Behaviour

According to most scholars (e.g., Constant inides, 2004), consumer purchases are influenced strongly by cultural, social, personal, psychological and other factors largely beyond marketers control.  Dibb & Simkin (2001) admit that psychological factors such as motives, individual perceptions, and attitudes towards what they purchase and how they purchase are especially important. The purchasing process is driven by consumer‘s needs and motivation. Schiffman and Kanuk (2009) define motivation as the driving force within individuals that impels them to action‘. Motivation occurs when a need is aroused that the consumer wishes to satisfy. As Solomon (2004) and Schiffman & Kanuk (2009) argue, this need or motive may be either utilitarian (rational) or hedonistic (emotional). Rationality implies that consumers make their choices based on objective criteria, such as size, or price. Emotional motives imply the 11 selection of goals according to personal subjective criteria (e.g. pride, fear, affection, or status) ‘(Schiffman and Kanuk, 2009). Both, utilitarian and hedonistic motives may be drivers for the purchasing of clothes or apparel.

According to Schiffman and Kanuk (2009), perception is the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world‘.  Attitudes are formed by perception and learning and describe a person‘s consistently favourable or unfavourable evaluations, feelings, and tendencies towards an object or idea‘(Kotler et al, 2005). According to Schiffman & Kanuk (2009), Attitudes relevant to purchase behaviour are formed as a result of direct experience with the product, word-of-mouth information  acquired from others, or exposure to mass media advertising, the Internet and various forms of direct marketing‘. Berkman & Gilson (198) conclude that attitudes and attitude change have the most critical influence on consumer decision making and they can be considered as accurate predictors of actual buying behaviour.

2.2 Social Media

2.2.1 Digital Technologies and Marketing

Digital technologies have dramatically modified the method marketers communicate with shoppers. By using new technologies, marketers will collect and analyze increasingly advanced information on consumers‘shopping for patterns and private characteristics, and quickly analyze and use this info for targeting increasingly smaller and targeted teams of consumers. on-line communication and digital technologies have altered the business setting creating shoppers a lot of powerful and higher informed (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2008). for instance, when checking out a whole or a product, shoppers will check product reviews printed by different customers, or become a part of virtual communities‘ of persons who share the  same interests as they are doing. Communication method between marketers and customers has become increasingly interactive, two-way and instantaneous. Marketers are a lot of powerful as they will

Customize product to higher suit the requirements of the target market, and digital technologies have enabled marketers to trace consumers‘on-line behaviour and therefore gather a lot of info regarding them quickly and simply.

2.2.2 Background of Social Media

Social media (SM) may be a terribly topical analysis space and wide selection of literature assessing completely different aspects of social media has been revealed on-line and offline in tutorial journals, reports and different selling literature. The term social media‘ relates closely to the concept of internet a pair of the term coined by Tim O‘Reilly to mean on-line interactivity and collaboration between users (O‘Reilly, 2005).This  next sections plan to provide an summary of the social media landscape and discuss in nice detail the social media applications with that H&M engages most.

2.2.3 A new phenomenon?

This is one in all the largest misconceptions concerning social media is that it’s a brand new phenomenon‘. students (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010) admit that SM are gift for over 20 years currently. They date back to the Seventies bulletin board services, and also the Usenet to call some. The growing availability of high speed web access additional added to the recognition of the concept, resulting in the creation of social networking sites like MySpace (in 2003) and Facebook (in 2004). As Ryan & Jones (2009) note, what has modified over the recent years is that the  reach and penetration of those social media technologies, their adoption into the everyday lives of a mainstream audience, and also the proliferation of user-generated content and peer-to-peer  interaction that‘s ensuing from it‘.

2.2.4 What social media are and what they’re not there’s no universally accepted definition of SM among students. for instance (Jue et al. 2009) use the terms SM and User Generated Content (UGC) interchangeably. there’s typically confusion between the closely connected ideas of net 2.0 and SM too (Constantinides &Fountain, 2008) or SM and virtual communities (Park & Feinberg, 2010). Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) in all probability clarify best the distinction between the connected ideas of UGC, Web 2.0 and SM. SM  are described as a bunch of internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of net 2.0, which permit the creation and exchange of User Generated Content‖ (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010). nonetheless the foremost comprehensive definition of SM is given by Ryan & Jones (2009), Social media is that the umbrella term for web-based software and services that permit users to return along on-line and exchange, discuss, communicate and participate in any kind of social interaction. That interaction will encompass text, audio, images, video and alternative media, individually or in any combination. It will involve the generation of latest content; the advice of and sharing of existing content; reviewing and rating product, services and brands; discussing the recent topics of the day; pursing hobbies, interests and passions; sharing experience‘, etc.

2.2.5 Why are social media important?

Social media these days became an indispensible part of the promoting combine for firms of any kind. in keeping with Burson- Marsteller‘s February 2010 report “The international Social Media Check-Up” on Fortune international a hundred firms that use selected social media (Verna, 2010), firms across the world have actively embraced the utilization of SM applications, particularly Twitter, Facebook, YouTube and blogs. The Wet paint & Altimeter report (2009) conjointly confirms that there’s very little left to dialogue regarding whether or not or not one ought to participate in social media nearly all firms, massive and tiny, have acknowledged social media‘s presence, and corporations who don’t have a blog, Face book page, or Twitter account currently notice themselves within the scarce minority‘. In 2011, eightieth folks corporations with a hundred or a lot of workers can use social media promoting, as compared to simply forty second in 2008 (Williamson, 2010a). SM give endless opportunities to firms of any trade sector as they permit to have interaction directly with customers, enhancing whole awareness and whole name, to achieve a lot of customers and to eventually increase the chance of procurement.

 

2.2.6 Types of social media

Social media may be a rapidly evolving phenomenon with new applications showing each day. though there’s no formal classification of SM applications, some students have created tries to categorize them. This is admitted that the majority social media websites don‘t s match neatly into one category‘; they need included ten styles of social media into their classification:

Figure 2: type of social media.

  1. Social bookmarking sites

These websites enable users to save‘bookmarks to their favourite websites, categorize them using tags and share them with others.

  1. Social media submission sites (e.g., Digg)

These websites enable users to submit articles also as discuss them and vote on them.

  1. Forums and discussion sites (e.g., Yahoo Groups)

Online forums and discussion teams are websites where anyone will sign on and discuss any topic imaginable.

  1. Review and ratings sites (e.g. Amazon)

These websites enable users to review and rate firms, products, services, books, music, hotels, restaurants, etc.

  1. Podcasts (Apple‘s iTunes)

They represent a series of digital media files (audio or video) distributed over the net which may be accessed via a web site, or downloaded onto a laptop.

  1. Wikis (e.g., Wikipedia)

These are on-line collections of sites that are accessible for anyone to form, edit, discuss, inquire into and contribute to.

  1. Media sharing sites (e.g., YouTube)

Members of those sites will upload, share, inquire into and discuss their pictures or videos.

  1. Social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace, LinkedIn)

Social networking sites (SNS) are designed to attach teams of individuals with shared interests to enable on-line interaction between them. Boyd and Ellison (2008) outline them  as web-based services that enable people to (1) construct a public or semi-public profile at intervals a bounded system, (2) articulate a listing of alternative users with whom they share a affiliation, and (3) read and traverse their list of connections and people created by others at intervals the system‘.

