Managing People In The Organisation Assignment Sample 99

Managing People In The Organization Assignment Sample

 

Part-1

Section-1: Motivation, training and learning

Concepts

Motivation is the secret ingredient in a self-regulatory process that maintains energies and enhances workplace performance that improves business growth and the reputation of the organization. As per the viewpoint of Rahbi et al. (2017), motivation is an essential part of business prosperity and success in existing dynamics that comprises external factors and internal characteristics such as individual difference, job factor, and organizational practice. However, organizations need an effective and efficient leader to influence people and collaboratively apply different skills that enhance job satisfaction which drives people to perform better.

On the other hand, training and learning allow employees to acquire new skills, gain in-depth knowledge on the tasks, sharpen exciting ones to perform better, increase productivity that helping to become a leader in the future. Huda et al. (2021) have illustrated that the training and learning opportunities of an employee have a significant impact on performance that directly depends on the emotional intelligence of the instructor, such as a personal leadership skills, interpersonal skills, intrapersonal skills and self-management skills. Hence, efficient leadership skills and management of the organization are the main influencing factors to manage an efficient team and lead effective performance in an organization.

Apart from that, Attiq et al. (2017) have argued that human resource management in an organization enables the three components of organizational management such as motivation, training, and learning that satisfy business needs, linked up between strategic planning and influence the shape of business.

Theoretical analysis

Herzberg’s motivation theory

Managing People In The Organisation Assignment Sample 1

Figure 1: Herzberg two factor theory of motivation

(Source: Nguyen, 2017)

Herzberg identifies two effective factors to motivate people and improve their performance, training, and development opportunities in the organization such as hygiene factors and motivators. As per the viewpoint of Nguyen (2017), job satisfaction and human motivation are the two effective components of an organization that recognizes responsibility, growth, personal achievements, promotion, and opportunity for advancements. Motivation factors such as personal desire want and goals are met in the organization to increase satisfaction level. Moreover, hygienic factors such as interpersonal relationships, working conditions, company policies, job security, quality of supervision, wage, salary and other benefits and work-life balance that influence a person’s behavior. These hygiene factors are needed to improve for decreasing satisfaction level among the employees with reducing the scope of blaming the external factors or situations. Apart from that, organizations can manage their human resources through the efficient department of HR that helps to analyze job enrichment opportunities, improve working conditions, and design profiled baked tasks for each employee.

On the other hand, Koziol and Koziol (2020) have argued that managers have to increase motivation and maintain hygiene factors to maximize competence, experience new challenges, take more responsibilities and give training and learning opportunities at the workplace. In addition, the motivational factor is the psychological process that drives hopes to achieve organizational objectives within the given targets. On the other hand, the training and learning opportunities are effectively linked with the motivation that drives the potential of work with high efficiency and the required skill set of the tasks. According to Li (2018), Herzberg two factor theories generates work-intensive in satisfactory factors that stimulate employees for progress, and other hygienic factors make achievements in their work. Hence, the manager and employees bond become stronger by avoiding low motivation and low hygiene to improve organizational welfare.

Maslow hierarchy theory of needs

Managing People In The Organisation Assignment Sample 22

Figure 2: Maslow hierarchy theory of needs

(Source: Suyono and Mudjanarko, 2017)

The motivation theory of Maslow has stated the five categories of human needs in the workplace that dictate individual behavior. The main purpose of the theory is to identify the people needs of an organization and meet them to increase their satisfaction level and enhance contribution toward work effectively. The ground-level stage is the physiological needs of workers such as food, sleep, homeostasis, water, and excretion to meet their basic needs to satisfy them and improve workplace flexibility (Suyono and Mudjanarko, 2017). The next level is the safety or security needs that ensure management in an organization arranges protection against emotional and physical loss during work. The third level of the theory is a social need that considers love and belonging at the workplace with establishes a bond among team members such as family and friendly environment.

On the other hand, McCleskey and Ruddell (2020) have argued that the connection between the training, learning, and achievement of the respect of either are needs in the workplace that are explained in the fourth level of Maslow hierarchy theory of needs. Hence, employees need rewards or continuous feedback from management or leaders of the organization to improve quality, skill sets that ensure internal respect factors including achievements, autonomy and self-esteem (Genkova, 2021). The external factors are also associated such as employee’s attention, recognition, and status in the organization. Moreover, the last and bottom-line stage of the motivational model is needed for self-actualization that desires self-ability through continuous training and development opportunities at the workplace.

Applications of training and learning in the management of an organization

TNA model of training and learning for people management

The TNA model refers to the training needs analysis of an organization that helps to identify the training needs of employees in perspectives such as organizational, individual, and operational regarding the tasks. As per the viewpoint of Attiq et al. (2017), the poor training and learning opportunities of the employee reduce satisfaction level that directly impacts productivity. Hence the TNA is an appraisal process to motivate the entire team and identify their development needs in the workplace. On the other hand, Mazhisham et al. (2018) have illustrated that the TNA model reduces the training gap between completing the job of existing skills and required skills for future development.

Organizational level: The main purpose of training and learning of employees is to meet organizational objectives, future direction and performance from the perspective of skills, behaviors and knowledge (Actassociates.co.uk, 2021). The managers of business leaders can build the strength of the workforce and address weaknesses through implementing operational and organizational strategic plans with mitigating the training gap.

Team level: The competency needs and skills set of an employee improves team level performance and requires continuous innovation and creativity in tasks. Hence the training and learning opportunities are needed to mitigate individual needs and meet business objectives effectively (Markaki et al. 2021). However, the management of an organization can utilize the motivation factor of Maslow’s model by providing safety and security training to improve their satisfaction and ensure their safety at the workplace.

Individual-level: The work objectives and learning and training needs of an employee are required to identify with supervision and appraisal one-to-one meetings in a training program (Hamidi, 2020). This strategy helps organizations to identify individual needs by monitoring the progress level, working ability and quality in the performance of the tasks.

Hence, the organization can manage the organizational people while maintaining the motivational factors and balancing their progress level to improve business performance, competitiveness in the market. However, Suyono and Mudjanarko (2017) have illustrated that the leaders need to understand the employee’s needs and workers need to understand the leader’s expedition to meet the organizational objectives in the future. Hence, the organization needs to focus on employees’ psychological growth with enhancing job enrichments, opportunities for growth and satisfaction within an enlarged work structure.

Part-2

Section-2: Performance management, team, and team working

Performance management in an organization is a continuous process that sets individual and team goals and measures progress with developing acquired knowledge, skills, and abilities. However, the team working and team management are linked with performance management to evaluate, review, and monitor the team function towards achieving goals. As per the viewpoint of Reza and Nugroho (2020), the combination of team performance and managerial performance has improved the faces of changes in providing service to humans. However, team management and performance management are the major challenges for the leader to achieve goals, carry out their duties, and motivate them with high interest at work.

Managing People In The Organisation Assignment Sample 33

Figure 3: performance management appraisal cycle in the organization

(Source: Reza and Nugroho, 2020)

The above performance management appraisal cycle helps to connect with people, processes, and organizational systems within the team. On the other hand, Bakken (2020) has illustrated that the role of the innovative and creative team of an organization is most effective that helps in figuring out the problems of the current market and addressing this with new solutions within the existing resources. However, the agile team and its working capacity influence others to improve performance and establish effective results at the end of works.

Managing People In The Organisation Assignment Sample 44

Figure 4: Agile team working to improve performance

(Source: Bakken, 2020)

Theory and model in performance management in a team

Social cognitive theory of performance management

Social cognitive theory helps to predict job attitude, self-efficiency, and individual trust in the system of employees that measures performance and interest at the work. As per the viewpoint of Ozyilmaz et al. (2018), the employee’s self-sufficiency is the greater potential that effectively influences task performance, organizational citizenship behavior over job satisfaction. However, the performance of the team is dependent on the incentive motivation factors such as self-produced, vicarious, and direct. On the other hand, Yakut (2019) has argued that social cognitive theory is an organizational learning theory that allows leaders to analyze 6toaughts, social interactions and feelings which shapes the learning process and measure the performance of a team.

Managing People In The Organisation Assignment Sample 55

Figure 5: Kano model to understand social behavior and measure performance

(Source: Schunk and DiBenedetto, 2020)

There are five key criteria of the theory including psychological determination of employee’s behavior (collective efficiency, self-efficacy, and outcome expectation), workplace environmental determination of behaviors, self-regulation, morale, and observational learning. Effective team working and its massive outcome are highly dependent on the core factors that are easily measured through the theoretical perspective. Schunk and DiBenedetto (2020) have explained the keno model to understand social cognitive behavior and measure employee’s performance to improve the quality of products, services effectively.

Goal theory

The team and team working capabilities are ensured with effective goals, planning, the relationship among the goal difficulty, efforts are involved and level of performance of the team members. As per the viewpoint of Audenaert et al. (2019), the goal-setting theory fosters individual innovation, addressing the issues of multiple demands that are often conflicting such as efficiency versus customer value and service quality throughout the performance management of the team. Since, the importance of goal theory is effective in team performance management to increase motivation, productivity in the workplace.

Managing People In The Organisation Assignment Sample 66

Figure 6: Goal theory in performance management

(Source: Audenaert et al. 2019)

However, the goal-setting theory considers five fundamental principles such as clarity of goals, evaluating the challenges, commitment of the entire team, continuous feedback on progress, and handling task-complexity. On the other hand, Devarajan et al. (2018) have pointed out that goal-setting theory improves team performance through innovation, creativity where each employee knows its roles and responsibilities at the work that maximize their contribution to the team.

GRPI model of the team working

A team can be developed and effective after following the GRPI model as the approach of this model is towards high performance and identification of potentials and capability. Goals, rules, procedures, and interpersonal relationships are the collaborative parts of the GRPI model. All organization’s workhorses are the group of people who work together from an organization or an organization’s room. The job of these groups is to encounter issues and identify mitigations. These mitigations are only achieved if teamwork becomes effective on the problems over anything. The first step of the GRPI model is a selection of construction interpersonal relationships among the team members. After the construction, a friendly relationship will be built up automatically among the participants. the team will identify proper employees for that particular goal and distribute these responsibilities according to individual capabilities. A team has been led and operated by a leader but the decisions made are a collective opinion of every person belonging to that team. This Basic concept is behind all team working models like the GRPI model. In the second step of this model, the analysis will help to identify the connection between the explained concept and the GRPI model. The identification of the roles and responsibilities with the collective discussion of the team brings an appropriate schedule in business. According to Jaiswal et al. (2021) following a particular procedure, a team identified the process of working that will be running in the future. Proper teamwork only helps to reduce less misunderstanding and include a more friendly environment. All three steps will help to fulfil the goals identified. Teamwork will be properly elaborated with the GRPI model in this analysis because it has been considered as the most appropriate and effective model of analysis of teamwork.

Managing People In The Organisation Assignment Sample 66

Figure 7: GRPI model of the team working

(Source: Jaiswal et al. 2021)

Applications of theory and model in organizational management

Organizational management can be benefited from the Social cognitive theory of performance management, Goal Theory and also GRPI theory. As the job attitude, individual trust, and self-efficiency of an employee can be measured with the help of Social cognitive theory, capability metering becomes easier for the business management authority. After this measurement proper work can be distributed according to eligibility and competency. Sustainable Organisational Management can easily be generated if proper skill matches in the proper place. The effectiveness of the organization can be doubled with the perfect replacement or recruitment. As the analysis proves that social cognitive theory can be considered as the learning theory of thoughts, social interaction and feelings, Organisational Management can be easier with the attachment of the theory. The main work of a team is to identify proper goals that enhance the capability of an industry and also encourage more success. The goal theory helps to identify the proper target for the particular situation. Excessive complexity in target identification can slow down organizational performance. So, in the section on selecting a Goal, an organization can easily follow goal theory and select goals according to its convenience. Creating excessive complexity will be a foolish step that can cause harmful effects like this to break the courage of employees, raise misunderstandings, Slow Down business processes, increase the frequency of making wrong decisions, and so on. Lastly, GRPI theory will apply for effective teamwork and team efficiency. The application of all three theories will be justified for future goal accomplishment and successful results. People management is an important factor of an organization and these theories are undoubtedly applicable in this section also.

Section 3: Employee relations and conflict management

Concept

The basic concept of employee relations is to maintain and create a positive work environment in the workplace. As a workable environment, it is the basic need for managing people in that business. In that case, the main pillars of creating this relationship perfectly are culture and communication as well. Employee relationship is considered as a basic need for or perfect in that case the professionals of the updated company need to take this initiative so that employees can feel that bond with the organization. It can be said that the business professionals play an important role in building this relationship by incorporating some technologies and policies and also by upgrading the older versions. When this relationship breaks down professionals need to look after this matter because every industry needs faithful employees to grow and manage the organization as well. In that case, managing and creating a perfect work environment is easy to make. On the other hand, the inner meaning of conflict management is to reduce the conflicts that can arise in the business in the growing process and also cut down the negativity from the business. It can be said that incorporating a proper conflict Management process can enhance the outcome of the projects that are delivered by the industry. This method is considered as the process of increasing positivity in the business and also in enhancing the level of outcomes. Both of the bases are playing an important role in managing people in the business because every employee needs a workable environment in the company. Also, when it has proper management, reducing conflict in the business is the first priority of every employee. It can be said that these two basic concepts of employee relationship and conflict management are also the basic needs of a business that tends to grow in the competitive market.

Theoretical analysis

Unitarist theory of Employee relations

The theory of Unitarist represents the concept of recruiting such a group who are loyal enough towards the industry. Which Idea helps to maintain employees in the organization because in this theory it is suggested that all the employees of the organization need to focus on a singular topic. According to Wangila and Kiiru, (2019) it can be said that this theory helps to put more effort into making new relations with the employees and make a strong bond among all. On the other hand, after incorporating this theory in the business the employee will learn how to work with unity which makes the people management process easier.

The main purpose of Unitarist theory is to manage all the stuff of industry providing some interesting objectives. As people management organization is a vital part this theory plays an important role because by incorporating this particular theory The unity among the employees can be increased also by hand-in-hand objectives mutual goals can be set and achieved also. Though the employees work individually, the goals that are achieved are mutually set for this theory. And making this unity is the main motto of this industry. That’s why Unitarist theory is the best theory which helps the authority of the business to handle employee relations perfectly and the employees as well.

Game theory of conflict management

The basic need of conflict management is to maintain all types of conflict and problems which can arise in the business in the growing process. According to Grzyl et al. (2019) in that case, if the Game Theory of conflict management can be applied it would be easier for the business to control all kinds of problems of the business.

This theory mainly represents the conflict of the construction business. As it is capable of mitigating problems related to construction industries it can easily resolve the other industries’ problems as well and get the popularity in resolving problems to the people management process.

These two theories are capable enough to control hazards related to people management in the business. It can be said that these two businesses are the most appropriate theory to incorporate.

Applications of Employee relation in the management of an organization

Six C’s model

The business environment frequently faces an emergency situation that gives a stressful headache to the participants connected with the business. The professionals already have PFA (Psychology First Aid) skills but the non-professional doesn’t from this pregnant conflict have arisen. A chaotic situation can be overcome with PFA skills due to the effectiveness of controlling sudden crises occurring in the business. The Six Cs model becomes remedial mitigation and consolation during an exceptional moment that spreads an influential effect over people management. Neff et al. (2019) explain that the dramatic moment that the disordered Total system becomes challenging just for the effective function of every segment is connected with conflict management.  The Six Cs model is the collaboration of certain intervention principles that our cognition, challenge, communication, control, commitment, continuity.

