Migrant Workers

Equity of Education for Migrant Workers’ Children in China

 

Abstract

This research paper is based on migrant workers children, especially in the context of China. In this study, researcher has critically analysed the research topic on the basis of past findings. For this purpose, researcher has only referenced relevant data sources. It has enabled to increase the reliability of the study. Furthermore, researcher has utilized survey questionnaire method, which has supported to analyse the point of view and perception of the migrant workers while collecting the data directly from them. In like manner, this dissertation is completed by the researcher while focusing towards all the legal and ethical parameter.

This dissertation has enabled to identify the hukou system and the equity of education in China. It has supported to analyse the various loopholes of the equity system of China while supporting to offer in-depth knowledge regarding how these issues impacting the life of migrant workers. Furthermore, this chapter has recommended the ways to improve the situation of migrant workers while offering them equity based facilities.

This study is based on quantitative data analysis method and has enabled to offer the hard facts and figures which have directly collected from the side of the respondents. This research paper has supported to offer in-depth knowledge regarding the research topic. In this research paper, researcher has given huge focus towards reliability and relevancy and has supported to analyse the research paper in an effective manner. This research is based on quantitative approach and has supported to represent the research outcome in a statistical manner and has enabled to understand the results in a glance. Correlating the primary findings with the literature review has supported to increase the relevancy of the raw data. This study remained assistive to show the clear picture of equity based system and has supported to give focus towards the equity based education system in the context of the migrant workers’ children especially in the context of China.

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Research Background

In China, there are two types of household registration system works, i.e. hukou or huji. This registration system is designed by the country to distinguish between rural status and non-rural status citizens for the creation of dual-class citizenship. Hukou registration system is actually for the rural migrant workers. These workers are the specific category of urban workers who are still registered under hukou despite of living and working in urban areas for several years (Darling-Hammond, 2015). These citizens are excluded from many kinds of benefits that are provided by the local governments to the urban registered citizens. Due to this reason, the children of rural migrant workers have to face various challenges and one of the most controversial issues is related to the schooling of rural workers’ children. China government emphasises on education and the central government has designed strict rule implementation of compulsory education for 9-year children (Leung, 2017). However, millions of migrant workers’ children are excluded from this state education system. In this context, this study has supported to analyse the equity of education in China while discussing the nature and history of inequality and discrimination which is faced by the rural migrants in China (Roy, Singh and Roy, 2015). This study has enabled to explore the equity based barriers and policies in the context of Chinese migrant workers. In this research paper, researcher has included the outcomes of past findings which have supported to critically analyse the research topic. At the same time, researcher has included the case study to shed the light on the poor rules and regulations, schooling conditions and discrimination which are found in China for migrant workers’ children.

In this context, this study has supported to identify the challenges which are faced by the migrant workers’ children in China, especially in the context of equity of education. This study is based on secondary data analysis as it has supported to discuss the research topic on the basis of the past findings by utilizing the case study. This research paper has attempted to analyse the general trends in China on the research topic. Furthermore, this study will remain supportive to evaluate the equality of opportunities for the migrant children of China according to the governmental policies which are going to utilize for reducing the causes of social exclusion for the future generations. For this purpose, researcher has utilized the case–study. Additionally, researcher has recommended the ways to make the future governmental policies more effective in the context of equity of education for migrant workers’ children in China. This project has assisted to explore the social issue related to China and has supported to get in-depth knowledge about the challenges faced by the migrants children while recommending the ways to mitigate this situation.

1.2 Research Aim and Research Objectives

The research aim of this study is to identify the issues related to equity of education for the migrant workers’ Children in China while recommending the ways to improve the situation.

The research objectives of the study are as follow:

  • To define equity of education
  • To analyse the challenges related to equity of education for the migrant workers’ Children in China
  • To recommend the ways to improve the situation equity of education for the migrant workers’ Children in China

To conduct the study in the right direction, researcher has given focus towards the achievement of research aims and objectives.

1.3 Research Questions

The research questions of the study are as follow:

  • What are the challenges related to equity of education for the migrant workers’ Children in China
  • What are the ways to improve the situation equity of education for the migrant workers’ Children in China

1.4 Research Significance

According to Ye (2016), China has shown sudden economic liberalization and has reformed in 1979 which has brought flood of foreign investment and influences. Due to this reason, rapid development and industrialization has taken place. It has increased the job opportunity in urban areas and there is a need of massive labour surplus has taken place. Due to economic growth, there was increase has taken place in factories too. Due to which, the demand of low wage labour has grew. This study remained highly assistive to offer in-depth knowledge regarding equity based system which is essential to focus towards the development of healthy society and to offer opportunity to the backward society to link them with the main stream. In this context, this study remained highly assistive as it has shown great involvement towards the accomplishment of the study in an adequate manner.

It has attracted the Chinese peasants to leave the villages and to shift in urban areas to work in the factories of the cities. It is identified that many of the agricultural labourers, have not previously unexposed to the outside world from their rural areas. Due to the new opportunities, they have migrated to the cities to benefit themselves and their families and started to work in the factories (Qiao, et al., 2015). This migration has supported to fuel the China’s economic development at a fast pace. China’s rapid economic growth cannot be seen without the efforts of migrant workers. From the survey, it is identified that during the time span of last three decades, migrant workers are facing the situation of terrible work conditions. Moreover, they have to face the issues of unfair production quotas, inequality, discrimination and many other exploitative practices. They are not getting equal access to health education, social services, etc. as compare to local citizens. The major issue faced by the migrant workers is related to equity of education (Ann, et al., 2014). Due to this reason, this study has undertaken to shed the light on the issues faced by the rural dwellers in China in the context of equity of education. At the same time, this study has supported to recommend the ways to overcome from these issues.

The research motivation of this study is to identify the challenges which are faced by the equity of education for migrant workers’ children in China. It has supported to analyse the social issues which are faced by the Chinese rural migrant. The inequality faced by the Chinese migrants is impacting the children of the migrants especially in the context of education. The hukou system was designed in 1950s under planned economy. However this designed economy has become more painful and creating challenge for the development of the country (Ainscow, 2016). This contradiction is impacting 140 million rural migrants who are working in the urban areas. Due to which, migrants have supported to power up the country’s spectacular growth but they are not become to reap the benefits. In like manner, once they become parents, they face disgusting choice to offer proper services to their children to up bring them in an adequate manner. In this context, hukou registered citizens face the major issue of inequality (Warren, 2017). So, in this context, this study remained quite assistive to get the detailed understanding regarding the research topic which will support for academic as well as managerial implication. It is right of every child to get equity in education which remains supportive for their future growth.

1.5 Research Limitations

In this research, researcher has utilized only primary data collection method. It is the major limitations of the study. Due to this reason, future researcher has a scope of utilizing secondary data collection method (Lingard, Sellar and Savage, 2014). At the same time, in this study, researcher has only utilized quantitative approach which has decreased the affectivity of the research. So, there is an opportunity for the future researchers to utilize qualitative approach which will support to utilize the studies in a subjective manner. Moreover, in this study, researcher has used a small sample size of 100 respondents which has decreased the affectivity of this study and has also decreased the relevancy of the output.