  1. Micro-blogging (e.g., Twitter)

Micro-blogging may be a short-message broadcast service that lets individuals keep their friends‘ up to this point via short text posts, typically but one hundred sixty characters‘.  Kaplan & Haenlein (2010), however, provide a special typology of social media sorts. making their classification, Kaplan & Haenlein tried to require under consideration any SM applications which will arise within the future. in contrast to Ryan & Jones (2009), they apply bound criteria to categorize SM applications into half-dozen teams. the students utilise 2 media analysis theories:  the Social presence theory and Media richness theory.  They distinguish between:

  1. Collaborative comes (e.g., Wikipedia, Delicious) these embrace Wikis and Social bookmarking applications.
  2. Virtual game worlds (e.g., World of Warcraft) in step with Kaplan & Haenlein (2010), these are platforms that replicate a 3 dimensional atmosphere within which users will seem within the sort of personalised avatars and interact with one another as they’d in real life‘.
  3. Virtual social worlds fifteen these are almost like virtual game worlds and permit even larger interactivity between users.
  4. Content communities, SM websites of this sort enable the sharing of media content between users. Media content might embrace text, photos, videos, and PowerPoint shows.
  5. Social networking sites (e.g. Facebook.)
  6. Blogs

2.3 Social media channels used by H&M

For the aim of this study, the subsequent social media websites utilized by the organisation in question H&M ought to be mentioned in bigger detail: YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, Blogs, and LOOKBOOK.nu. 3 of them, namely, YouTube, Facebook and Twitter are particularly vital as they’re on-line communications channels that have the very best reach and rank amongst prime visited websites within the UK and worldwide. Alexa.com (Alexa, 2010) provides an analysis of traffic for any web site primarily based on the typical range of holiday makers per day and therefore the range of page views over the last three months. (The web site with the very best combination of holiday makers and page views is ranked # 1).According to the Hit wise March 2010 report Face book, YouTube and Twitter even have the most important market shares within the UK compared to alternative social media channel.

 

Figure 3: coverage of social sites in UK.

source: marketingland.com

2.3.1 Facebook

Face book is s social networking sites that is founded in 2004 by Mr. Mark Zuckerberg and this was initially used as the network for the Harvard university, and it was open for the public in 2006. At this time Facebook has the more than 500 million users in the whole world. According to a report this is reported that in the US Facebook undertaken the Google in the term of popularity. And this site is second in the world after the Google and it includes the UK. Most of the social networking sites are so much popular and these can be best understood by the Facebook. We can find the popularity of the face at everywhere and this fact is also very well known for the other that most of the social networking sites are used by the most of the public for the personal use and take the advantages of it in the personal life. Like this the company and organisations are also take the advantages if this type of the sites in the field of marketing and get the popularity in the market and it covers the whole world. These things make the communication process easier and these things happen on the large scale. Most of the companies are using this type of the sits for making the popularity in the market. Facebook is one of the best and famous social networking sites in the whole world. In this site this is found that all age of people are taking the interest in it and making the profile to get connected with their relatives and making the friends and updated with the available friend. In a survey this is found that most of female that are below 35 age are more likely interact with their favourite brand on the social networking sites and they know about that brand through the sites only. Most of the people follow their favourite person and place or event on the social networking sites. Facebook offer the flexible way to advertisement of a products. And there are so many options on the Facebook that can be used for the advertisements. Some of the firms are used it is the distribution channel for their products.  H&M make the first Facebook page in 2006 and the reason behind this there was a contest and want the invites the fans and customers to t shirt design. And now he followers and the users of this page are increasing rapidly in 2010, 4,233,994 followers are having with this company on the Facebook page and after some time this figure get increase by so many users and followers.

2.3.2 YouTube

You tube is one of another social networking sites that is popular for the movies and the video sharing. Youtube was founded in February 2005, and this can be used as the medial sharing centre for the general public and the institutions and the organisations. This is higher popular for the digital media in the market. It serves the 100 million videos per day in the market or for the users of it. . And there are so many options on you tube that can be used for the advertisements. Many of the firms and social sites and the organisation used it as the advertising tools in the market. Anexa global rating you tube on the number 3 and rank 4 in UK. HM used it in the 2007 as a channel for the advertisements of their products in the market.

2.3.3 Twitter

Twitter was one of other social networking sites that is founded in 2007, it is micro blogging application or in other words we can say that this is one of the blog publication networks for the people. This provides the real time information if you are connected with this network through online connection. This more focuses on the short message service that is called the T tweet, in this tweet we can tell the story any things that is in our mind and want to said that things in the public or in the followers. Tweet or you can think of a Tweet as the headline, and use the details pane to tell the rest with photos, videos and other media content‘(Twitter, 2010). According to the Twitter website (Twitter, 2010), as of September 14, 2010, Twitter had 175 million registered users and 95 million tweets were written per day. Despite its phenomenal growth Twitter resolutely resisted taking advertising until mid-April 2010, when the company launched a promoted tweets‘product, whereby branded messages will appear in users‘message feeds. Twitter is the 10 The most visited website in the world and the thin the UK, (Alexa, 2010). Twitter is increasingly used by businesses to share real-time information with consumers 18 interested in their products and services (e.g., Dell, BBC, and British Airways). Twitter can also help to gather market intelligence and feedback, and to build relationships (Giles & Pitta, 2009). Moreover, Twitter may help to generate traffic to company website thus increasing the likelihood of a purchase. Although the audience of Twitter is far smaller than that of Facebook, it is presently one of the most rapidly evolving SM applications for businesses. In the US alone, the number of Twitter users is expected to reach 36 million in 2012, doubling the 2009 figure of 18 million (Verna, 2010). H&M has multiple Twitter accounts: the UK Twitter account (www.twitter.com/hmunitedkingdom), the Global account @hm (www.twitter.com/hm) and regional accounts for other countries. As of 9 December 2010, HM Global Twitter account had 78,915 followers, while the UK account only had 8, 654.

Figure 4: top social networking sites.

 

2.3.4 Blogs

The blog is that the earliest type of social media. It is outlined as: „an on-line area often updated presenting the opinions or activities of 1 or a bunch of people and displaying in chronological order‟. The prevalent type of blogs is text-based blogs. they’re written by one person and in initial person with short, informal entries, and therefore the result is that of a diary or a series of open letters. different users will touch upon the entries. in step with Buss & Strauss (2009), The intention of a blog is completely different from that of an internet community. it’s not designed for direct interaction among the guests or for the formation of relationships among them‘. Blogs are widely utilized by world leading organisations, like Sun Microsystems and General Motors. the employment of blogs provides a chance to have interaction higher with customers. Not solely do they provide customers a private insight into the whole and company developments however also offer opinions and update customers on the business news and events. H&M don’t have their own blog however they, however, feature daily on numerous blog posts dedicated to fashion, e.g., www.00o00.blogspot.com, www.hopehope.ch and many others.

2.3.5 LOOKBOOK.nu

This social media channel will be stated as either a content community or a media sharing web site (Ryan and Jones, 2009). LOOKBOOK.nu may be a comparatively recent web site dedicated to fashion established by Yuri Lee in San Francisco, USA in 2008. the aim of the web site is to collect folks from round the world curious about fashion and to showcase the most effective in international street fashion‘(LOOKBOOK.nu, 2010). consistent with the design BOOK.nu‘s Facebook page, LOOKBOOK.nu counts two hundred, 000 members and a worldwide readership of over 3.5 million distinctive guests per month. Members of LOOKBOOK.nu post their street-fashion photos that includes themselves and their outfits and additionally vote for or inquire into the photos of different users, or become their fans. The concept of look‘may be a user-submitted photograph that displays the user’s outfit, and, if he or she chooses, an outline of what they are carrying and where they got it ‘(LOOKBOOK.nu, 2010). the location has been known as the Digg.com for fashion insiders‘ (Oshiro, 2009) and options virtually any high-street fashion and clothing whole, as well as H&M, Zara, Gap, yank attire and lots of others.

