MAR034-2 International Business Negotiations Assignment Sample : Woman In Negotiations
Here’s the best sample of MAR034-2 International Business Negotiations Assignment – Woman In Negotiations, Written by industry experts.
1. Integrative Review
International Negotiation is explained as a process involving power-based dialogues to achieve future goals, aims or ends that may or may not sort out an exact dispute to satisfy all parties or employees. This study showed a brief discussion about women’s role in an international business negotiation with the help of several key research concepts, database searched and theoretical framework. Moreover, it describes an integrative review of the key and current literature on women’s role in international business negotiation. On the other hand, specifies and clear set of selection criteria for present studies included in the integrative review.
1.2 Concept of the topic
Negotiation research studies showed that men tend to achieve better and valuable financial results in business negotiation that women worldwide. As per the view of Khakhar and Ahmed (2017), both female and male study participants are less interested in working with women who generally attempted to negotiate an improved salary than men who focus on higher salary negotiation.
Yao et al. (2018) argued that women tend to be more creative and effective in the working sector, which helps the company to any plan or activity differently. Besides, women faced various international business negotiation challenges, including balancing self-advocacy and communality, managing difficult emotions, and overcoming interpersonal resistance.
1.3 Theoretical framework
1.3.1 Adaptive Structuration Theory
To improve the negotiation process of strategic communication or discussion with two or more individuals or partiers, women need to develop strategies to reach a beneficial result over a particular or more business issue. Tenzer et al. (2017) stated that Adaptive Structuration Theory understands the structure and type of a particular conversation. It suggests advanced strategies or technology improve people’s actions interacting with the help of these strategies or technologies.
As compared to Adaptive Structuration Theory, women need to develop their communication strategy in order to build a strong relationship between company stakeholders or business parties in the level of international business negotiation.
1.3.2 Face negotiation theory
In order to balance self-advocacy and face to face communality in international business negotiation, women need to build intense managing conflicts. As Wettstein et al. (2019) stated, Face negotiation theory conceived understanding of people’s different culture, disagreement, and managing rapports by facing self-image during communicating with others.
As compared to the theory, women need to face their self-image first while rectifying their own mistake during any conversation. Moreover, they need to develop an open-minded strategy planning in order to communicate with people of different cultures.
1.4 Importance of Negotiation in international business
Negotiation is a process of strategic communication or discussion with two or more individuals or partiers in order to reach a beneficial result over a particular or more business issue. An international business stands for a trade of goods, technology, services, knowledge or capital throughout national borders at a global scale. According to Czerwonka (2017), communication in Negotiation helps all negotiators in order to achieve future goals, resolve disputes and build relationships among two or more individual or business parties. In addition, Negotiation helps to represent any national business to the level of international business to achieve future goals and further develop a particular company.
International business negotiation has several cultural barriers such as communication, cultures, stress relief etc. Negotiation helps to communicate with people or business parties in order to be a good communicator. As stated by Buckley et al. (2017), a leader needs to generate negotiation skills in order to communicate with his teammates or other working employees. Negotiation is an essential factor of any business that explains how to communicate with team members and other companies or business parties to deal with any business matter or proposals. Several steps are involved in the negotiation process of international companies;
- Planning for Negotiation
- Adaption of a win-win approach
- Maintenance of high aspirations
- Using accessible and straightforward language
- Asking a lot of question in order to clarify any doubts
- Building solid relationships with business parties
- Maintain personal integrity
- Converse concessions
- Be patient
- Adapting to new negotiation strategies
Third-party Negotiation involves several business parties such as mediator, arbitrator, conciliatory and consultant.
- Mediator: A mediator is a neutral third party faculty who identifies and explains a negotiated situation by using suggestion, reasoning and persuasion for an alternative approach.
- Arbitrator: This third party facility involved in Negotiation in order to dictate an agreement
- Conciliator: It is considered a trusted third-party faculty who provides informal communication links between two business parties.
- Consultant: This third party skill is to work for conflict handling of management of a company. Moreover, they provide unique and innovative problem-solving tactics.