1.5 Research Structure

Chapter 1: Introduction

The introduction chapter has supported to introduce the research topic on the basis of research background, research aim and objectives, research questions, research significance, research limitations and research structure which has supported to provide an understanding regarding the research topic.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

This section is based on theoretical concept of the research and has supported to critically analyse the research topic on the basis of past studies. To increase the relevancy of the data, researcher has referenced only the reliable data sources. For this purpose various magazines, blogs, report, articles, etc. are used which has supported to analyse the point of view of various researcher regarding the equity of education for the migrant workers’ children in China. This section has supported to understand the point of view of various past researchers in the context of the research topic.

Chapter 3: Planning my Enquiry

In this chapter, researcher has discussed regarding the methods which are used to execute the study in a right direction. It has supported to run the study in a structured manner while discussing the data collection method. This section remained highly assistive to lead the study in the right direction and has enabled to develop adequate result outcome.

Chapter 4: Findings

In this chapter, researcher has collected the data of primary research on the basis of survey questionnaire. It has supported to collect the first hand data and has enabled to find out the research outcome on the basis of directly collected data from the side of the respondents and has enabled to evaluate the collected data to develop the findings of the research.

Chapter 5: Data Analysis and Recommendations

In this chapter, researcher has analysed the research finding while interpreting the research outcome. It has supported to increase the reliability of the research findings. At the same time; researcher has recommended the ways to overcome the challenges of the equity of education for the migrant workers’ children in China.

Chapter 6: Conclusion

This chapter has supported to conclude the research outcome while focusing towards the research objectives. In this section, researcher has summarized the overall research in an effective manner. This section has supported to get the acknowledgement about the overall project in a brief.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

In this section of the research, researcher has critically discussed the research topic on the basis of past findings. For this purpose, researcher has referenced the outcome of various magazines, blogs, report, articles, etc. which has supported to give in-depth knowledge regarding the research on the basis of secondary data. At the same time, researcher has included various theories, concepts, models and framework to increase the reliability of the research (Darling-Hammond, 2013). In this section, researcher has discussed the theoretical concept of equity of education while discussing the equity of education for the migrant workers’ children in China. Moreover, in this section, researcher has recommended the ways to make the China migrating strategy more effective.

2.1 Equity of Education

Li and Placier (2015) defined that equity is different from equality as it refers that some people are facing larger disadvantage than others and due to this reason, under equity it is decided to compensate the people for misfortunes and disabilities. It supports to offer equal opportunity to every individual to offer healthy lifestyle. According to the views of Liang (2015), equity enables to recognize the uneven playing field so that extra efforts can be taken to eliminate the situation of inequality and to offer equal opportunities. At the same time, equity also supports to take extra measures for those who are in more need as compare to others. Equity aims to offer equal lifestyle to everyone even if it takes place on unequal distribution. Equity in education is a measurement which is used for the purpose of measuring the fairness, achievement and opportunity in the context of education. This concept is majorly support to link the education with excellence and equity (Klees and Qargha, 2014).In like manner, Skutnabb-Kangas (2014) stated that equity in education enables the society towards the fair and thriving practices. However, it is identified that it is challenging to avoid inequity in education as different society faces inequality due to different reasons. It may be due to socioeconomic standing, race, gender, disability or due to migration. In the current scenario, importance of education equity is growing day by day as individual level of education supports to directly correlate it with the future quality of life.

According to the views of Yuan and Zhang (2015), education plays a major role towards creating a life with better earnings, better health and longer life. In this context, Li and Ranieri (2013) depicted that equity in education supports to achieve equality while providing the best opportunities for all the students of the society to achieve higher education while utilizing their full potential. It enables to eliminate the disadvantage of restrictive educational achievement.  It supports to offer special treatment to eliminate the situation of historical and social disadvantages. It supports to access equal benefit of education on equal grounds. Moreover, implementation of equity in education enables to develop equity measures to ensure fairness and equality of outcome. According to the views of Chen, et al. (2013), it is a right of the children to get the equal opportunity to get the equality in education so that he can accelerate himself to develop their career which will support them to get the success in their life.

Due to this reason, the importance of education equity is increasing day by day as an individual level of education directly enables a person to correlate it with the future quality of life. So, there is a need of developing and practicing effective academic system so that strong foundation towards the society can take place. Equity in education enables towards growing the importance of education while correlating it with the individual upliftment in the context of future quality of life. Therefore, there is a need of focusing towards academic system to develop the practices of educational equity so that strong foundation towards the society can take place which will remain fair and thriving. However, it is identified inequity is a challenge in the field of education and it is very difficult to avoid it as there are various factors found in the society which breaks down the equity.

According to Baker (2016), equity in education has two aspects. The first is fairness, which describes that social and personal circumstances should not become a hindrance in attaining educational potential. The Circumstances are Gender, socio-economic status etc. The second aspect is inclusion. Inclusion refers to ensuring of education to all with a basic minimum standard. Basic standard defines that everyone is able to read, write and do other basic things, simple arithmetic, etc. In support of this, Bianchini (2017) stated that there is an interconnection between these both aspects.  Everyone has the right of getting basic and equal education for realizing the hidden potential and for achieving greatness in everything that occurs in life. All these things should be provided to every child and that too on the ground of moral and ethics.

2.2 Migration in China

In the context of China, according to the International Labour Organization, it is identified that internal migration is very high in the world (Cheung, 2014). Due to this reason, the urban population of China is increasing at a fast pace. From the year 1979 to 2009, the urban population of China has increased from 440 million to 622 million. This increased population has a greater ratio of migrant workers who have migrated from the rural areas of China to the urban areas. In this context, Chen, et al. (2013) depicted that majorly migrants of China are floating population who migrates without local household registration status (Hukou) system. It is identified that, rural-urban migrant workers’ children remain excluded from local educational resources. Not only this, but also they not get equal opportunity of the citywide social welfare programs as well as towards various jobs too. At the same time, this criterion not only includes rural workers however it also considers the person as a migrated worker who is living in urban area but have rural household registration.

China government is hugely focused towards influencing the pattern of urbanization while utilizing Hukou permanent residence registration system. At the same time, easy and convenient land-sale policies, infrastructure investment and other incentives enable to offer to deal effectively with local government officials (Wu, and Zhang, 2017). In like manner, Chinese prefer to migrate from rural to urban areas to increase the opportunity of employment, education, business opportunities and to increase the standard of living.

According to, Chen , et al., (2013), the economic reform has resulted in a shift of the china’s population from rural to urban. There exist better and hidden employment opportunities which is yet not discovered by the people, this is a vital reason for the migration decision. Economic motivation is also a determinant for the new generation migrants. This migration has severe impacts on the lifestyle pattern, behaviour, and preferences of the individuals, their habits, tastes, etc. In the words of, Lester, et al., (2014), migrants who are not permanent are not willing to swap their hukou hometown for an urban one. Due to this, a huge number of migrants have faced challenges such as, precarious home status, inflated cost of living, etc. The large population of Chinese migrants also show major health issues and challenges, the main being the provision of reproductive health care of women migrant. In addition to this, Qiao , et al., (2015), stated that there are other health issues as well such as infection caused by the sexually transmitted diseases like HIV. Migrants are not taking proper care of them and have faced these issues. The avoidance of these issues will have a major impact on the health of the migrants in long-term.

in the research of Roy, et al., (2015) it is found that migration in China has due effects with regard to the gender. the females are on the negative side and have many faced many disadvantages not because of their gender, also because of their rural identities and having status of an outsider. They can have jobs with lower status and prestige as compared to the males. Their double marginalized identities have also caused them disadvantages. There is a change in the demand on infrastructure when people migrate. Both the places face the impact of the migration, the place they emigrate from and the place they immigrate to.  This results in a shift in demands for many things such as, doctors, roads, transport facilities, schools, public transport, child care, shops, telephones, etc. In support of this, Xiong, et al., (2013) stated that the Chinese are planning to adopt measures that will help the major cities to grow and to adopt laws that limit internal migration.