2.4 The Impact of Social Media on Consumer Buying Behaviour

Most researchers agree that social media influence consumer purchase decisions. Some researchers have established a correlation between an organisation‘s financial performance and the engagement with social media. A study conducted by Wet paint and Altimeter Group (Wet paint & Altimeter, 2009) has found that organisations who invest more efforts in SM are seeing greater growth than their competitors. The report  examines the best practices of the use of social media by 100 best global brands (the Inter brand rating). The main criterion used for the evaluation of marketing efforts across all channels is engagement‘. Engagement with social media means interaction with consumers, the instigation of discussions, and providing timely responses. Wet paint and Altimeter (2009) grouped global brands into four engagement profiles according to the number of SM channels used  and levels of engagement with them. H&M was classified as belonging to the retail industry and, in terms of using social media channels, was labelled a selective with a very strong presence in just a few channels focused on engaging customers deeply when and where it matters most (Wet paint & Altimeter, 2009).

H&M is said to have seen some revenue growth due to their selective‘ engagement with social media, according to that study. Another attempt at quantifying the impact of social media marketing is Razor fish Social Influence Marketing Report (Singh, 2009). Razor fish tracked over 2 million conversations online about the auto industry and discovered that Ford had the largest share of voice because of its deep participation in Twitter and other social media outlets, but Honda had a more positive sentiment‘ (Williamson, 2009). Both, the study by Altimeter and Wet paint and that by Razor fish conclude that the stronger a brand‘s social media presence, the better the brand performed whether measured in conversations or in financial performance.

Another study  “Engaging consumers online: The impact of Social Media on Purchasing Behaviour” conducted by DEI Worldwide and OTX (Online testing exchange) in the US in 2008 explores consumers‘ relationships with social media websites, investigates the impact of online word-of-mouth on their purchase decisions and looks at consumers‘ perceptions of information coming directly from a brand representative online (DEI Worldwide, 2008). The social media websites under investigation include blogs, chat rooms, instant messengers, message boards/ forums, video sharing websites, social networking websites (DEI Worldwide, 2008). According to DEI Worldwide (2008), social media are a popular information source for consumers – seven out of ten consumers visited social media websites to get information about a product, a company, or a brand; and about 49% of them made a purchase decision based on what they found.

Although the study by DEI Worldwide is of great value for this research project as it highlights the importance of social media for consumer decision making at the stage of information search, there are certain limitations. For instance, social media websites under investigation exclude Twitter and similarly to the study by Wet paint & Altimeter, the importance of individual social media channels is not specified. Moreover, the study does not cover the clothing and apparel industry. The questionnaire evolved around online information search for parenting, food & beverage, personal care & beauty, automotive, entertainment, and electronics/ telecom products only (DEI Worldwide, 2008). It was also conducted in a different geographical area (the US) and  consumer use of social media channels is not identical in the US and in the UK (according to Alexa.com), which may signify that the results of this work may not necessarily hold true for the UK market. Riegner (2007) discusses the growth of user generated content (UGC) and the influence of UGC sources on purchase decisions. While the terms Social Media, Web 2.0 and UGC are used interchangeably in the article (User-generated source is defined as a blog, rating/review site, forum, discussion board, and/or social networking site, the scholar examines the influence of UGC on purchase decisions, across various product categories. Riegner (2007) does not deny that social media influences consumer buying behaviour.

She argues that ―While consumers find emotional and practical benefits in participating in online discussions, these conversations have profound commercial implications as well‖. However, according to Riegner, UGC is more likely to have an impact on purchases of high-involvement items that are more complex and more expensive, such as technology and consumer electronics, and less likely to influence low-involvement products or products that buyers want to try-on, such as apparel and clothing (Riegner, 2007). 58% of purchases of retail products such as clothing, appliances, and furniture are said to be influenced by the internet as a whole,  whereas ‗only 8 percent of purchases in this category are influenced by UGC‘. Riegner (2007) also investigated the impact of different  UGC Sources on consumer purchasing. According to her study, the biggest influence on consumer purchasing is due to consumer reviews/ratings sites  (5%), followed by blogs/discussion boards  (3%), instant messaging/chat rooms 2% and Social networking sites (1%) (Riegner, 2007)The work by Riegner is of significant value to the present research project as she confirms that UGC has an impact on consumer buying, however, according to her, this impact is not big. The work also important for the current dissertation project as it assesses at the value of different UGC sources as influencers on consumer purchasing.  However, as the scholar confuses terminology, it is not clear whether the findings for User Generated Content sites will hold true for all the social media sites under investigation. The studies above run counter to the studies of marketing executives such as the Social Media Marketing and PR: Benchmarks and Best Practices” survey conducted by Marketing Sherpa in December 2008 (Marketing Sherpa, 2008). The findings revealed that although social media turned out very effective at influencing brand reputation and brand awareness (92% and 91% of respondents respectively admitted that), it was believed to be far less effective for increasing online sales. Having a company profile or brand profile on a social network was said to be one of the least effective and least accurately measured social media tactics. The study also suggests that online direct marketing activities such as e-mail and paid search should be complementary to social media marketing while direct mail and print ads should not.

2.5 Conclusion

In this chapter the literature related to social media and consumer buying behaviour has been reviewed across over 50 sources. The volume of published marketing literature suggests that the areas of consumer behaviour and social media are very topical and highly debatable. The consumer buying behaviour has been thoroughly explained detailing consumer decision making process and internal influences on it, including attitudes and consumer involvement. Although academic literature on consumer buying behaviour is vast and abounds in theoretical frameworks they, however, do not always take into account the technological developments and the phenomena of Web 2.0., namely social media. As Fotis (2010) argues,  social media introduced a new, complex and uncontrollable element in consumer behaviour presenting a new challenge both to the academia and the marketers‘. The literature review reveals that there is no clear definition or classification of social media. There has been sufficient research done on social media websites, online communities and Web 2.0 applications however due to rapid evolvement of these websites, literature becomes outdated very quickly. Having monitored research into the relationship between social media and consumer buying behaviour, one can come to the conclusion that the majority of scholars agree that social media have certain impact on consumer buying. Although a number of studies attempt to identify the role of social media and measure their impact on consumer buying, most of them are focusing on one specific stage of the decision making process, and on different types of media than those employed by H&M, or a different industry. There is also no evidence of social media usage patterns in relation to clothing/footwear brands or  whether social media form attitudes of consumers towards clothing and footwear brands. Moreover, most of the academic literature is dedicated to the US market and there are no findings as to how social media websites may influence purchasing behaviour of UK consumers. Besides, the literature reviewed on the impact of social media on consumer buying behaviour only discusses overall value of social media on consumer buying without specifying the importance of separate social media channels. Addressing these gaps, the proposed research will attempt to explore the role and impact of social media  on UK consumers attitudes towards clothing/footwear brands, will investigate the overall influence of social media  on consumer buying behaviour covering the pre- and post-purchase stages, and will try to identify the most important social media channel in consumer purchasing decisions. In the next chapter, the research methodology will be defined and justified.

 

Chapter 3. Research methodology

3.1 Introduction

Research methodology is that the methodology of conducting a groundwork on a given topic so a researcher will realize the answer for that. this is often one amongst the necessary elements of the analysis study within which we tend to told concerning the conducting method of the analysis for the readers and conjointly for the researcher. during this chapter we tend to includes the all the points that are associated with the chapter like, analysis strategy, analysis approaches, knowledge assortment technique, analysis style, moral issue reliability of information and also the sources of information etc. the target of this chapter is to convey a final presentation of the analysis so all the information are often utilized in the proper kind for the analysis. analysis is sequential method of describing of given topic (Barney J,2010). analysis uses the precise technique of the study and analyzes it with that study. analysis are often a way to a finish, or a finish in itself. this is a crucial a part of within the analysis paper. This justify that how the information of collected and the way it analyzed and interpreted. during this analysis we tend to use a descriptive form of the analysis approach which is employed with the explanatory analysis style. during this analysis all the activities of the analysis are described during this paper and uses the various methods. during this chapter we tend to essentially describe concerning the gathering of the information and understanding the qualitative and quantitative analysis (King A. S.2007). The sampling technique and also the different things are the most a part of the analysis. this is often the introduction a part of the analysis and it’s followed by the other points of the analysis methodology like inductive and deductive analysis ways.