This overall review showed Negotiation that Negotiation is an essential critical skill every company needs to develop to present any small company to its international business level. According to Kersten and Lo (2020), every company needs to develop a communication strategy to achieve its future goals. Besides, all company leaders or CEOs need to give training about Negotiation to their employees to build a stable relationship between business parties.
1.5 Role of Women in international business negotiation
Gender barrier is considered an essential negotiating topic every company faces on the international business level. Dominant, assertive, strong communications are used to describe male and female associate behaviour to manage a good quality negotiation at the international business level. Good negotiation behaviour acts as a critical skill for women in international business. Women have the power to influence the negotiation table at the international business level. Most of the women were not involved in business negotiation before 2010; also, they have not developed any intention of working for a company at a national and international business level. Role of women in International business negotiation are as follows;
- Increase chances of controlling negotiation outcome
- Imagine the harshest and most critical thing someone needs to sort out
- Pay attention to a particular task
- Involvement in persuasive arguments
The business world suggests adopting slime strategies in order to narrow the gender gap in business negotiation. As they demand a lesser salary than men, women ‘s employment rate is higher in the level of international business negotiation (Buckley et al. 2017). On the other hand, men tend to be more ruthless or aggressive and lack prosocial, which allows them to get more salary than women by the negotiation process. However, women should raise their voice in order to stand firm in the position of international business and Negotiation in gender equality.
Women have great importance in international business negotiation, which helps the entire business world to achieve their future goals (Lam and Yeoh, 2018). On the other hand, women faced various international business negotiation challenges, including official violence, harassment, lack of timing, balancing responsibilities, etc. International business negotiation has several cultural barriers such as communication, cultures, stress relief etc. Negotiation helps to communicate with people or business parties in order to be a good communicator.
Women need to develop their development plan in order to stand firm in international business negotiation. Several reports and articles showed men demand more salary than women. As a result, women employment is higher at an international business level, which means women positively influence negotiation procedure. Also, it could be said that women need to find out all the problems they face on the international business level. Communication is the best skill everyone needs to develop for achieving the future goals of a particular company. Moreover, they need to solve and plan for a proper solid strategy in order to stand firm in any situation.
1.6 Timeframe for the articles reviewed
Timeframe for this article is between 2010 to the current year because the female employment rate is increasing in the year 2010 in the UK and other countries. Moreover, women’s role in international business negotiation has increased since the year 2010 (Shan et al. 2019). Women have the power to influence the negotiation table at the international business level. Before that, most women were not involved in business negotiation; also, they have not developed any intention of working for a company at a national and international business level. Present assignments gather data from the relevant articles between the time of 2010 to the current year.
On the other hand, women develop their communication strategy and personal effectiveness to work for a company or industry (Lee et al. 2017). In the year between 2010 to 2021, women increased their working quality and developed in various business sectors and participated in achieving a company’s competitive contracts.
1.7 Key research concepts
Key research concepts of the present assignment showed some important keywords, including “Negotiation”, “Negotiation in international business”, “Role of women in international business“, etc. All these keywords help to gather more accurate data and information on different authors and articles. Negotiation keywords helped gather brief data about Negotiation and its role, strategies to develop Negotiation, gender equality in Negotiation etc. (Toosi et al. 2019).
However, Negotiation in International business keywords helps to collect a valuable impact of Negotiation in international business and its cultural barriers such as communication, culture, employee roles, conflict handling etc. One the other hand Role of women in international business keywords help to identify women’s position in international business negotiation; also, it helps to identify various challenges in international business negotiation faced by women such as official violence, harassment, lack of timing, balancing responsibilities etc. (Gan, 2017). Moreover, these keyword and key research concepts help to gather more appropriate information about women in Negotiation.
1.8 Databases searched
Most of the search database about this current topic was based on google scholar, which shows appropriate and valuable information about Negotiation and the role of women in international business negotiation. Google scholar, government-approved websites, articles by renowned authors published in genuine journals proved essential and valuable information on the current topic. On the other hand, gathering information about this research review avoids Wikipedia, Investopedia, and blog writing sites or pages that generally do not provide actual data, information, or statistics about any particular assignment topic.