Managing People In The Organisation Assignment Sample  99

Figure 9: Six C’s model

(Source: Neff et al. 2019)

  • Cognition: The workplace is not a place of informality so cognitional activities are appropriate for business processes. Conflicts in the workplace are also mitigated by the following cognition in language and becoming formal. According to Punyatoya, (2018) emotions will lead a person to get weak and be dominated or even being exploited, professional life can be destroyed. From this perspective of conflicts, cognitional activities will be helpful.
  • Challenge: Complexity in an initial task can make a situation more panicking and traumatic. At this point step by step, complexity extension will help to encourage the employees on one hand and build critical conflict management capability on the other side. Joshi et al. (2017) mentioned that giving a sequence of easily captured, topically, Relevant, and also achievable tasks will be more appropriate for building vision prospective and complexity in every individual.
  • Communication: Communication is the backbone of conflict management as it gives a chance to clear out any doubts or misunderstandings. Paying equal attention to every sensory channel is the assurance provided by communication. Zadeh et al. (2018) stated that conflict management can follow this model due to its efficient presence in every fixture.
  • Control: A Wholesome control is observed in the business environment after implementing the Six Cs model. Every individual gets the chance to shine and offer personal thought and perspective for making any decisions. Xie et al. (2019) explains that the foreign elements wandered to build misconception and miscommunication that also can be controlled by the Six C’s model.
  • Commitment: Commitment is also an important factor for abolishing conflict in a business environment. The Six C’s Model confirmed that due to conflict the richest people will not corner the situation rather than escape from it. According to Nandan et al. (2018), this commitment factor also molde any hampering situation to enlightenment for which this bend is being considered by any conflict management of a business.
  • Continuity: Continuity is important to accelerate a business procedure because it helps all the individuals connected with the business. Without continuity, conflict cannot be managed as some meddle space becomes damaged in a traumatic situation. Helping each other in a critical situation is the way to manage the crisis.

Reference List

Journals

Attiq, S., Rasool, H. and Iqbal, S., 2017. The impact of supportive work environment, trust, and self-efficacy on organizational learning and its effectiveness: A stimulus-organism response approach. Business & Economic Review9(2), pp.73-100.

Audenaert, M., Decramer, A., George, B., Verschuere, B. and Van Waeyenberg, T., 2019. When employee performance management affects individual innovation in public organizations: The role of consistency and LMX. The International Journal of Human Resource Management30(5), pp.815-834.

Bakken, I.O., 2020. Enabling team autonomy in a large public organization. In Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming–Workshops (p. 245).

Devarajan, R., Maheshwari, S. and Vohra, V., 2018. Managing performance: Role of goal setting in creating work meaningfulness. The Business & Management Review9(4), pp.261-274.

Genkova, D., 2021. Modeling of the Human Needs: an Economic Interpretation of Maslow’s Theory of Motivation. WSEAS Transactions on Business and Economics18, pp.253-264.

Hamidi, I.Z., 2020. Training Needs Analysis (TNA) for Job Design Formulation in Organizational Talent Management. iLEARNed1(2), pp.100-112.

Huda, S., Sunaryo, W., Tukiran, M., Yusnita, N., Idarianty, I. and Sumirah, S., 2021. The relationship between training program and emotional intelligence with training effectiveness. JPPI (Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Indonesia)7(2), pp.190-196.

Koziol, L. and Koziol, M., 2020. The concept of the trichotomy of motivating factors in the workplace. Central European Journal of Operations Research, pp.1-9.

Li, Y.K., 2018, December. Insight into Herzberg’s two-factor incentive theory. In 2018 2nd International Conference on Economic Development and Education Management (ICEDEM 2018) (pp. 321-324). Atlantis Press.

Markaki, A., Malhotra, S., Billings, R. and Theus, L., 2021. Training needs assessment: tool utilization and global impact. BMC Medical Education21(1), pp.1-20.

Mazhisham, P.H., Khalid, M.Y., Nazli, N.N.N.N., Manap, R. and Hussain, N.H.M., 2018. Identification of Training needs assessment in organizational context. IJTMSS1(5), pp.20-30.

McCleskey, J.A. and Ruddell, L., 2020. Taking a Step Back—Maslow’s Theory of Motivation: A Christian Critical Perspective. Journal of Biblical Integration in Business23(1).

Nguyen My, L., 2017. The impact of employees motivation on organizational effectiveness. International Business, 1(2), pp. 1-51.

Ozyilmaz, A., Erdogan, B. and Karaeminogullari, A., 2018. Trust in organization as a moderator of the relationship between self‐efficacy and workplace outcomes: A social cognitive theory‐based examination. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology91(1), pp.181-204.

Rahbi, D.A., Khalid, K. and Khan, M., 2017. The effects of leadership styles on team motivation. Academy of Strategic Management Journal16(3).

Reza, H.K. and Nugroho, S.H., 2020. Performance Management As A Media Of Change Towards Organization Improvement. Journal Asro-Sttal-International Journal11(03), pp.140-145.

Schunk, D.H. and DiBenedetto, M.K., 2020. Motivation and social cognitive theory. Contemporary Educational Psychology60, p.101832.

Suyono, J. and Mudjanarko, S., 2017. Motivation engineering to employee by employees Abraham Maslow theory. Journal of Education, Teaching and Learning2(1), pp.27-33.

Yakut, E., 2019. A Social Cognitive Theory Perspective on Marketing Studies A Literature Review. Journal of Yaşar University14, pp.18-33.

Websites

Actassociates.co.uk, 2021. Training needs analysis. Available at: https://www.actassociates.co.uk/consultancy/training-needs-analysis/ [accessed 1st December 2021]

Grzyl, B., Apollo, M. and Kristowski, A., 2019. Application of game theory to conflict management in a construction contract. Sustainability, 11(7), p.1983.

Wangila, R.N. and Kiiru, D., 2019. Employee Relations Strategies and Performance of Water and Sewerage Service Provider in Nairobi City County, Kenya. International Journal of Current Aspects, 3(III), pp.14-27.

Neff, K.D., Tóth-Király, I., Yarnell, L.M., Arimitsu, K., Castilho, P., Ghorbani, N., Guo, H.X., Hirsch, J.K., Hupfeld, J., Hutz, C.S. and Kotsou, I., 2019. Examining the factor structure of the Self-Compassion Scale in 20 diverse samples: Support for use of a total score and six subscale scores. Psychological assessment, 31(1), p.27.

Punyatoya, P., 2018. Effects of cognitive and affective trust on online customer behavior. Marketing Intelligence & Planning.

Joshi, M., Choi, E., Weld, D.S. and Zettlemoyer, L., 2017. Triviaqa: A large scale distantly supervised challenge dataset for reading comprehension. arXiv preprint arXiv:1705.03551.

Zadeh, A., Liang, P.P., Poria, S., Vij, P., Cambria, E. and Morency, L.P., 2018, April. Multi-attention recurrent network for human communication comprehension. In Thirty-Second AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence.

Xie, S., Hu, X., Xin, Z. and Brighton, J., 2019. Pontryagin’s minimum principle based model predictive control of energy management for a plug-in hybrid electric bus. Applied energy, 236, pp.893-905.

Nandan, S., Halkias, D., Thurman, P.W., Komodromos, M., Alserhan, B.A., Adendorff, C., Alhaj, N.H.Y.Y., De Massis, A., Galanaki, E., Juma, N. and Kwesiga, E., 2018. Assessing cross-national invariance of the three-component model of organizational commitment: A cross-country study of university faculty. EuroMed Journal of Business.

Jaiswal, A., Karabiyik, T., Thomas, P. and Magana, A.J., 2021. Characterizing Team Orientations and Academic Performance in Cooperative Project-Based Learning Environments. Education Sciences, 11(9), p.520.

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