Since economic reform Rural to urban migration have modified the household income structure of rural citizens strongly. Out of the total rural income of china half was contribute by the non-farm activities. The major negative effects of the shift from rural to urban were severe. The major reason were: the unequal distribution of non-farm activites compared to those of farm activities, the richer households have better chances to participate in migration and the non-farm activities as well, high income households have a higher or greater share of non-farm income.

2.3 Equity of Education for the migrant workers’ Children in China

According to the views of Rizvi (2013), China is a rising country which is showing fast pace growth in the past several decades. Moreover, it is identified that it has lifted a great percentage of population from the level of poverty in the last decade and the country is working towards reshaping the economy at a global platform. From the survey, it is identified that more than 260 million people migrate from their birthplaces to China. This population prefers to migrant at the most economically vibrant cities of China (Quaye and Harper, 2014). According to the analysis of China’s political economy show that current scholarship have played vital role towards the migration in economic development. In this context, China’s great migration reflects that it has supported the country to bottom-up the transformation.

The migrant workers of China, dream to offer proper education to their children for eliminating the situation of casual manual labour and to change the lifestyle of their children. However, in most of the cases, this aspiration seems unrealistic. In this context, Sahin (2014) depicted that although Chinese children are entitled to a state education, but all of them get the same equity. The children of migrant workers have to face vulnerable situation as the registration system divides the Chinese citizens into rural and urban residents which dictates different rights for these two different citizens. Rural dwellers do not become able to get the same access to health, education, social services, etc. as compare to localities (Broido, 2015). According to the hukou registration (rural migrant workers), these children do not get equity in education. According to management theory, people measure their total inputs and outcomes. This means people expect their benefits too while offering their services to the country. However migrants are power up the country’s spectacular growth but they are not receiving the benefits which are creating the dissatisfaction (Baker, 2016). Every parent wants to offer good future to their children and they do not compromise in this context. In this context, the government policies of China regarding rural migration are creating the situation of dissatisfaction.

In the views of Portelli and Vibert (2013), industrial development, foreign investment, and urbanization pool the Chinese population towards the growing cities. However, after migration the citizens face various challenges due to government policies. According to the survey, it is identified that although government has turned some best private schools in public based system to offer equality to the children. However, it is analysed that the parents expressed their concern that the quality of these private-turned-public schools is lesser as compared to regular public schools. On the other hand, Pazey and Cole (2013) depicted that although it is identified that the entrance requirements of these schools are less demanding than other public schools and these schools are independent from the hukou but at the same time, there are certain conditions that need to be met. These conditions are related to temporary residence permit, labour contract, residence certificate, and social insurance. Due to these criteria, parents face difficulties while enrolling their children.

In this context, it is identified that most of the parents fail to produce social insurance documents (interview with parents) due to self-employment or due to running the small business. Due to this reason they do not afford to pay commercial insurance which make it difficult to enrol the migrant children in these schools. So, in this situation, the only solution left with the migrant workers to leave their children at their hometown until they do not complete their studies or to offer them private education which are very limited inequality and also not recognized by the government. However, from the survey, it is estimated that in China, 74.2 % of migrant children are enrolled with public schools and only 25.8 % are enrolled with private schools as majorly parents leave their children in hometown (Liu and Jacob, 2013).At the same time, Kenschaft (2014) depicted that this estimation only includes official statistics and does not account those children who are not officially registered in the city or the schools which are not recognized by the government. At the same time, Wong, et al. (2014) determined that around Fifty-eight million children are left behind in the context of education that is getting treated as second-class citizens. This group is facing the issue of poorer academic performance. In this context, Xiong, et al. (2013) stated that to provide the admission to the children in the state schools, there is a need of connections for the rural migrants and also there is a need of paying good amount of money to the connections to provide the admission to the children, which creates the situation of unethical practices within the country. Moreover, various families do not become able to provide admission to their children in public school due to lack of right documents such as scrap collectors, street vendors, etc. do not have adequate employment contracts(Leung, 2017). Due to this reason, most of the migrant workers’ children have to take admission in private schools. These schools generally charge about 600 yuan a term which is not affordable for every migrant worker. Not only this, but it is also identified that they are facing the behavioral problems from their peers too. It is identified that approx. 6% of migrant children have never attended school. Roy, Singh and Roy (2015) depicted that due to this reason, various group campaigning take place by the activists for the workers’ rights as there is a situation of dissatisfaction in the mind of the rural migrant and they want to get the equal rights of education for their children so that they can offer them good future.

In support of this, Heshmati and Su (2017) identified that the migrant workers’ children face educational issues in China. Additionally, strict restrictions and policies create issues for the admission of the rural migrant. It is identified that due to Household Registration status, most of the migrant children get rejected by the public schools in the urban areas. This is the major challenge which is faced by the migrant’s children. In the views of Ann, et al. (2014), the rural migrant students are still facing the challenge of discrimination in the urban public school. Moreover, the education problems are not well solved and even increasing day by day. According to the survey, in spite of any kind of improvements in the education system, migrant children are still facing various issues and there is a long way to improve the education quality and to offer equality in education for the migrant children. So, there is a long way to improve the system of the China in the context of equity of education for the migrant worker’ children.

Chen, et al. (2013) depicted that due to not getting admission and discriminated against in the public schools, there is no option remains with the migrant children. So, they have to take admission in underfunded, community organized schools to accomplish their primary education. These migrant schools remains excluded from the government funding and do not have any recognition. Not only this, but also, migrant schools provide sub-standard education which directly impacts the career of the migrant children.

According to the views of Warren (2017), however Chinese children are permitted to state education, but only small population of migrant workers’ children become able to get the adequate education. Due to this reason, millions of migrant workers remain in the most vulnerable situation. Migrants face the issue of registration system which divides the country citizens into rural and urban migrants and according to that it dictates the rights of both the population. It impacts the life standard of the rural migrants as they do not become able to enjoy the same access towards the health, education and many other social services as compare to localities.

Serafeim (2015) depicted that the Chinese household registration system known as hukou system which restricts the population in the context of mobility. Moreover limits the people access towards the state-sponsored social benefits. The hukou system is based on inequality and institutionalizes inequity which creates the situation of ill practices and provide disadvantage to the rural migrants who are hukou holders. At the same time, the hukou system divides the country’s China’s economic development in the context of rural and urban. Rizvi (2013) identified that the hukou system has established hierarchies in the context of income, housing, education, employment, retirement benefits, medical and many other services. However it is noticed that the hukou system restrictions have decreased the facility on population mobility. This issues have taken place since the economic reform and it is creating differentiation between various group of populations and impacting the rights of public welfare and services. Additionally, Quaye and Harper, S. R. (2014) stated that at present the central government is also not playing any role towards officially sanction the transfers of the people under hukou registration.

