MAR024-1 Researching Business and Management Assignment Sample

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1.Introduction

The journal articles aim to explore about the information that it comprises of that being including of identifying about the different concepts that are associated with data collection along with performing a literature search on the related journal article. Proper analysis of the identified themes will also be executed while examining the journal article. The article based on quantitative data will be exploring the hypotheses that have been identified with the journal article along with determining the data collection process. Beside study findings related to the article will also be presented within this assignment to make the study analytical in nature.

MAR024-1 Researching Business and Management

2. Qualitative data

2.1 Different notions of data

According to Kabongo and Okpara, (2019), the notion related to the data associated with the study mainly focuses on exploring the different components that spur the time and speed of internationalisation. The journal article based upon the topic of Timing and speed of internationalisation, evidence from African banks has accumulated the data from the nation’s topmost 23 banks in between the year 2010-2018. Furthermore, examining the journal article the information gathered also points out that sources of evidence related to the article were mainly gathered from annual reports of the banks and their websites (Hennart et al. 2017). Besides, the pieces of evidence presented from the journal article also signifies about the three key factors that being including of determining about the trends about the banking industry, examining about the time and speed of internationalisation within the African countries. Whereas, the third factor states about building strategic alliances within the African nation among the financial institutions and banks.

2.2 Conducting a literature search

Based on the study by Kabongo and Okpara, (2019) it has been found that entry timing and speed of internationalisation are two important factors that impact the effectiveness of businesses entering new markets. Furthermore, it has also been found that entry timing is affected by the business’ ownership structure and experiences of the board members, however, Wood et al. (2011) argues that businesses from emerging economies usually do not have experiences in internationalisation and such cases it is commitment and legitimacy that helps them to overcome the challenges of entering a new market. Again, Ciravegna et al. (2019) found other factors that impact the effectiveness of timing of internationalisation and these factors were entrepreneurial, serendipitous, and strategic internationalisation. These internationalisation factors are characteristics of how firms or businesses choose a market or how they moderate their business models to emerge in a new market. As per Kabongo and Okpara, (2019) speed of internationalisation is affected by the ability to form alliances with businesses in the new market and by the development of capabilities needed to capitalise the opportunities while entering a new market. In this regard, Chetty, Johanson, and Martín, (2014) supported that network building with the help of alliances with existing firms in the new market as well as through relationship building and ties help in the effectiveness of speed of internationalisation. However, Neubert, (2018) had focused on the aspects of digitalisation that helps speed up the process of internationalisation by optimisation of decision making and faster assessments of the new markets. Therefore, it can be stated that multiple factors impact the time and speed of internationalisation and each of the factors is equally important for firms planning to expand their business operations to new markets.

2.3 Identifying different methods to examine the data

Even though Kabongo and Okpara, (2019) used a case study qualitative method to explore the factors that influence the timing and speed of internationalisation when firms from emerging economies enter a new market. In the case study, the study targeted 23 African banks that have international branches and operations on different developed and developing economies. The current paper by Kabongo and Okpara, (2019) used a complex qualitative method whereby the sources of data were secondary. The secondary data sources included annual reports of the chosen 23 banks, news reports, interview reports with the executives of the chosen banks, white papers and grey literature. Different factors, words, phrases, and statements from the annual reports and interview reports and others were assessed that implicated time and speed of internationalisation. All the reports or data sources were explored for words, phrases, and statements using the tool N-Vivo and time and speed of internationalisation were also explored using two different calculations. For the timing calculation the year of internationalisation was subtracted by the year of the foundation of the African bank, whereas, speed of internationalisation by finding the ratio between a number of foreign markets penetrated by the bank and average timing of internationalisation for each entry (Kabongo and Okpara, 2019). The assessments for the data sources were conducted using narrative and descriptive methods that helped to explore the factor impacting timing and speed of internationalisation of banks. However, there are other methods on conducting qualitative research like Freeman, Edwards, and Schroder, (2006) used to interview and focus groups for extracting subjective information on timing and speed of internationalisation and conducted a thematic assessment. Similarly, secondary data using qualitative methods as in the study of Kabongo and Okpara, (2019) can also be conducted by supplementary analysis, amplified analysis and supra analysis according to Heaton, (2008). Therefore, the existing data collected from the case paper can be used in other data analysis methods and study designs if qualitative assessment to provide with similar implications and findings or results.

2.4 Identifying differences and similarities

The study by Kabongo and Okpara, (2019) is one of the most recent studies that used complex qualitative research whereby the timing and speed of internationalisation were assessed, and even though a similar type of study was conducted by Freeman et al. (2006) to find the factors impacting timing and speed of internationalisation there was a significant difference in the study design between the two. Neubert, (2016), however, used a similar study design of qualitative case study analysis similar to Kabongo and Okpara, (2019) but the variables used to assess the impact on the speed of internationalisation were different.