1.9 Literature Gap
Literature review of this present review showed women need to raise their voice in order to establish a healthy existence for themselves in international business negotiation. Women tend to work with a creative mind and a variety of thoughts (Ma and Parks, 2012). Besides, they need to develop their communication strategy in order to build a strong relationship between company stakeholders or business parties at the level of international business negotiation (Kersten et al.2020). Apart from this, most women faced various challenges in international business negotiation, including balancing self-advocacy and communality, managing difficult emotions and overcoming interpersonal resistance.
The entire integrative review can be concluded as Women carries a considerable role in international business negotiation. Women tend to be more creative and effective in the working sector, which helps the company execute any plan or activity differently. Women have great importance in international business negotiation, which helps the entire business world to achieve their future goals. Theoretical analysis by Adaptive Structuration Theory and face negotiation theory showed women need to develop their communication strategy and self negotiation while communicating with others.
Besides, Negotiation helps to represent any national business to the level of international business to achieve future goals and further develop a particular company. Apart from this, women faced various international business negotiation challenges, such as balancing self-advocacy and communality, managing difficult emotions, and overcoming interpersonal resistance. A present review showed women hold an extraordinary impact in business negotiation for their polite nature, soft-spoken skills, and the nature of attracting people.
Buckley, P.J., Doh, J.P. and Benischke, M.H., 2017. Towards a renaissance in international business research? Big questions, grand challenges, and the future of IB scholarship. Journal of International Business Studies, 48(9), pp.1045-1064.
Czerwonka, M., 2017. Anchoring and overconfidence: The influence of culture and cognitive abilities. International Journal of Management and Economics, 53(3), pp.48-66.
Gan, I., 2017. Advancing a Distributive-Bargaining and Integrative-Negotiation Integral System: A Values-Based Negotiation Model (VBM). Social Sciences, 6(4), p.115.
Kersten, G.E. and Lo, G., 2020. Aspire: an integrated negotiation support system and software agents for e-business negotiation. International Journal of Internet and Enterprise Management, 1(3), pp.293-315.
Khakhar, P. and Ahmed, Z.U., 2017. The concepts of power in international business negotiations: An empirical investigation. Journal of Transnational Management, 22(1), pp.25-52.
Lam, T. and Yeoh, B.S., 2018. Migrant mothers, left-behind fathers: the negotiation of gender subjectivities in Indonesia and the Philippines. Gender, Place & Culture, 25(1), pp.104-117.
Lee, M., Pitesa, M., Pillutla, M.M. and Thau, S., 2017. Male immorality: An evolutionary account of sex differences in unethical negotiation behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 60(5), pp.2014-2044.
Lund, O.C.H., Tamnes, C.K., Moestue, C., Buss, D.M. and Vollrath, M., 2007. Tactics of hierarchy negotiation. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(1), pp.25-44.
Ma, L. and Parks, J.M., 2012. Your good name: The relationship between perceived reputational risk and acceptability of negotiation tactics. Journal of Business Ethics, 106(2), pp.161-175.
Shan, W., Keller, J. and Joseph, D., 2019. Are men better negotiators everywhere? A meta‐analysis of how gender differences in negotiation performance vary across cultures. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 40(6), pp.651-675.
Tenzer, H., Terjesen, S. and Harzing, A.W., 2017. Language in international business: A review and agenda for future research. Management International Review, 57(6), pp.815-854.
Toosi, N.R., Mor, S., Semnani-Azad, Z., Phillips, K.W. and Amanatullah, E.T., 2019. Who can lean in? The intersecting role of race and gender in negotiations. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 43(1), pp.7-21.
Wettstein, F., Giuliani, E., Santangelo, G.D. and Stahl, G.K., 2019. International business and human rights: A research agenda. Journal of World Business, 54(1), pp.54-65.
Yao, J., Ma, L. and Zhang, L., 2018. From Lab Experiments to Real Negotiations: An Investigation of International Iron Ore Negotiations. Negotiation Journal, 34(1), pp.69-87.
Know more about UniqueSubmission’s other writing services: