LS4008:Sport and Exercise Essay Sample

LS4008. Sport and Exercise Science. Essay Sample


Introduction(LS4008:Sport and Exercise Essay Sample)

This essay aim is to discuss about the Personality approaches in context to the sport or exercise. However, Personality consider as an individual differences in characteristics pattern of thinking, feeling and behavior (Boshoku and Stetzer, 2017).http://LS4008:Sport and Exercise Essay Sample

The study of personality defines that people personality can be understand through behavior and acts at a social platform. Moreover, the personality is majorly guided by the culture, family and friends.

So there are various factors that have a major role in framing the personality of individual. Additionally, this study is important as it provide detail understanding about the different approaches related to personality.

Based on this, it will be easy to find out the ways to improve the individual self-efficacy in sport or exercise field.

In respect to the personality topic, there are various task will be undertaken such as personality theory which defines different approaches such as Trait, Situational and Interactional approaches etc. (Figueredo et al., 2015).http://LS4008:Sport and Exercise Essay Sample

Besides that, some frameworks will be analyzed in order to foster it for providing coaching to young children. Lastly, Self-efficacy theory will use to improve the efficacy in the sport and exercise.

Main Body

Discuss Personality perspective including Trait, Situational and Interactional approaches and the features of these approaches


According to Mickiewicz et al. (2015), one of the best ways to understand different personality of individual is to consider the approaches such as Trait, Situational and Interactional etc.

this is because these approaches define that what factor that affect the differentiate the individual behavior and values towards different situation.

In the views of Ogre and Bersin (2015), trait approach is one of the most vital areas of study in psychology that assist to understand different person’s personality.

However, Traits approach can be explained as a stable characteristic that cause a person to depict a response to any situation in certain way. This theory consists of various characteristics such as:

  • Traits of an individual are always constant regardless to any condition.
  • Another characteristic of this theory is that every individual doesn’t possess single trait but it involved variety of trait form of personality (Krueger and Marcon, 2014).http://LS4008:Sport and Exercise Essay Sample
  • The trait form is unique people to people.
  • Trait personality theory measure people based on two dimensions such as Extraversion and Introversion.

Furthermore, under the trait approach, the psychologist believed that general causes of behavior are largely dependent upon the sporting environment or situations. For instances, the trait approach assumes that an athlete may act in particular way in the sporting situation.

But the truth is that an athels never respond exactly same way on every occasion (De Vries et al., 2016).http://LS4008:Sport and Exercise Essay Sample Besides that, the best sport people are often who is able to react perceptively to their circumstances.

So this approach clearly demonstrated that sport personalities always respond as per the nature and behavior. This area is largely guided by their value system and professional code of conduct.

In a similar manner, Thomas et al. (2013) defined that trait view is too simple that personality can’t be measured alone without including the environment. Thus, the situation has a major role to analyze the personality of individual.

There are following some basic characteristics of the situational leadership style.

  • There is no fixed traits that situational leader exhibits.
  • The situational leader always support the flexible leading style
  • Situational leader deal with the situation as per the values and attributes.

In respect to the psychologists view, the individual observation learning and related aspects frame their behavior in particular situation. For example, sport person can be more confident when he/she knows that opposite team member is not that much strong and accordingly he reacts to the situation (Hallam, 2016).http://LS4008:Sport and Exercise Essay Sample

However, when he found out that the next player is expert and master in game then his confidence level get vary and based on previous sport game, he set the perception and respond to the situation accordingly.

Moreover, the combination of both psychological traits and situational influences give rise to the interactional approach. As this one consider leader trait to handle or deal with the situation and condition.

  • Interactional approach include person use of quality as per the situation
  • Both individual quality and situation factor have a major role to judge the leader personality (Schlozman et al., 2016)

In regards to this approach, psychologist stated that environment influences the individual to react or act in particular manner but sports person trait is the one which guides them to respond in rightly way whether it is positive or negative condition.

For example, a sport player is continuously criticized for its game so this often leads to rash and hostile actions at these types of situation. But there are player who hold calmness and deal with the condition in a cool way (Froese, 2012).http://LS4008:Sport and Exercise Essay Sample

However, the psychological role has a major one to make people react in particular situation. Thus, it can be stated psychological factor and situation influences plays an important part for analyzing the personality of any individual.