In like manner, Wu and Zhang (2017) depicted that the new hukou system is focused towards distinguishing the locals from the outsiders that means it differentiates between non-migrants from migrants which differentiates them towards the access of welfare and social benefits. Qiao, et al. (2015) depicted that there is only a step has taken by the China government towards rural migrant education and that is low-fee granting to their children. Additionally, there are only few benefits which are offered by the local government to the migrants. Moreover, the big cities of China have the most migrants and the city set up the most demanding entry conditions which impact the migrants. In like manner, Renzaho and Oldroyd (2014) stated that mostly getting the urban hukou requires the expropriation of land. Due to this reason, in most of the cases, it is not preferred by the rural residents. China urban countries have low entrance restrictions however it gives lower consideration towards social benefits. Migrant children have to face challenging situation in the contest of getting adequate education in China. It is identified that after twentieth century, the issues related to migrant children have increased in China due to increase in the number of the migrants (Nguyen and Locke, 2014).

In the views of Rizvi (2013), fiscal decentralization reformation has taken place in China in the 1980s which has allowed the local governments regarding more public spending while increasing the responsibility. However imbalanced urban-rural development system has created differentiation in the context of the local government capacity of funding towards education healthcare, etc. Due to this reason, regional disparities are continuing in the society with the widening regional disparities. It is highly contributing towards the disparity in the expenditure in public education in China. It has created complicated issues in China.

In the contrary, Roy, Singh and Roy (2015) depicted that China government has increased the focus towards creating equity towards the rural migrant workers while trying to create the equal access towards education in urban cities. However, Serafeim (2015) argued that the local urban governments of China showing their unwillingness to spend funds to the migrants as they have limited funds and they prefer to expense those funds to the local population rather than spending them on the migrants. Due to this reason, in the current scenario also there is a huge gap can be seen between rural and urban education resources in China which creates issue towards the migrants. Due to this reason, there is a need of huge improvement in the society. In this context, Skutnabb-Kangas (2014) depicted that the decentralized education funding system of China is creating the vulnerable situation for the migrant workers’ children as no one is taking the responsibility of migrant children education.

According to the views of Wong, et al. (2014), since 1980s, China has shown fast pace growth. Due to increase in industrialization and urbanization, migration has increased. In this context, Xiong, et al. (2013) identified that migration is an on-going process in China however still the children of migrant workers are facing the issue inequality and has to face various issues from the childhood. Due to which, they not become able to get the adequate living standard as compared to urban children. It is identified that the rural migrants have to suffer from crucial issues in the context of political and academic fields. In the views of Ye (2016), such kind of educational inequality creates social issues and reflects the trend of injustice towards the migrant population. Yuan and Zhang (2015) identified that China’s household system needs to be improved as it is creating challenge towards the migrant children and creating issues towards the society upliftment and equality based system. China inequity based system indicates towards invisible discrimination towards the rural migrants which is increasing the reproduction of social inequalities due to which migrant children are suffering and their life has become miserable. From the survey, it is identified that most of the migrant workers instead of leaving their children in their home villages prefer to take them to cities for providing their children better care and education. Instead of leaving their children to be cared by aging grandparents, they give more focus towards offering quality education to their children in the city schools. In the context of figures, there are approx. 14 million children in China who live with their migrant parents in cities however 9 million children are left-behind with their grand children. These figures and facts reflect that huge number of parents takes their children in cities for better education. So, it reflects that they are concern towards their children career. The china’s public education has hence gone through rapid development. The progress of higher education of china has also been interrupted.

2.4 Recommendations

In the views of Serafeim, U. B. R. M. (2015), China educational system has still huge deficiency in the context of providing equal opportunities to the migrant children to assist them to achieve their educational goals for their better life. In support of this, Braathe and Otterstad (2014) depicted that giving importance to the equal education in Chinese society, will remain highly assistive to offer the equal opportunity of growth which will also remain supportive towards the upliftment of the society. At the same time, it will enable towards eliminating the risk of unethical practices and will support to design effective government policies for the migrants too. It is essential for the government to take corrective action in the future context by designing the adequate project to eliminate the current social inequalities in the future context (Kenschaft, 2014). There is a need of designing the effective reform policies to contribute towards the upward social mobility for alarge class of people. It will support to playanimportantrole in China for the economic development while offering the benefits to the migrated citizens. Equity based academic system supports to design strong foundation of a society while increasing fair and thriving practices. At the same time, in the contemporary world, inequity in education remains challenging to avoid and creates discrimination which breaks the country on the basis of inequity of socioeconomic standing, race, gender or disability (Pazey and Cole, 2013). There is a need of offering the assurance to the citizens to offer equal opportunity of education to the children. There is a need of utilizing Kotter’s eight step model for the purpose of bringing the change in the system (Bianchini, 2017). This model will remain highly assistive to develop intrinsic motivation for the purpose of adequate change management.

At the same time, Broido (2015) identified that Chinese government is working towards loosening the grip on the economy while strengthening the property rights. Chinese government is working towards allowing the migrants to employ themselves and each other while encouraging the rural migrated citizens who are huge capable population of China and giving considerable contribution towards China economy. China government is working towards transforming the regulations to offering the equal access of the migrant population in the context of to health, education, social services, and etc. (Braathe and Otterstad, 2014). Equity in education will remain highly assistive towards the market liberalization and economic migration and will support to fight with poverty and creating prosperity.

Wu and Zhang (2017) stated that to eliminate the situation of inequality, the Chinese Government has developed various policies in 1990s for the purpose of addressing the educational issues among the migrant children. Government has reported that these policies remained helpful to decrease the situation of inequality. However Cheung (2014) argued that from the survey, it is identified that still China is facing the issue of poorer equality system especially in the context of education among the migrant and the local children. In support of this, Nguyen and Locke (2014) depicted that migrant children have to face various strict admission procedures for getting admission in public schools. Although The Chinese Government is professing towards equality but even government has not prioritised educational equality in public sector till yet. So, the capability and motivation which is used for the local institutions are inadequate in the context of policy implementation. According to the Honig’s model, policy implementation is the outcomes of the MCE policies which reflect the interaction between policy design, participants as well as implementation (Zhang, et al., 2014).

In the contrary, Kenschaft (2014) argued that government has selected seven the best private schools and turned them into public institutions in the year 2010. These schools are designed to deal with the policies of “same treatment as local citizens”. At the same time, these schools have eliminated the tuition fees too. So, the migrant parents only need to pay the modest contribution towards the children meals. However, there are various hard and core conditionsthat need to be met. These conditions should be loosened to offer easy enrolment facility. So, the government needs to explore these kinds of policies to offer the equal opportunity of growth to the citizens. Moreover there is a need of designing many other policies too. According to the views of Cheng, Wang and Smyth (2014), the only way of long-term solution of this issue is to abolish the hukou system while creating wide-range and systematic reform under social welfare. In support of this, Zhang, et al. (2014) identified that the government of China has promised to renovate the system for offering the equity in education. However government has a fear that this drastic change can increase the chances of migration and the huge number of migrants will flood in the cities. It can cause an unmanageable situation in the context of services and housing as well as it can create the situation of inconvenience. Moreover, to extend the services in cities, government need to invest massive amounts of extra funds. At the same time, Su,et al. (2013)determined that huge increase in population in urban areas can lead towards the tough situation for the citizens. So, to overcome from this situation, government needs to create strict regulations for migration which will support to decrease the number of migrants in the cities and the government become able to offer equity in different sectors to the migrant workers and their children especially in the context of education.