2.5 Determining theoretical and practical inferences linked to the findings

The study of Kabongo and Okpara, (2019) indicated that two main factors drive the effectiveness of internationalisation and they are timing and speed, however, other control variables influence the timing and speed of internationalisation. With respect to timing, it was found that the early timing of internationalisation helps the banks or firms an upper hand that other competitors from the same market while entering a new market. However, there is no impact or role of the size of the firm or here the size of the bank in effecting the time of internationalisation. However, the same factor has not been investigated or explored by other researchers as some feel that the firm’s commitment and determination as well as capability to assess the new markets also plays a major role in the effectiveness of time of internationalisation. Similarly, the speed of internationalisation by Kabongo and Okpara, (2019) is based on alliance and relationship building capabilities with the new market and even though the same factors have been identified to be true by other researchers, some also feel that in the world of digitalisation and technology, they too play a role in the speed of internationalisation. Therefore, this study provides practical awareness and knowledge to existing banks in the African market to enter a new market or planning to enter and new market. Using these identified factors of associations, capability building and experiences of the firm would help the emerging banks not only in Africa but also in other emerging economies to strategize or change their internationalisation model for more effectiveness. Therefore, the current study by Kabongo and Okpara, (2019) has both theoretical and practical implication as theoretically, it advances the knowledge on factors that impact time and speed of internationalisation and practically, new firms or firms planning to internationalise can use the same factors to strategize their plans.

3. Quantitative data

3.1 Identifying hypothesis and measures used in the quantitative research

Examining the hypothesis related to the journal article based upon the quantitative research method has predominantly explained about the entrepreneurial marketing along with determining its positive influence on the SMEs. Furthermore, the critical analysis performed on the journal article has also pointed out the conceptual framework followed by the intertwined idea that develops the study (Mugambi and Karugu, 2017). Examination of the conceptual framework has also helped the researcher in identifying about the core key factors that being comprised of variables such as entrepreneurial marketing and performance of SMEs (Sadiku-Dushi, et al., 2019). Further, the examination of the journal article has also examined the hypothesis that focuses on determining the financials along with non-financial methods. The hypothesis performed upon quantitative research, within the journal article examines growth along with the productivity that is related to the performance of the SMEs. Hypothesis testing was also being performed upon the journal article is based upon regression analysis that has determined about the values of coefficient R-squared that is 0.2755. The hypothesis performed within the journal article points out that entrepreneurial marketing holds a significant impact on the overall SMEs performance, hence based on the above information it has confirmed the hypothesis.

3.2 Describing the study sample

The critical analysis of the journal article based on the notion of examining about determining the influence that entrepreneurial marketing holds towards increasing the performance of SMEs. The whole study has been carried upon based on random sampling technique, that is mainly focused towards determining the performance of SMEs in Kosovo (Rashad, 2018). While gathering the evidence in regards of the sample size related to the study critical evidence has been gathered that signifies all total number of 250 questionnaires were initially distributed upon the SMEs who were being selected randomly, out of the total 250 questionnaires 245 were being collected, further 28 of the SMEs were declared unfit because they were incompetent (Sadiku-Dushi, et al., 2019). Hence, the final study sample that has been undertaken within the study includes 217 respondents upon which the questionnaires were mainly being performed. The evidence presented against the study sample has also briefly explained about the seven predictors, under which the total number of 270 questionnaires was being included that helped the researcher in successfully performing the article. Empirical evidence has also been presented within the article that was mainly being used to summarise the study sample for making the study eventful.

3.3 Describing the data collection method

The evidence gathered from the article of Sadiku-Dushi et al. (2019), also states about the data collection method that aids the investigator in carrying out the pilot testing associated with the study, performing the pilot testing make it easier for the researcher in maintaining validity and reliability within the study. While gathering the data from the journal article focused on accumulating the information from the different economic sectors that being are of construction business industries, retail and hospitality sectors and production industries. The identified industries as the data collection have been considered as it becomes easier to arrange for interviews, gain first-hand data and experiences of the employees and managers that increases the chances of making the study successful (Kilenthong, et al., 2015). Furthermore, the critical examination of the data collection method within the presented journal article helps the researcher in collecting the data from different and varied sources in terms of determining the answer to the research problem. Further, the examination of the study has also pointed out that a hypothesis was also being performed in terms of proving it appropriate and justified against the study. The data collection method also included of quantitative method that seeks towards performing the questionnaires that are based upon close-ended questions.

3.4 Explain the data analysis techniques/methods used to analyse the data

The information put forward within the study also examines the data analysis techniques along with the different methods that were being used within the journal articles to analyse the data. The researcher concerned with the study towards investigating the responses of the respondents has mainly used the Likert scale. The data analysis performed based on the technique of Likert-scale has managed the investigator in gathering the valuable responses of the respondents that have increased the generalizability of the study (Sadiku-Dushi et al. 2019). Similarly, the information gathered from the journal article related to the topic of entrepreneurial marketing along with determining the performance of SMEs has also presented out the findings that it uses interval measurement scale in regards of determining the attributes and personalities of the respondents. Furthermore, the Likert scale used within the journal article also turned out to be significant as it helped in gathering results along with making it quantifiable towards performing mathematical interpretations (Wu and Leung, 2017). The further analysis carried towards the journal article has also explored about the usage of data analysis techniques such as mean, standard deviation along with ANOVA test that is mostly being used to calculate the combined score on regular intervals.

3.5 Explain the study findings

The information gathered from the analysis of the article  Sadiku-Dushi, et al., (2019), states that the researcher appointed with the study has gone with the decision of using descriptive statistical analysis that is mainly being used to draw out information along with analysing the raw data. Besides, the study findings have also presented information about using the descriptive statistical analysis to clarify the study to present it in an orderly manner. Further, evidence and facts that have been gathered after the analysis of the journal article related to the descriptive statistical analysis help the investigator in summarising the study sample before the researcher present the study’s hypothesis and proves it appropriate to the study (Sadiku-Dushi et al. 2019). The variables that have been identified within the study has also been used to draw out inferential statistics, the interpretations and values drawn out of the descriptive statistical analysis have identified about the result where the minimum value is of 4.05 and the maximum value is of 4.60.

3.6 Explaining the practical implications related to the findings

The examination of the journal article that has been examined has determined the concept related to the study that is to identify the marketing dimensions of the entrepreneurial firm along with determining the SMEs performance. The findings of the practical implications related to the findings examined the regression analysis that focuses on measuring the relationship amongst the variables. The values and results of the regression analysis were also being presented that shows the R-Squared value is 0.2755 (Sadiku-Dushi et al. 2019). Furthermore, the examination of the practical implications of the findings has also focused on determining the proactiveness of the SMEs towards comprehending activities that influence their performance. The critical examination of the study also points out the findings related to the calculated risk-taking along with determining the coefficient relationship that aims towards increasing the performance of the SMEs.

4. Conclusion

The first article was a qualitative case study that explored the factors that impacted the entry timing and speed of internationalisation. A systematic process was used in data collection by the researcher whereby secondary data sources were targeted and numerical calculations were conducted to explore the timing of internationalisation and speed.  The second article based on the topic of examining entrepreneurial marketing along with determining the performances of the SMEs, the critical examination of the study has pointed out about the measures taken towards performing hypothesis. Data collection method along with different data analysis techniques infirm of Likert scale and ANOVA test were also being performed within the study.

References

Chetty, S., Johanson, M. and Martín, O.M., 2014. Speed of internationalization: Conceptualization, measurement and validation. Journal of World Business49(4), pp.633-650.

Ciravegna, L., Kundu, S.K., Kuivalainen, O. and Lopez, L.E., 2019. The timing of internationalization–Drivers and outcomes. Journal of Business Research105, pp.322-332.

Freeman, S., Edwards, R. and Schroder, B., 2006. How smaller born-global firms use networks and alliances to overcome constraints to rapid internationalization. Journal of international Marketing14(3), pp.33-63.

Heaton, J., 2008. Secondary analysis of qualitative data: an overview. Historical Social Research33(3), pp.33-45.

Hennart, J. F., Sheng, H. H. and Carrera, J. M. J., 2017. Openness, international champions, and the internationalization of Multilatinas. Journal of World Business, 52(4), pp. 518-532.

Kabongo, J.D. and Okpara, J.O., 2019. Timing and speed of internationalization: Evidence from African banks. Journal of Business Research102, pp.12-20.

Kilenthong, P., Hills, G. E. and Hultman, C. M., 2015. An empirical investigation of entrepreneurial marketing dimensions. Journal of International Marketing Strategy, 3(1), pp. 1-18.

Mugambi, E. N. and Karugu, W. N., 2017. Effect of entrepreneurial marketing on the performance of real estate enterprises: A case of Optiven limited in Nairobi, Kenya.. International Academic Journal of Innovation, Leadership and Entrepreneurship, 2(1), pp. 46-70.

Neubert, M., 2016. Significance of the speed of internationalisation for born global firms-a multiple case study approach. International Journal of Teaching and Case Studies7(1), pp.66-81.

Neubert, M., 2018. The Impact of Digitalization on the Speed of Internationalization of Lean Global Startups. Technology Innovation Management Review8(5), pp.44-54.

Rashad, N. M., 2018. The impact of entrepreneurial marketing dimensions on the organizational performance within Saudi SMEs. Eurasian Journal of Business and management, 6(3), pp. 61-71.

Sadiku-Dushi, N., Dana, L. and Ramadani, V., 2019. Entrepreneurial marketing dimensions and SMEs performance. Journal of Business Research, 100(1), pp. 86-99.

Wood, E., Khavul, S., Perez‐Nordtvedt, L., Prakhya, S., Velarde Dabrowski, R. and Zheng, C., 2011. Strategic commitment and timing of internationalization from emerging markets: evidence from China, India, Mexico, and South Africa. Journal of Small Business Management49(2), pp.252-282.

Wu, H. and Leung, S., 2017. Can Likert scales be treated as interval scales?—A Simulation study. Journal of Social Service Research, 43(4), pp. 527-532.

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