The TARGET framework has major significances for providing the coaching to children’s.

This is a model of motivation that integrated various ideas and innovation and creates the motivational climate where athletes and sports person easily learn and gain knowledge.

It includes the task, authority, recognition, grouping, evaluating and time (Foss and Steak, 2014).http://LS4008:Sport and Exercise Essay Sample

These elements affect the children motivation directly and indirectly so this framework is applied on the young children (athletes) for making a task oriented climate.

  • Task: Student experiences task in terms of their expectation of success and their authenticity. The value of task can be assessed by the interest of student and cost in term of children effort and time to achieve the result.
  • Generally, the success expectation is assessed with the children perception related to difficulty of task. Likewise, if he/she feels task is quite complicated then it set the perception in same way.
  • In regards to create the task oriented environment, the coaches used the open task challenge for making athlete to solve the variety of problem (Maddux, 2013).http://LS4008:Sport and Exercise Essay Sample
  • In regards to this, coaches motivate the individual to perform the task and achieve the positive result. Thus, coaches focused their attention on process not on product.
  • Authority: – Athletes actively participated in decision-making processes in the training and coaching session. However, coaches used the inductive instructional methods for guiding and problem-solving.
  • Athletes also provided the choice regards how to carry out the task so that they can increase their self-motivation.
  • Recognition: – The coaches also offered the reward and recognition to the athletes for providing self-references perceptions. Moreover, coaches treated all children in a same manner and created equal expectation among the individuals.
  • Grouping: – In this activity, small cooperative training groups are established for creating learning and team work environment.
  • However, the training session also encouraged the positive working climate where athels help each other to learn task and abilities to perform it.
  • Evaluation: – Progress related to the individual goal and personal improvement is evaluated personally.
  • In regards to evaluation, the standard criteria are developed to which performances level is compared and analyzed.
  • Time: – children’s are allowed to take part on the decision-making process relate to the time taken on completion of task. This practice encourages the flexibility and positive work result.

Discussion on Self-efficacy theory in order to improve the individual efficacy in sport or exercise

As per the Bandura 1977, Self efficacy refers as a individual belief in his or her capacity to implement the behavior which produce the performances attainment. Moreover, self-efficacy reflects the confidences of individual in regards to perform the task by own motivation, behavior and social environment.

This theory is based on principle assumption that psychological procedures serves as a mean of creating and strengthening expectation of personal efficacy. The theory shows the differences between expectation of efficacy and response-outcome (Chao et al., 2013).http://LS4008:Sport and Exercise Essay Sample

However, the outcome expectancy is a person estimate that a given behavior will lead to certain outcomes while efficacy expectation is the conviction that one can successfully execute the behavior which is required to produce the outcome. So this means that individual requires a particular behavior to produce the outcome. The behavior is always guided by the motivational factor.

In context to self-efficacy, sports Psychology stated that self-appraisal and self-persuasion is the one aspect which supports the individual to identify the strength and weakness. Based on this, necessary improvement can be achieved. Besides that, reward and recognition is another one which also contributes towards bringing of self-efficacy for providing the right result.


From the above discussion, it is concluded that personality of an individual can be analyzed through use of trait, situational and interactional theory. It is stated that individual personal behavior is identified when he/she stuck in any condition. Similarly, the individual can be motivated to perform the task in a proper manner through use of different analysis method.

Besides that, self-efficacy principle has a major role to improve the motivation level of sports person. In this, self performances appraisal and motivational factor assist to bring efficiency in the task performances.




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De Vries, R.E., Tybur, J.M., Pollet, T.V. and van Vugt, M., 2016. Evolution, situational affordances, and the HEXACO model of personality. Evolution and human behavior37(5), pp.407-421.

Figueredo, A.J., Sefcek, J.A., Vasquez, G., Brumbach, B.H., King, J.E. and Jacobs, W.J., 2015. Evolutionary personality psychology. The handbook of evolutionary psychology, pp.851-877.

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Froese, F.J., 2012. Motivation and adjustment of self-initiated expatriates: The case of expatriate academics in South Korea. The International Journal of Human Resource Management23(6), pp.1095-1112.

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