Ji and Yeung (2014) identified that at present, there are some cities of China where governments have implemented integrating system to offer the opportunity to the migrant children into the state-run schooling system. These integrating system are supporting the migrant education reforms and attempting to provide extensive social benefits to the migrant workers’ children. However, this implementation has taken place only in two cities of China, i.e. Wenzhou and Pudong. So, there is a need of motivating the education reforms in each of the desired cities.It will support towards ensuring future economic and personal success of the individuals by attracting and retaining more skilled labour force. In like manner, government need to provide specific funds to the local government for the rural migrants while developing strict rules and regulations so that this fund will only utilize towards their development.

According to the views of, Lingard, et al., (2014) the link between the provision of social services and hukou should be decoupled. Children should be provided their equal rights and same rights to health and social participation, education, etc. For the welfare of the cities in china the government should be given authority and be made solely responsible for all the operations in this regard. It should not result in passing the burden of cost on the poorer governments. The urban population is having the key responsibility of conducting smooth progress operations to reform the hukou. The salaries should be provided on time, and there should be effective staff in every staff and they should be recruited properly. According to the view of, Ann, et al., (2014), mutual understanding and coordination can be exercised among the rural migrant and urban students by conducting more of school and other classroom related activities. These activities will in turn motivate and encourage both the students to work together effectively. For establishing more appropriate and effective learning, teachers should also incorporate the cultural knowledge and prior experience of migrant children.

2.5 Summary

From the above theoretical discussion, it can be analysed that it is essential to pay attention towards equity of education for migrant workers’ children in China. Rural migrant workers playing significant role towards the growth of the country but still they and their children are not getting any benefit, it is injustice. Equity in education will support towards their upliftment and will enable to join them from the mainstream. However government of China has applied various policies to bring equity of education and has planned various future policies too. However it is identified that these policies are less effective and these policies are even not applied effectively in state schools too. Due to this reason, the situation of dissatisfaction is rising in the migrants and there are various campaigning program is taken place to make the government aware about the issues and to force the government to take corrective action. If the situation will not handle in an adequate manner then it can create the situation of violation too. Hukou system is also creating the situation irritation, aggression, depression and many other of behavioural change as the migrant workers not become able to offer a good life to their children who can negatively impact the country. So, there is a need of designing effective policies of equity so that rural migrants can also enjoy the access to health, education, social services, etc. equivalent to urban dwellers. There is a need of make the rules and regulations in an effective manner to join the rural migrants to the mainstream. In like manner, there is a need of focusing towards developing equity based system so that it will enable to develop equality based system while offering equal opportunity of education. Additionally, there is a need of allotting the specific funds for the rural migrants so it can be properly used towards their development.

Chapter 3: Planning my Enquiry

3.1 Introduction

This chapter of the research has supported to explore the methods which are used by the researcher to execute the study in an effective manner. Research methodology is a process which supports to select the method which is needed to be used to collect the information & data in a manner so that adequate conclusion can be received. Jensen (2013) depicted that research methodology is a tool which is used in the study to run the research in a systematical order in the right direction to achieve the research objectives while answering the research question. It supports to solve the research problem while including effective methods. In this section researcher has discussed various steps of the research methodology which has supported to offer in-depth knowledge regarding the data collection method. In this chapter, researcher has discussed research philosophy, research approach, research strategy, research choice, time horizon, data collection, sampling, data analysis, research ethics and research limitations.

The aim to conduct this study is to analyse the equity for migrant workers’ children in China. This section has supported to identify the methods or the strategies which are need to be used to conduct this study in a systematic manner and has enabled to conclude the study in the right direction. To conduct the study in the right direction, researcher has included research philosophy, research approach, research strategy, research choice, time horizon, data collection, sampling, data analysis, research ethics and research limitations which have supported to generate valid research outcomes regarding the study.

3.2 Research Philosophy

There are basically three types of philosophy which is used by the researcher, they are -positivism, realism, and interpretivism philosophy.According to the views of Flick (2015), realism philosophy remains helpful for the researcher to interpret the data as the perception of the study takes place on the basis of natural realities. On the other hand, under positivism philosophy researcher focuses towards utilizing the natural phenomena to offer optimistic information (Neuman and Robson, 2014). In like manner, interpretivism philosophy enables to reach on a conclusion while focusing towards subjective comprehension.

In this study, positivism philosophy is used by the researcher as it has enabled to conclude the study in an effective manner. It has enabled to focus towards subjective perspective. It has supported to conclude the study on the basis of aims, objectives and goals in a well-defined manner.  It has allowed gaining reliable knowledge regarding the research topic.

3.3 Research Approach

There are basically two major research approaches, they are – deductive approach and inductive approach. Deductive approach is used by the researcher for developing the hypothesis on the basis of existing theory. Under this approach, plenty of sources are used by the researcher to get in-depth knowledge about the outcome of previous research while utilizing various steps such as theory, hypothesis, observation, etc. However in the contrary, inductive approach is majorly based on the generation of new theories and the outcomes of the research based on observations so it is totally practical based (McCusker and Gunaydin, 2015). Due to this reason, researcher has used inductive approach in this study as it has supported to frame the questions instead of the creation of hypothesis and has enabled to narrow the scope of the study. It has enabled to offer the freedom of not limiting the study only to the hypotheses.

3.4 Research Strategy

To conduct the study, research strategy is used by the researcher. It supports to investigate the research issue in an effective manner while maintaining the research ethics. It enables the researcher to get the answer of the research in a systematical manner. There are various strategies such as survey questionnaire, interview, case study etc.(Jensen, 2013). Researcher selects the research strategy according to the research need. To conduct this study, researcher has selected survey questionnaire method as it has enabled to conclude the research in a timely manner. Additionally, it has supported to collect first hand data to understand the study from the perspective of the respondents. It has supported to understand the views, opinions, perceptions and suggestions of the migrant workers. For this purpose, researcher has given huge focus towards involving relevant research questions.

3.5 Research Choice

There are basically three types of research choices, researcher selects the research method according to the research need. These research methods are – quantitative method, qualitative method and mixed method (Punch, 2013). Quantitative method enables to represent the data on the basis of tables, graphs and charts. It enables to produce the opinion of the respondents in a structural manner while producing the hard facts. It supports towards statistical representation which supports to understand the research outcome in a glance. In the contrary, qualitative method supports to understand the ideas, views, perceptions, opinions, suggestions etc. while utilizing qualitative measurements (Hartas, 2015). In like manner, mixed method is the combination of quantitative and qualitative method. In this study, researcher has utilized quantitative research method as it has supported to represent the data of survey questionnaire in a statistical manner and has enabled to conduct the study in an effective manner and has enabled to understand the research outcome in a glance.

3.6 Time Horizon

Creswell (2013) stated that time horizon framework enables the researcher to frame the time in which research will be completed. There are basically two types of time horizon methods which are used by the researcher to accomplish the study, they are – longitudinal time horizon and cross-sectional time horizon. In this study, to conduct this study in a timely manner, researcher has selected cross-sectional time horizon as it enables the researcher to develop the result of the study on the basis of data evaluation. In like manner, cross-sectional time horizon method remains suitable in the context of quantitative method. So, this method is adequate and suitable for this study purpose.

3.7 Data Collection

There are basicallytwo types of data collection method, i.e. – primary data collection and secondary data collection.In this study, researcher has included primary as well as secondary data collection method which has supported to get the advantage of both the data collection method. Primary data is a raw and fresh data which is collected for the first time(Lester, Inman and Bishop, 2014). For the collection of primary data, researcher has included survey questionnaire method which has supported to get the first hand data directly from the respondents. IT has supported to offer the views, perceptions, opinions, suggestions and ideas of the respondents. While designing the survey questionnaire, researcher has given huge focus towards including only relevant data sources which has supported to increase the reliability of the data. At the same time, while designing the questionnaire, researcher has given huge focus towards the achieving of research objectives. At the same time, for the collection of secondary data, researcher has involved various blogs, magazines, reports, journals, articles, etc. which has supported towards understanding the research topic on the basis of the past findings of various researchers (Zou and Sunindijo, 2015). Secondary data has supported to understand the research on the basis of theories, models and concepts and has supported to achieve the research objectives. Both these methods have supported to conclude the research in an effective manner.

3.8 Sampling

Jensen (2013) defined that involving all the relevant population in the research is something which is impossible. In this context, sampling technique is used which enables towards consider the taken sample size to represent the whole population. It enables to selects uitable participants who show their involvement in the research. The sample size of the research allows predicting the outcomes for the wider population. According to the views of Mertens (2014), there are basically two types of sampling techniques, which are used by the research, i.e. – probability and non-probability technique. Sampling is a technique which is used by the researcher for the selection of suitable candidates for the research. For conducting the primary research through survey questionnaire method, researcher has contacted 128 rural migrant workers, from which 100 respondents have shown interest to conduct the survey. So, researcher has selected these 100respondents on the basis of probability sampling method. Researcher has utilized internet medium and contacted the respondents through e-mail as it is a fast medium and has supported to interact with the respondents through mass communication medium. This sampling technique has supported to eliminate the chances of inequality or biasness and has supported to collect relevant and reliable data (Flick, 2015). Moreover, it has supported to select the participants while offering equal chance to every member of population.

3.9 Data Analysis

Data analysis is a method which is used by the researcher to evaluate the collected data. For the research purpose of this study, quantitative data analysis method is used. In this section, researcher has utilized MS-Excel software which has supported to evaluate the data in a statistical manner and has enabled to understand the primary findings in a glance. In this research, researcher has focused to analyse the research on the basis of tables, charts and graphs and has enabled to conclude the data on the basis of relevant data sources. It has supported to understand the research outcome in a glance (McCusker and Gunaydin, 2015). In this study, researcher has correlated the primary data outcomes with secondary data findings which have enabled to increase the relevancy of the research.

3.10 Research Ethics

Giving concern towards ethicality is an essential part of a research as it supports to eliminate the chances of any kind of hindrance and enables to eliminate the chances of any kind of hurdle in the execution of the study (Mackey and Gass, 2015). In this research, while collecting the data from survey questionnaire, researcher has given focus towards not including any question which is irrelevant or can hurt the feeling of the respondents. Additionally, while collecting the secondary data, researcher has focused towards copyright, patents and plagiarism. At the same time, researcher has focused towards referencing the study in an effective manner to provide proper respect to the authors whose studies are used in the study. In like manner, researcher has given huge focus towards maintaining the secrecy and privacy regarding the data which are collected by the primary research. For this purpose, researcher has store the hardcopy of the data in the lock and key and the softcopy is also protected by the password. Additionally, researcher has given huge focus towards not to share data of the respondents with any other without any prior permission of the respondents (Neuman and Robson, 2014).

3.11 Research Limitations

In this research, researcher has taken small sample size so there is a scope of taking large sample size for the future researcher as it will support to increase the relevancy of the research outcome. In like manner, in this research, researcher has taken quantitative data analysis method however involving mixed data analysis method will remain assistive to collect the data while involving qualitative data analysis method too. So, there is an opportunity for the future researcher to execute the study with the utilization of mixed or qualitative data analysis method (Brannen, 2017).

3.12 Summary

From the above research methodology, it can be summarized that in this research, researcher has utilized positivism philosophy while utilizing inductive approach. Additionally, literature review and survey questionnaire strategies are used in this study while focusing towards quantitative research choice. In like manner, researcher has utilized cross-sectional time horizon method which remained suitable to conduct the study adequately. Furthermore, this section has supported to conclude that researcher has utilized primary as well as secondary data collection method. For primary data collection, researcher has utilized probability based sampling technique and has selected 100 rural migrant workers as respondents. These respondents are contacted through e-mail. For the purpose of data analysis, researcher has used MS-Excel software is used by the researcher which has supported to represent the data while utilizing various charts, graphs and tables. Moreover, it has supported researcher to correlate the primary findings with literature findings. In this research, researcher has given huge consideration towards ethical parameters and has also remained focused towards research limitations.

Chapter 4: Findings

4.1 Introduction

In this chapter, researcher has analysed the primary data outcome on the basis of quantitative approach. It has supported to represent the response of the participants on the basis of tables, charts and graphs. In like manner, primary data outcome has correlated with the literature review to evaluate the relevancy of the research data (Hartas, 2015). In this section, researcher has utilized MS-Excel software which has enabled to represent the data statistically. It has supported to evaluate the demographic information which has enabled to identify the percentage of different age and gender population. At the same time, survey questions have assisted to analyse the survey outcome in the context of the research topic.

4.2 Demographic Information

4.2.1 Age

Table 1: Age

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
20 – 30 years3333
31 – 40 years4242
41 – 50 years1515
51 – 60 years1010
Total100100

From the above table, it can be interpreted that to conduct this survey, researcher has involved the migrant workers who lie between the age group of 20 to 60. The maximum respondents lie between the age group of 31 – 40, however the minimum respondents lie between the age group of 51 – 60. From this it can be interpreted that the migrant workers between the age group of 31 – 40 show more eagerness to share their views, ideas and perceptions.

4.2.2 Gender

Table 2: Gender

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
Male6868
Female3232
Total100100

From the above table, it can be stated that most of the respondents of this research is male personalities and their percentage is 68%. However there are only 32% respondents who are female. This ratio reflects that men show more involvement in the survey. Not only this, but also it can be interpreted that in China, female migrant workers are lesser as compare to male migrant workers.

4.3 Survey Analysis

4.3.1 Equity based Education System in China

Table 3: Equity based Education System in China

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
Yes8181
No1919
Total100100

Figure 1: Equity based Education System in China

Above table and chart has supported to analyse that most of the migrant workers want that there should be equity based education system. From the above data it can be evaluated that 81% respondents have shown consensus with this statement however, 19% respondents have shown disagreement as they prefer equality based system instead of equity based system. However the respondents, who have shown consensus to this statement there percentage is high. From this, it can be evaluated that most of the migrant workers want to develop equity based education system.

4.3.2 Major Concern as a Migrant

Table 4: Major Concern as a Migrant

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
1Job security2222
2Higher level Children Education4646
3Access to Health Care1818
4Access to Social Welfare1414
Total100100

Figure 2: Major Concern as a Migrant

From the above table and chart, it can be evaluated that most of the migrant workers show concern towards higher level of education of the children and the percentage of the respondents who have shown consensus to this parameter are 46%. In like manner, 22% respondents have accepted that they are concern about job security. In like manner, 18% have accepted that they are concern about health care and 14% about social welfare. From the above figures, it can be analysed that most of the migrants are concerned with their children career and education.

4.3.3 Rules and regulations for Admission

Table 5: Rules and regulations for Admission

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
1Yes2424
2No7676
Total100100

Figure 3: Rules and regulations for Admission

From the above table and chart, it can be analysed that most of the migrant workers have shown disagreement regarding the same rules and regulations in the school for localized students and migrant students. Only 24% respondents have shown agreement to this statement and 76% have shown disagreement, which is a large percentage. From the above data, it can be stated that there is different rules for the migrants and local children in the context of schooling which is creating the situation of discrimination.

4.3.4 Discrimination in the Education Centre

Table 6: Discrimination in the Education Centre

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
1Yes7979
2No2121
Total100100

Figure 4: Discrimination in the Education Centre

From the above table and chart, it can be analysed that most of the respondents (79%) agreed that there children are facing the issue of discrimination at the education centre. However 21% respondents have shown disagreement to this statement. This ratio is very less so it can be interpreted that in the context of China, migrant children has to face the issue of discrimination which reflects inequity based system within the country. This is the major reason behind the migrant workers are facing issues regarding offering adequate educational environment to their children.

4.3.5 Need of Connection

Table 7: Need of Connection

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
Strongly Agree3434
Agree3636
Neutral44
Disagree1616
Strongly Disagree1010
Total100100

Figure 5: Need of Connection

From the above table and chart, it can be analysed that most of the respondents has shown consensus thatthere is aneed of connection, to provide admission to the children in the state school.In this context, it can be analysed that (34 + 36) 70% respondents have shown consensus with the statement. In like manner, 4% respondents remained neutral. Additionally, 16% respondents have remained disagree and 10% respondents have remained strongly disagree from the statement. As huge percentage have shown consensus from the statement so from this, it can be evaluated that, the migrant workers are facing the issues while providing the admission to their children and if they have good connects then only they become able to provide quality education to their children.

4.3.6 Equity based Education Facility

Table 8: Equity based Education Facility

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
Strongly Agree2323
Agree2020
Neutral33
Disagree3030
Strongly Disagree2424
Total100100

Figure 6: Equity based Education Facility

From the above figure and facts of the survey reflects that 23% respondents remained strongly agree, 20% agree, 3% neutral, 30% disagree and 24% strongly disagree from this statement. From this, it can be analysed that (23 + 20) 43% have shown consensus and (30 + 24) 54% have shown consensus with the statement. It has supported to evaluate that the percentage of agreement and disagreement is approximately equal which reflects that government of China is focused towards offering equity based education facility but those considerations are not that much effective. So, there is a need of designing effective rules regarding equity while focusing towards strictly implications of those rules and regulations.

4.3.7 Equity based Education System and Future Economy Development

Table 9: Equity based Education System and Future Economy Development

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
Strongly Agree2828
Agree3636
Neutral66
Disagree1717
Strongly Disagree1313
Total100100

Figure 7: Equity based Education System and Future Economy Development

From the above table and chart, it can be analysed that most of the respondents agreed that equity based education system will remain assistive to develop future economy of the country. In the context of above statement, 64 % respondents have shown consensus, however, 30 % respondents have shown denial to the statement and 6 % respondents remained neutral. The percentage of the respondents who agreed to the statement is high, which reflects that equity based education system will remain assistive for China for the upliftment of the society. However the percentage of the respondents who have shown denial to the statement, their percentage is also not so low, which reflects that there are many other factors too which impact the future economy of the country.

4.3.8 Proper Attention towards the Migrant Workers’ Children in the State School

Table 10: Proper Attention

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
Strongly Agree2323
Agree1818
Neutral33
Disagree3232
Strongly Disagree2424
Total100100

Figure 8: Proper Attention

From the above table and chart, it can be examined that (23 + 18) 41% respondents have shown consensus from the above statement however (32 + 24) 56% respondents have shown denial to it and 3% respondents remained neutral. From the data, it can be identified that there is not huge difference between the responses of agree and disagree. At the same time, it can also be identified that the respondents who are not agree from the statement, there percentage is little higher. It has supported to evaluate that teachers are not showing discrimination with the students. They are trying to offer opportunity to the migrant workers’ children too so that they also get opportunity to develop their career.

4.3.9 State Schools and Equity Based Services

Table 11: State Schools and Equity Based Services

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
Strongly Agree1515
Agree1111
Neutral1010
Disagree3535
Strongly Disagree2929
Total100100

Figure 9: State Schools and Equity Based Services

From the above table and chart, it can be analysed that only 26% respondents have shown consensus from the above statement but 64% respondents have shown denial to the above statement and 10% respondents remained neutral. From the above data, it can be found that most of the respondents that there is not equity based system in the state school due to which discrimination is taking place. It is directly impacting the school culture as discrimination is found in management as well as other facilities accepts education.

4.3.10 Education for the Children

Table 12: Education for the Children

OptionsResponseAnalysis – Percentage
Lower secondary-level education1111
Upper secondary-level education2323
Vocational and technical school3434
College or Universities3232
Total100100

Figure 10: Education for the Children

From the above table and chart, it can be found that most of the migrant workers want to make their children join vocational and technical school and the percentage of this population is 34%. Additionally, 32% migrant workers want to send their children in colleges or universities. In like manner, 11% respondents only want to offer lower secondary-level education and 23% respondents want to offer upper secondary-level education. So, these results have supported to found that most of the migrant workers want to offer good future to their children to uplift their career.

Chapter 5: Data Analysis and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This section has supported to analyse the findings of the research in an effective manner and has supported to interpret the research outcome. Statistical representation has enabled to understand the research outcome in a glance. For this purpose, researcher has given huge focus towards representing the research data adequately. For the purpose of data analysis, researcher has utilized the sample size of 100 respondents who are rural migrants. This chapter has enabled the researcher to evaluate the findings and results of the survey questionnaire and has supported to interpret the research outcomes while correlating the survey findings with secondary data. This section remained quite assistive towards the successful accomplishment of the research. Furthermore, this section has also supported to recommend the ways to overcome from the challenges of equity based system which can remain assistive to develop effective facilities for the migrant workers children.

5.2 Data Analysis

In the context of equity based education system, findings of Liang (2015) has shown similarity with the primary research findings that equity based system supports to recognize and work on the uneven playing field which supports to offer extra efforts to eliminate the situation of inequality while offering equal opportunities and allows taking extra measures for those who are in more need as compare to others. This system enables to provide equal lifestyle opportunity to every citizen even it also consider unequal distribution. So, it remains supportive to offer fairness, achievement and opportunity in education system. From this, it can be interpreted that equity based system remains supportive for the country to offer the opportunity of education and while focusing towards fair and thriving practices. In like manner, in the context of major concern of migrants, it is identified from the survey results that they are mainly concerned with the education of their children. Above finding has shown consensus with the outcomes of Sahin (2014) that the migrant workers of China has a dream of offering proper education to their children as it supports to uplift the career of their children and will assist to provide them good job opportunity rather than making them involve in labour working. So, from this, it can be analysed that the migrant workers are facing the issue towards providing adequate education to their children and they are majorly concern with the education of their children.