3.2 Research Approach

According to Saunders et al (2009), there are 2 principal analysis approaches that may be applied to a groundwork dissertation project – the deductive and also the inductive approaches. the previous involves the event of theory or hypotheses which is able to be tested by the info collected. The inductive approach, on the contrary, assumes that knowledge ought to be collected 1st and then theory are going to be developed. thanks to a wealth of literature on the subject of client shopping for behaviour and social media from that one will outline theoretical frameworks and additionally thanks to the time accessible, the deductive approach has been chosen. one more reason for selecting this analysis approach is its cooperation with quantitative analysis ways that make sure the validity of the info and also the statistical significance of the results which may be generalised.

 

3.3 Research design

According to Saunders et al (2009), there are 2 principal analysis approaches that may be applied to a groundwork dissertation project – the deductive and also the inductive approaches. the previous involves the event of theory or hypotheses which is able to be tested by the info collected. The inductive approach, on the contrary, assumes that knowledge ought to be collected 1st and then theory are going to be developed. thanks to a wealth of literature on the subject of client shopping for behaviour and social media from that one will outline theoretical frameworks and additionally thanks to the time accessible, the deductive approach has been chosen. one more reason for selecting this analysis approach is its cooperation with quantitative analysis ways that make sure the validity of the info and also the statistical significance of the results which may be generalised.

 

3.4Inductive v/s deductive Research Method

Research methods are being widely divided in two different methods as the deductive and inductive research approach. Deductive research approach is the one being related to the association with the paradigm of positivism while the inductive research approach is being associated with the paradigm of interpretive (John W. Creswell, 2007). Both the approaches are such that they are essentially supported by the choice of the appropriate research approach.

 

Figure 5: Deductive v/s Inductive Research Approach

Source: socialresearchmethods.net

Deductive research approach is the study of research that allows the researcher to establish the hypothesis by the use of theory (McDaniel, C. and Gates, R. 2005).. To make a confirmation towards the hypothesis, variety of data and information is collected by the researcher that finally decides whether the hypothesis shall be done or not. This research concept is based on the general idea and finally leads to the specific situation which is thereby linked to the archetype of positivism (Jerome L Myers, 2010). Within this form of research the researcher has to develop certain research issues that are specific in nature and thus being related to the development of the human resources within the organization. This is also considered as the top down approach to the research, where the researchers basically proceed from the general criteria to the specific criteria.

Inductive analysis approach is that the study of the versatile quite the analysis approach that is totally opposite to the deductive analysis approach. This approach is additional explanatory and conjointly the open ended approach. As per the sequential procedure inductive approach initiates with the observation, pattern, tentative hypothesis and therefore the theory. Inductive approach doesn’t need the necessity of pre determined theory as each collecting knowledge and knowledge. among this method the analysis moves towards the finding of the tentative hypothesis with the observation of the information and facts on the premise of the research drawback (John W. Creswell, 2007). And this may definitely facilitate the researcher to present the inductive arguments. Even they supply the researcher to create the subjective quite reasoning that’s initially supported by several real life examples.

3.5  Qualitative and Quantitative Research Approach

On a higher understanding level the qualitative research is inductive and consists of the role as the generating theory for the research purpose and the quantitative research approaches is deductive and thus consist of the role as the testing of theory. They even discussed the ontological orientation with the objectivism being preferred by the quantitative form of research and constructionist followed by the qualitative form of research. Apart this researcher can also discuss the epistemological orientation with the natural science model as in the quantitative research methodology and inter prevents in the qualitative form of research (Barney J,2010). These research approaches are very important while conducting a research on a topic, because these provide the  approaches to the research. Qualitative research approach is more focusing on the quality of the research and it try to maintain the well quality of the research. Another technique that is quantitative research approach is more focusing on the quantity of the research means research should have the proper quantity and have the enough material to analyze the data for the research so that it can be beneficial for the research.

3.6  Research strategies:

 

Research strategies are the min strategies that are made of the research and how that work is depending on the nature of the research. These strategies give the proper guidance and feedback for the research that how a research should be conducted. Research strategies are likely guidelines for the research and these are the direction for the data interpretation and collections.   There are so many research strategies like experiment, survey, case study, ethnography, grounded theory  and the action research. Research methodology has explained the qualitative and quantitative research approach. In this research we use both the data collection method that is the primary and the secondary data collection of the research. In the analyses of the primary data collection we used the survey method to analyses the data in this we includes the questionnaire method and focus group discussion , interview method, meetings and many others way of this data collection (King A. S.2007). And for the secondary research we used the both the data that is published and the non published data is used for the research, the published data is the authenticated data and it is use for making the research on this paper. In the secondary data there are two different broader type of the source including the published and the unpublished source. In the published source we can say that the data of the census is the published data that is published by the central statistic organization, budget, five years plans and balance sheets etc (McDaniel, C. and Gates, R. 2005). All the things come in the published source of the data. The unpublished data is not an authenticated data and this cannot be used for making the result because it can produce the destructive results.

 

3.7  Primary and secondary data

Primary data:

Primary data is the data that is firstly is used by researcher itself and that is new for us , nobody used that data before us. In the other word we can say that this is the raw data that is collected by the researcher from the respondents by using the so many data collection technique (Jerome L Myers, 2010). In the primary data collection we used the survey method to analyses the data in this we includes the questionnaire method and focus group discussion , interview method, meetings and many others way of this data collection. This type of the data is firstly collected by us and also used firstly by us. This data is called as primary data because it is primarily collected by the research rather than any other person in this world that’s why this data is known as primary data of the research.

Secondary data:

Secondary data is just opposite of primary data, this is the data that is already available for us in the different source of the data of secondary source. This is the data that is already collected by the another person and that is available on the website, books journals and it may be on magazines, and if we use that data for our research purpose then this data is secondary for our research (John W. Creswell, 2007). In the secondary data collection we used the both the data that is published and the non published data is used for the research, the published data is the authenticated data and it is use for making the research on this paper.

3.8 Methods for primary data collection

 

In primary source of data collection there are so many methods that are used to collect the data from the market. This method is used to take interview the respondents directly. So that they can give the real things of the market and we can understand the deep of market trend and consumer behaviour (McDaniel, C. and Gates, R. 2005). Hear we chose the questionnaire method among the different data collection methods method. In the primary data collection we used the survey method to analyses the data in this we includes the questionnaire method and focus group discussion , interview method, meetings and many others way of this data collection (Barney J,2010). In this questionnaire I covered all type of question related to marketing and innovative strategy of ASDA stores ltd. In this questionnaire there is a series of question which covers the all type of customer preferences related to the marketing, fashion. This gives the deep understanding about the people. In primary research method we collect the data directly from the market and respondent

3.9  Methods for secondary data collection

 

The method of collecting the secondary data for the research, there are so many data collection method that are used to collect the secondary dat. In the secondary data there are two different broader type of the source including the published and the unpublished source. In the published source we can say that the data of the census is the published data that is published by the central statistic organization, budget, five years plans and balance sheets etc (King A. S.2007). All the things come in the published source of the data. The unpublished data is not an authenticated data and this cannot be used for making the result because it can produce the destructive results.

3.10       Sampling technique

 

The sampling frame for the study was chosen in accordance to the research objectives and taking into consideration the time and budget constraints. It comprised users of at least one of the social media channels employed by H&M  – Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, Blogs or LOOKBOOK.nu  – who had purchased any clothing, footwear or accessories over the six months‘ period preceding the research. Non-probability sampling technique (self-selection sampling) was used in the form of posting a hyperlink to the survey in the author‘s Facebook status and sending out Facebook messages of invitation to colleagues and friends.

Sampling technique is the term which means for a large amount of the elements of the population or other things we sued the small numbers of the elements and according to that data we used it for a large number of the data and find the result for the large amount of the elements. In the data collection according to the sample, it may be wrong ratio and our research result may be diverted to the wrong side. This is happen due to of the wrong sample size and there may be any biasness in the data collection of designing the samples. The deciding the sampling for the data collection, there are two type of the sampling technique are used. The sampling technique is probability and non probability sampling technique (John W. Creswell, 2007). In the probability sampling we involve the random sampling, systematic random sampling, stratified random sampling and the cluster random sampling. And in non probability sampling we involve the convenience sampling, judgment sampling, quota sampling and the snowball sampling. In the random sampling the sample is chosen at the randomly and the chances of choosing are the equal to non zero chance (McDaniel, C. and Gates, R. 2005). There are so many factors that are considering while designing the sample for the research. These are depend on the nature of the research, objective of the research, sources, time limit and the fund for the research.

Types of sampling technique

Sampling technique is classified into two parts probability sampling and non probability sampling.

  1. Probability sampling

Probability sampling is a scientific technique of drawing samples from the population with the chance, according to which each unit in the population has the probability of being selected as the sample. It provides the equal probability of being chosen from the sample population. Probability sampling is further divided as simple random sampling, stratified sampling, systematic sampling, cluster sampling, and area sampling (King A. S.2007). Particularly in simple random sampling, each element in the population has a known and equal probability of selection. Systematic sampling is the criteria of choosing the random sample starting from any point and the choosing the next nth point for sampling. Stratified sampling refers that population is divided in two strata; its major objective is to increase precision without increasing cost. And heterogeneous population is further divided into homogenous strata from where the samples are chosen this states the cluster sampling. Probability sampling is divided into two main categories as:

 

  1. Non-probability sampling

Non-probability sampling represents the selection of units from the population on the basis of certain criteria. This is the done according to the sample and it was chosen on the basis of subjective judgment of the researcher (Jerome L Myers, 2010). Various different kinds of non probability samples are convenience sampling, judgment sampling, quota sampling and snowball sampling. This type of sampling is inferior in nature as compared to the probability sampling.

3.11         Research Ethics

Throughout the research process, a researcher needs to consider a number of ethical issues that might arise. Generally speaking, research ethics refers to the behaviour of the researcher in relation to the rights of respondents. According to Saunders et al(2009), research ethics relates to how we formulate and clarify our research topic, design our research and gain access, collect data, process and store our data, analyse data and write up our research findings in a moral and responsible way‘. While collecting primary data, the researcher explained the purpose of the study and the nature of the research procedure to the participants in the  invitation letter. The respondents were also informed that their participation in the survey  was voluntary and that they  had the right to withdraw at any time. The researcher ensured the strictest confidentiality and anonymity of all responses and the research did not cause embarrassment, discomfort, stress, harm or any other negative consequences to the research population. By undertaking the procedures described above, the author hopes  she  had ensured that ethical practices  were maintained throughout the research. To sum up, this chapter formulated and justified the research design of this dissertation. The author adopted the deductive approach and the survey strategy. Data collection methods include primary and secondary data. Sources of secondary data include academic literature, reports and peer reviewed academic journal articles. Primary  (quantitative)  data collection method is a web-based questionnaire.

 

Limitation of research

When we talk about the anything, it may be anything but the limitations are also attached with that like in this research there are some limitations with the research method and also with whole research.

So some of the limitations of this study are given hear.

  • In this research, only the primary and secondary method is used for collection of the data and according to these methods’ the information is collected is not be 100 % correct, and it some limitations up to some extension.
  • Research can provide the facts and figures but it cannot provide the results always to be believed.
  • When we collect the data from the primary sources it means it require more time to collect the data. And when we collect the data from the secondary sources that means it arises question on the reliability and validity of the data.
  • Like all these above mentioned limitations of research, there are some other limitations are connected with the method of the data analysis, content analysis method have some disadvantages, it may be due to of theoretical, and most of the time it is not able to reply the answer of why.
  • Due to less time, the numbers of the respondents which are participated in data collection process are less in numbers. If the more respondents participated in this research the reliability of result is increase

3.12       Reliability

It is a tool used for evaluating the measurement. This tool helps us to know as that although data collected are secondary may not always be reliable and consist of some error. While the research is done using primary data where it is considered that the error may be negligible but the human error may lead to variation in the research being and the results being concluded. The researcher may use the two dimensions; one is repeatability and internal consistency to measure the reliability. Reliability is a criterion for providing strength to our research both in terms of data presented after collection and the results interpreted and concluded.

3.13       Validity

It is the ability of the scale or the measuring instrument to measure what it is intended to measure. This measurement checks the validity of the research being carried out. There may be many reasons which may deviate the validity, as the research is based on the questionnaire method the respondents may show inability to understand the scale thus chosen or may avoid the questions which consist of terminology not being able to be understood by the respondents. Validity observes the results if the respondents chosen as the sample may not directly fit to answer the perception.

3.14       Conclusion

The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce the concepts of research with the aim and objective of the research to be carried out. The research design is discussing about the design chosen for the satisfying the concept of research. Various types of the research are being studied as this research uses the descriptive format of research with the under heading of conclusive research. Here we opt the sampling technique were the data are chosen by the either the probability sampling or non probability sampling, while in this research study we have chosen probability sampling as the technique where the questionnaires are being filled by the population chosen as the sample. The sampling data is obtained from the questionnaires method, which gives us the response of the sample population undergoing the selection. And at the final stage the analysis of the data is done by inspecting, monitoring, analyzing and interpreting the data. The proceeding further chapter explains the findings, their analysis and the interpretation with the satisfactory conclusion.

 

Chapter 4. Data analyses and Discussion

This analysis indicates that in the analysis states that the questionnaire is to be conducted in the analysis and this helps the researcher to perceive the higher perception of the client and conjointly to grasp how the branding makes a result in changing the out read of the client towards the product or service. The researcher states that the analysis states that the marketer shall target the consumer’s perception and the way the branding affects the merchandise and therefore the services offered by the corporate.

The researcher targets the purchasers of various geographic, demographics, psychographics, and therefore the social behaviour. however the researcher shall target the geographic of the purchasers because it varies as a result of the style and therefore the preference of the customers could amendment in line with the setting, climate, and therefore the space of the living. Then the demographics of the customers conjointly vary because the age, life style, family size, family standing varies and therefore the customers accepts the merchandise in line with these appropriate factors. several of the purchasers likes to like solely branded product. Hence to such customers the income level, standing plays a serious role to be understood. because the income level and therefore the family life cycle changes with the customer’s desires and therefore the society they live in. even the psychographics play a serious role because the desires of the purchasers varies and therefore the this can be mainly full of the perspective of the person, social standing of the person within which he lives in. the person conjointly changes his decisions and therefore the moves from non branded merchandise to the branded merchandise as this helps him to age his image and perspective within the society (Burt S. and Davies K., 2010). The questionnaire could encompass the queries just like the availability of the branded stores within the town and the way a lot of the customer’s a bit like to like branded merchandise. This question reveals that the branded merchandise are a lot of most popular by the purchasers who belong to the high category or the trend of accepting branded product is at the high pace within the youth or the younger generation because the young generation feels themselves comfy amongst the cluster whereas preferring the branded merchandise (Dawson and Catherine 2002).

Even the purchasers are often asked for the response of the branded merchandise within the stores they visit. thanks to the few persons belonging the cluster of high income category the bulk of the stores avoids keeping brandied merchandise in their stores as these quite the merchandise are simply most popular by around V-day of the individuals. Hence to simply accept this case the shop keepers got to regulate themselves and their revenues because the huge quantity of the population visiting the shop are belonging to the conventional category who cannot afford the high income branded merchandise. Hence the shop persons hesitate to amass such merchandise.

The analyses and therefore the interpretation half in additional necessary than the opposite a part of the analysis and during this section we’ll notice and analyze the matter and therefore the resolution of the project. During this analysis we’ll mentioned regarding the selling strategy of the H&M. And recognize the selling processes of the auto company. The information is collected through the numerous secondary resources and check out to search out the most effective selling strategy of the corporate. After survey and information assortment the foremost half is to research the information, as a result of if gathered information isn’t collected there’s no use of this raw data. All the goals and objectives of this analysis paper relied on information analysis (Kerkorian, and Wiener, 1995). This chapter is extremely necessary and at an equivalent time this half is important conjointly as a result of a while it happen that the result of report isn’t correct as a result of the tool and techniques used for information analysis don’t seem to be correct and it results in miss direction. as a result of assortment half is completed with the assistance of quantitative and qualitative information in order that there ought to be 2 totally different techniques used for data analysis and therefore the combination of each is that the output of this analysis paper (Simmons M., 2007). Survey a part of this analysis paper is completed with the assistance of net and information assortment is additionally done with the assistance of internet in order that for information analysis of this quantitative information on-line software will used and this is often terribly helpful as a result of it save time, cash and therefore the accuracy level is additionally terribly high. Analysis technique is style when the choice of knowledge analysis techniques. Descriptive information is collected for this analysis paper and for descriptive information analysis framework analysis are used (Kucukemiroglu O., 1997). This chapter presents the analysis and discussion of the fieldwork results obtained from the responses to the online questionnaires as they affect each of the five research questions. It also contains verbatim quotes from the respondents.

4.1 Screening and profiling of  the respondents

The link to the online questionnaire was sent to 100 Face book friends‘ of the author all based in the UK. The survey sample included 49 respondents. 100% of those who attempted to complete the questionnaire online used at least one of the social media channels employed by H&M, however 13.3% screened out as they had not purchased any clothes, footwear or accessories during the six months preceding the survey. The questionnaire was completed by 49 people out of 100 (49% response rate).

Gender

Gender is the things which decide that how much people are including in the research and what is the ratio of their gender in the research. In this research we includes both the gender means male and female both are included in the research. And is the philosophy of the researcher male and female both will provides the best data for the research that’s why this is very important to take the both gender in the research. And it is one of the noticeable things in the research and them respondent differently on every different stage. In this research we have includes both the genders and the ration and the sample size is feasible in this research. The ratio of both the genders is equal in this research. We have take 50 male and 50 female respondents  in this research.

 

chart 1: No. of male and female in sample size

 

The next question of the research is related to the satisfaction level of the respondents with the research topic and the response about their satisfaction level of the topic. When we go through the graph at that time we found that  40 male and 40 female respondents are satisfy with the research topic and 7 male and 8 female respondents are neutral about the research topic means they don’t want to make any comment on the topic. And some respondents like 3 male and 2 female respondents are seemed to be unsatisfied with the respondents.

 

chart 2: Graph of satisfaction level of the respondent from the research topic.

These entire charts chart are the making for the general information and these are the very important for the research provides the information about the research and find information about the respondents of the employee. Ali these things are very essential to discussed in the research and makes it easy to understand, these provides the direction for the research.

  1. How much percentage of your total monthly income you spend H & M apparel only?
  2. 10 Percent
  3. 20 Percent
  4. 30 Percent
  5. 40 Percent and above

 

In this question we are trying to know the purchasing power of the respondents on the monthly basis on the apparels. Through this question we are able to know the ratio of the spending on the branded clothes(H&M) and how they feel after getting these cloths and this question will tell us the perception of the respondents towards the retail industry and the apparels of the branded company. The response of the respondents is presented in the term of the graphical representation and this is given below.

 

 

chart 3Percentage of spending in apparels

 

Now come on the interpretation of the graph which provides by the respondents regarding the expenditure on the apparels from their monthly expenses. In this research we take the 100 respondents and they reply for this question in the form of the following answer like most of the respondents are say that they spend the 20 percent of their monthly income they spend on the appeals and the wearing clothes. And 30 respondents out of 100 said that they spend the 30 percent of salary amount the y spend on the cloths. And only five respondents say that they spend the 40 percent amount of the salary on the  apparel, and they also said that they like shopping every day and that’s why the perches these lots of the things. So the interpretation of the result says that most of the people spend the 20 percent of the amount of their salary on their apparels. And this is very important to know these things that’s why this question is very important to put in the questionnaire.  The next  question of the research  is given below.

 

  1. How much you involve in the online shopping and social networking sites?
  2. Highly
  3. Moderate
  4. Rare
  5. Don’t mind it

 

Next question of the research is given above and this question is also very important to involve it in the questionnaire because this question will tell us about the involvement of the respondents in the branded things and online shopping and how they maintain it for forever. In this question respondents replies their answer in the form of the highly involve, moderate or in the form of rare involvement in the branded products. The respondents will tell that they like this or not in the form of the company products. The response of the respondents is represent in the form of the graphical representation. Which is given below?

 

chart 4: Involvement in the social sites

Now come on the interpretation part of this response, while we go through the graphical representation of this response we find that most of the respondents are moderate in the field of the branded things in their daily life. Out of the 100 respondents 64 respondents gave their vote in the favour of the moderate option and it is the answer for this question. And 14 respondents said that they are highly involved in the branded apparels. And only 4 people said that they don’t mind the branded things that they wearing the braded things or not in their regular life. In this response both the respondents are male because female never don’t mind the fashion in their personal life they always want to be in the fashion. And not even a single female respondents vote for this option.  And only one female respondent said that she rarely matter this in the mind that she should be in the fashion. At last the result say that most of the people are moderate nature with the branded things and they use these things in their regular life.

 

 

  1. Which brand of the retail industry they preferred mostly in the term of the fashion apparels’?
  2. Burton
  3. H&M,
  4. Mark & Spencer
  5. Scott,
  6. Any other

 

Now come on the question no. third of the research questionnaire and this question is about the preference of the respondents regarding the retail branded company in their personal life useable products. By putting this question in the research sample we are able to know the brands that are most preferred by the respondents. In this question I put the four top brands of the retail industry name Burton, H&M, Scott and mark and Spencer obviously. So using these brand we can get the information about the organisation which is it the research that how much people and on which step they put the H&M in their personal life. They like it or not as branded products. The response of the respondents is given below in the form of the graphical representation.

 

chart 5: Likeliness of brand in the apparels

Now come on the interpretation part of this question and find the best way of interpolate it. When we watch this part in the form of the data provider for the question which is related to the respondent favourite brand for the apparel industry. In this graph we find that out of the 100 respondents 30 respondents said that they most like the H&M as a preference one and then they put the Mark and Spencer as a second preference for the fashionable products. For this option 15 respondents vote their preference toward the third option of the question. And 8 respondents go for the Burton which is also a famous brand in the field of the apparel industry. And remaining 3 respondents like another brand which is not mentioned hear. So in this graph we find that most of the people like the Scott as favourite one and then they vote for the Mark and Spencer with the 30 % of the vote. Means by analysing this graph we conclude that it is not one of the favourite brand of the respondents. And people like some other brand for maintaining the brand level of their personal life.

 

  1. Why do you like to use the online shopping ? Is it part of
    • fashion,
    • tradition,
    • Identity or social norm?

 

Now let’s come on the question no. 4 and try to find the reason behind wearing the branded clothes and the apparels. In this question we will ask the respondents to wearing the branded clothes that why they wear the branded clothes in their daily life or not. If they wear the branded cloths than what is the reason behind this. The reason may be fashionable environment, traditions and it may also be the identity or the social norms. So asking this question we are able to know the reason behind the accepting the fashionable products. So that we can make an analyses of the response and can make the result of the question and this result will help to make a final result of the dissertation to the readers. The response of the respondents is given below in the form of the graphical representation.

 

chart 6Requirement of online shopping

Now come on the interpretation part of this question and find the best way of interpolate it. When we watch this part in the form of the data provider for the question which is related to the respondent favourite brand for the apparel industry and why they use this brand  to wear it. In this graph we find that out of the 100 respondents 66 respondents said that they wear the branded clothes due to of the fashion world of the environment. And 16 respondents go for the tradition option of this question. This is also a famous brand in the field of the apparel industry. And remaining 18 respondents said that they wear these branded things due to of the identity or the social norms of the trend. So in this graph we find that most of the people like the branded things due to of the fashionable things and then they like these things because of the traditions and that’s why they like to wear the branded things. Means by analysing this graph we conclude that it is not one of the favourite brand of the respondents. And people like some other brand for maintaining the brand level of their personal life.

 

Question.  Did you ever buy a product through online and refers the social networking sites?

In this question we are again trying to know the commercial part of the products and company. In this we asked that you buy any products because you like this promo and make them purchasable to you. Marketing strategy is one of the important factors which is very ample for the company and this is very essential for the company. In this research we used the automobile industry as a research organisation.

 

chart 7: shows the product is purchased by online not like by the respondents.

In this question most of the respondents go for both the response means they like some products commercially and some are not like by them commercially and make  the purchasable for them. . In this we asked that you buy any products because you like this commercially and make them purchasable to you. Marketing strategy is one of the important factors which is very ample for the company and this is very essential for the company.  In this response 50 respondents say yes and 50 respondents say no that means the response of the customers are very different and they like the products different  and they said that this is depend on the products that they will buy it or not. Means by analysing this graph we conclude that mark and Spencer is not one of the favourite brand of the respondents. And people like some other brand for maintaining the brand level of their personal life. And people like these things due to their personal reason and due to also the commercial reason.

 

Brand loyalty assessment

 

  1. Which brand do you prefer to buy your apparels and why?

 

 

Now come on the question no. first of the brand loyalty question of the research questionnaire and this question is about the preference of the respondents regarding the retail branded company in their personal life useable products. By putting this question in the research sample we are able to know the brands that are most preferred by the respondents. In this question I put the four top social networking sites so using these sites we can get the information about the organisation.

 

chart 8 : Likeliness of social sites

 

Now come on the interpretation part of this question and find the best way of interpolate it. When we watch this part in the form of the data provider for the question which is related to the respondent favourite brand for the apparel industry. In this graph we find that out of the 100 respondents 34 respondents said that they most like the Scott as a preference one and then they put the Mark and Spencer as a second preference for the fashionable products. For this option 30 respondents vote their preference toward the third option of the question. And 8 respondents go for the Burton which is also a famous brand in the field of the apparel industry. And remaining 6 respondents like another brand which is not mentioned hear. So in this graph we find that most of the people like the Scott as favourite one and then they vote for the face book with the 30 % of the vote. Means by analysing this graph we conclude that mark and YouTube is not one of the favourite brand of the respondents. And people like some other brand for maintaining the brand level of their personal life.

 

 

Non-H&M customers

The analysis of the responses by the non-H&M segment revealed that only 2 out of 24 people were definite about not buying from H&M. For example, “They [H&M] can’t. I’m just not in  their demographic, nor is anyone I would buy clothes for”. Another 2 respondents had a negative perception of the quality of H&M products and one of them suggested H&M “Increase quality of materials used and craftsmanship, finish of the products”. Almost a fifth of the respondents (5 out of 24 people) turned out price sensitive. They stated that sales promotions via social media websites might have a positive influence on their purchase decision. For example, “[H&M should] offer discounts”, “posts on competitions, and promotional vouchers”, “great prices”.  Therefore there is a great likelihood that in order to convert these consumers into H&M customers, H&M needs to provide some promotional incentives, such as a voucher or a special discount, or run competitions on SM websites. 4 out of 24 respondents also recognised the impact of adverts on their intention to buy from H&M. One of the respondents even gave a suggestion on what kind of advertising could encourage them to purchase:  “Well, doing the same as their competitors by promoting  their brand on the main social website. It would be great if they could make a link between a video, and a specific shop in London, by introducing people in the video (just like Natwest did recently)…the advert should have a realistic part”.

 

H&M customers

The H&M segment of the sample turned out more price-sensitive as compared to the non-H&M segment. 29 out of 102 responses mentioned promotions, sales, discounts and competitions. For example, one of the respondents suggested “more posting of new collections, including the price range of the goods to better convince price-sensitive customers like me”. Some respondents within this group also mentioned that the discounts should be exclusivity offered to social media users, e.g. “They could email to my Face book inbox special discounts and promotions not available anywhere else”. Similarly to non-H&M customers, another big group of respondents (22 out of 100 responses) confessed that they could be influenced to purchase by some sort of advertising on social media websites. For example, “In fact, I don’t notice a lot of H&M ‘adverts’ on the Internet so maybe if it popped up more often, I’d be more influenced” or “More quality advertising on YouTube. I pay less attention to advertising on Face book” or “advertising banners”. 4 respondents particularly stressed the importance of video content on SM websites and another 4 that of online  photographs. These points can be illustrated by the following  examples:

“Videos of new collections would have helped” or “high quality photos of clothes, footwear or accessories”, “to share street fashion photos where H&M is a part of a look”.  3 respondents also mentioned  celebrity endorsement as a strong influence on purchase decision. For instance, it is suggested that H&M could encourage consumers to purchase their products ―by emphasizing which celebrities advertised their clothes and footwear in the adverts on Social Media websites” or by “looking at famous people in the news that day – show how H&M clothes can match the look for less”. 6 respondents mentioned that a Face book fan page where customers share their experience can potentially influence their purchasing decision. For example, “a more dedicated page on Face book or any other social media website would encourage potential customers to strengthen their choice towards H&M brand”.  The findings also revealed that 2 out 102 respondents are using the H&M application for the iPhone and regularly visit it. Although that is a small proportion (only about 2% of all the respondents), the increasing usage of smart phones may provide future advertising opportunities to reach to a wider audience.

CONCLUSION

At the end of this chapter  want to conclude it for the research chapter get finish in the form of the data analyses and the findings. In this chapter we collect eh data and conclude it in the written form. The response of the respondents of is presents in the form of the graphical representation. In this chapter we cover the all type of the question which is related to the research topic and in this research most of the questions are related to the brand and the retail industry. Most of the respondents like the branded products. When we talk about the mark and Spencer we find that people also like this company as fashionable brand.  In this chapter all the data is interpret in the form of the findings of the research.  And after this chapter we will conclude the whole research and provides the recommendations for the company. And this research is so much helpful for the all participants means all the reader of the research also for the company  of the research.

Chapter Five: Conclusions and Recommendations

 

In last chapter we discussed about the conclusion and the recommendations that are made by the researcher. In this chapter we includes the investigation that is done by researcher on the given topic. The findings of the research is in the context of research questions. The limitations and the direction for the further research are also includes in this chapter.

5.1 Conclusions

The conclusion is based on the covered topic in the questions. In this research we investigate the five questions.

  1. What are social media usage patterns among UK consumers in relation to clothing and/or footwear brands and/or products in terms of the frequency of visits to social media websites, the experience of use, the purpose of use and the engagement?

Social media usage patterns have been identified among UK consumers in relation to clothing and/or footwear brands and/or products according to the frequency of visits, experience of use, and purpose of use and consumer engagement. These patterns have been compared to the data by Alexa (2010)  to confirm that Face book is the most frequently visited website, followed by YouTube and most consumers are very experienced with these social media applications. The awareness of LOOKBOOK.nu among consumers is lowest and Twitter is not generally used for purposes related to clothing/footwear brands. Fashion blogs are  the one social media channel that marketers need to pay closer attention to as consumers engage with blogs most when it comes to clothing/footwear brands. High-street apparel companies, such as H&M, need to identify the most popular blogs with their  target market and ensure that prominent bloggers write about them. As one of the respondents (non-customer) suggested:

“I haven’t purchased anything from this brand [H&M] yet but a lot of their products have been featured in the fashion blogs that I read. It surely does the job as far as getting me all excited about buying something. As a person who doesn’t care for Face book, Twitter and other social networks, I would suggest actively involving fashion blogs  into their advertising campaigns. I’m more likely to buy a certain piece of clothing if I saw it on one of my favourite blogs and read a good review on it written by a blogger I admire and trust”.

As also indicated in Chapter 2, the world leading organisations widely use blogs to reach and engage with the target market and H&M do not have their own blog as yet. The brand may, therefore, consider creating their own blog on fashion providing customers with fashion tips and covering fashion trends. Certainly,  the use of blogs, as most other types of social media, may bring about unfavourable consequences. If customers are dissatisfied with the company’s offerings, they may engage in virtual complaints in the form of protest websites or blogs (Ward & Ostrom, 2006). Another possible negative outcome may be that the blogging‘ staff member may choose to write negatively about the company (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010).Creating and maintaining their own blog will require  substantial human and financial  resources. Marketing management staff will be needed to design an appropriate communication strategy and expert employees will be needed to implement the strategy. Perhaps H&M could employ prominent fashion bloggers to write for them. Eventually, if  the strategies are implemented correctly, the organisation can gain significant access to its audiences with a high degree of credibility.

  1. How do social media websites change UK consumers‟ attitudes towards clothing and/or footwear brands?

Although the impact of social media websites on UK consumers‘ attitudes towards clothing/footwear brands is not major, the findings prove that changing attitudes can influence consumer decision making and can also  be a  predictor of consumer buying behaviour, as argued by Berkman & Gilson‘s (1986).

  1. How strong is the influence of social media websites on H&M customers in the UK at each stage of decision-making process?

The influence of social media websites on H&M customers in the UK is not equal at different stages of purchase decision-making. Consumers are mostly affected  at the need recognition stage and  less at the information search stage, according to the findings. The purchase decisions are not so heavily influenced by SM, as the preceding stages. At the last two stages of decision-making, the impact of SM is very insignificant. The implications for  the marketers of high-street clothing and footwear  products like those of H&M are that communication strategies need to take into account the fact that the need recognition stage is more influenced by social media compared to the other stages of consumer decision-making process. The main objectives of marketing in the need recognition stage are to create a need or  a  want  for the product  and to brand  the as the solution. Social media advertising and promotions via the most popular channel at the stage (16.7% of all respondents were influenced by Facebook at the need recognition stage are very likely to induce consumer needs for high-street clothing and footwear.

  1. Which social media channel has the greatest impact on consumer buying of H&M clothes, footwear or accessories in the UK?

The research findings proved that, compared to all the other SM websites, Facebook has the greatest impact on consumers‘ decisions  to  purchase  H&M products. The  role of YouTube is also significant, followed by Blogs. The findings imply that a more dedicated Facebook page will encourage potential customers to strengthen their choice towards the H&M brand. More videos, pictures and promotional activities, such as competitions and perhaps special discounts for Facebook fans‘ will encourage consumer purchasing.

 

  1. How can H&M use Social Media websites to encourage consumer purchasing of H&M products in the UK?

The findings revealed that the majority of consumers are price-sensitive and therefore H&M needs to consider running sales promotions via SM websites in order to attract potential customers and retain the existing ones. Consumers also wish to see more video advertising on SM websites and more quality photographs. Continuing to use celebrity endorsement is also deemed an advisable strategy.

To sum up, the findings of the survey have helped to identify social media usage patterns among UK consumers in relation to clothing and/or footwear brands and/or products. They have also enabled the researcher to evaluate the effectiveness of social media marketing in changing UK consumers‘ attitudes towards clothing and/or footwear brands. Furthermore, the results helped to determine and compare the role of social media websites as influencers on H&M customers in the UK at each stage of buying decision-making process and identify the social media website that has the greatest impact on consumer buying of high-street fashion apparel. Finally, the findings provided some suggestions as to how H&M could use Social Media websites to encourage consumer purchasing of their products.

 

5.2 Research limitations

In every work there are some problem and the limitations some of which open up opportunities for future research.

Firstly, the sample frame solely included the users of 1 social media channel used by H&M (Facebook) because it was easier to gather responses from them among a brief timescale. it’d are worthwhile to conduct the study among  a broader audience by specifically targeting users of all the social media channels used by H&M, notably fashion blogs, Twitter and LOOKBOOK.nu.

Secondly, the short timescales of the project prevented the researcher from conducting a qualitative study additionally to the net survey so as to urge deeper insights into the underlying reasons for client shopping for behaviour and attitudes towards Social media websites in relation to clothing/footwear merchandise. Focus teams or in-depth interviews might are conducted with specific teams of SM users.

5.3 Suggestions for further research

The implications of this analysis  mainly concern selling professionals, notably those operating within the clothing and footwear phase, not essentially restricted to the present phase. analysis findings provide attention-grabbing insights concerning the social media usage patterns within the UK and establish the foremost necessary social media channels in consumers‘ selections to buy high street attire. tutorial researchers may need to  verify  the presented  results or utilise them in a very totally different selling background, or develop the work more as technological changes return along. Suggestions for future analysis might embrace specializing in alternative models and theories that enable to check the impact of Mobile internet a pair and Mobile social media (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010) on client shopping for behaviour of fashion attire. As Kaplan & Haenlein (2010) argue mobile social media applications are getting increasingly standard that provides savvy marketers with endless opportunities. this idea has been recommended by one among  the respondents too, “As an iPhone user I even have the H&M application and that is typically check it out whereas on the move. Hence the usage of sensible phones have increased it is a sensible plan to succeed in to a wider audience”.

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Appendix

 

  1. How much percentage of your total monthly income you spend H & M apparel only?
  2. 10 Percent
  3. 20 Percent
  4. 30 Percent
  5. 40 Percent and above

 

 

  1. How much you involve in the online shopping and social networking sites?
  2. Highly
  3. Moderate
  4. Rare
  5. Don’t mind it

 

 

  1. Which brand of the retail industry they preferred mostly in the term of the fashion apparels’?
  2. Burton
  3. H&M,
  4. Mark & Spencer
  5. Scott,
  6. Any other

 

  1. Why do you like to use the online shopping ? Is it part of
    1. fashion,
    2. tradition,
    3. identity or social norm?

 

Question5.  Did you ever buy a product through online and refers the social networking sites?

 

Brand loyalty assessment

  1. Which brand do you prefer to buy your apparels and why?

 

 

 

 

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