In the perspective of rules and regulations, Leung (2017) also depicted that mostly migrant families not become able to provide admission to their children in the state school due to strict rules and regulations regarding documentation. Due to lack of right documents such as scrap collectors, street vendors, adequate employment contracts, etc. migrant workers do not become able to provide admission to their children in state school. Furthermore, Chen, et al. (2013) also found that due to strict rules and regulations, migrant workers not become able to offer admission to their children and due to this reason, they have to take admission of their children in underfunded, community organized schools to make them accomplish their primary education. Due to which, they have to pay fee to offer education to their children but still they do not become able to offer quality education. Above outcome has shown consensus with the primary findings. From the survey results, it is identified that there is discrimination in the education system of China. Above result has shown consistency with the finding of Ann, et al. (2014) that still rural migrant students are still facing the challenge of discrimination in the urban public school as the educational system of China is based on discrimination which is not well solved till yet and even increasing day by day. Moreover, in spite of any kind of improvements in the system, migrant children are facing the challenges and are doing struggle to get quality and equality based education. Due to discrimination, migrant workers children not become able to link with the mainstream. In support of this, Chen, et al. (2013) also stated that due to discrimination, migrant workers do not remain any option accept taking their children admission in underfunded schools. These schools remain excluded from the government funding. Moreover these schools do not have any recognition too. Additionally, these migrant schools provide sub-standard education which directly impacts the career of the migrant children and they do not become to get good higher education. From this, it can be interpreted that there is a need of focusing towards eliminating the situation of discrimination to develop effective education system in China.

In like manner, primary findings have supported to analyse that there is a need of connection to provide the admission to the migrant workers children in the state school. The findings of Xiong, et al. (2013) has shown consistency with this result that in China there is a need of connections for the rural migrants to provide the admission to their children in the state schools. For this purpose, they need to pay good amount of money to the connections so that they become able to provide admission to their children in state schools. From this, it can be interpreted that state schools are involved in unethical practices which is creating issue towards the achievement of equity in education and creating challenge for the rural migrants to offer quality education to their children.

In the context of government concern towards the equity based system, it is analysed from the primary findings that the government of China is focused towards offering equity based education facility but the considerations are not that much effective so, government needs to develop effective and strict rules regarding equity. Views of Ji and Yeung (2014) have shown consensus with this finding that although government provides specific funds to the local government for the rural migrants’ development however local governments only offer limited benefits to the migrants. The findings of Leung (2017) also supported the above interpretation that migrant citizens remain excluded from many kinds of benefits which are provided by the local governments. Local government remains more concern towards the welfare of urban registered citizens and excludes the children of rural migrant workers in various parameters which create the situation of challenge for them in the context of healthy and secure life. Moreover, Leung (2017) identified that on one side China government emphasises on education and the central government has designed strict rule implementation of compulsory education for 9-year children. However in the contrary, there are rules and regulations regarding documentation which is creating hurdle towards the success of the rule of education. From this, it can be analysed that there is a need of increasing the focus towards making the rules and regulations for migrant workers’ flexible while increasing the strictness towards the local government to provide all the benefits to the migrant workers which are allotted by the state government. It will remain assistive to provide the adequate facility to the migrant workers and their family, especially in the context of education.

The literature review shows that there is a need of encouraging the rural migrated citizens as they have shown their huge contribution towards industrialization. Migrant workers are the great percentage of China and this population is the capable population of the country. So, it is necessary to motivate and encourage them while offering them equal opportunity of growth which will enable them to get adequate life style and equal opportunity to avail the government facilities. It will remain assistive to encourage them to perform better. Above finding have shown similarity with the primary findings and from this, it can be interpreted that there is a need of development of equality in the society so for this purpose implication of equity based system is necessary as it will enable to increase the chances of future economy development.

In the perspective of proper attention towards the migrant workers’ children in the state school, it is identified that teachers are focused towards offering quality education to all the children without involving any kind of discrimination with the students. This finding has also shown consistency with the literature review that the faculties of the school are trying to offer opportunity to the migrant workers’ children too so that they also get opportunity to develop their career. From this, it can be interpreted that the teachers of state government is offering equal opportunity to all the children however there is a need of increasing the concern towards migrant workers’ children so that it will become easier to join them with the main stream. Views of Yuan and Zhang (2015) has shown consensus with the above finding that education plays important role to create the life better. So, there is a need of offering best opportunities for all the students of the society. From the above results, it can be analysed that without discrimination based education will support all the children to achieve higher education while utilizing their full potential and will also enable the society to eliminate the situation of historical and social disadvantages while offering equal access to benefit the society while providing education on equal grounds. However in the contrary, the findings also reflect that there is a discrimination based system in school in the management which is directly impacting the future of the children and creating the situation of negativity in the mind of the students. In like manner, it will enable to eliminate the situation of inferiority complex in the mind of the students. In this context, it is interpreted that there is a need of developing equity based services in the state school so the issues related to discrimination can be eliminated and the migrant workers’ children become able to uplift their career and get equal opportunity too. Above interpretation has shown consensus with the findings of Rizvi (2013) that hukou system has created restrictions and have decreased the facilities towards the migrant workers children. Giving concern towards equity based facilities will enable to develop future quality of life. Additionally, the result of the survey has supported to interpret that government needs to increase the concern towards developing effective education system. It has supported to interpret that most of the migrant workers prefer to provide vocational training to their children so that they become able to develop their career. However approx. Equivalent percentage has shown consensus to send their children in college or universities to offer them higher education so that they can succeed in their career and can do white collar job. From this, it can be determined that migrant workers are focused towards their children career and they also have a dream to provide adequate education to their children so that their children need not to work as a labour rather than they can become able to achieve success and earn name in the society. This finding has shown similarity with the outcomes of Sahin (2014) that the migrant workers of China have dream to offer proper education to their children, so that they become eliminate the situation of casual manual labour and can change the lifestyle of their children. However, in the current inequity based system this scenario looks unrealistic. Not even this, but also rural migrants not become able to get the same access to health, education and social services, etc. as compare to localities. So, it is the high time to change the scenario while focusing towards offering adequate facility and services to the migrant workers especially in the context of education of their children.

From the above data analysis, it can be analysed that there is a need of developing effective equity based system in China to offer adequate education facility to rural migrant workers children too. It will remain supportive to link them with the main stream while offering them equal opportunity to uplift themselves. It will remain supportive towards the development of the society and to increase the chances of economic future growth in the country. However it is identified that China government is focused towards narrowing the gap of education for the migrant workers but the rules and regulations are not followed in an adequate manner, especially in the context of local government which is creating the challenge towards equity based education system. In like manner, it is identified that there are strict and rigid rules for the admission procedure of the migrant workers children which is increasing the complexity for them to provide admission to their children in the state schools. Due to which, they have to take admission of their children in the undervalue schools which directly impacts the career of their children and destroy their dream of offering their children higher education. So, to overcome from these challenges, there are few recommendations offered by the researcher to make the education system more effective.

5.3 Recommendations

Above study has supported to recommend that education plays vital role towards the upliftment of the society. So, it is essential that each and every child get opportunity for effective education. So, in this context, the government of China needs to offer the facility of accessing the facility of education to every child. It will enable to create the environment of equity. Additionally, there is a need of designing the budget in a manner so that government can offer opportunity to the migrant workers children. Furthermore, it can be recommended that there is a need of eliminating the chances of any kind of discrimination so that equal opportunity should be got by every child. China is a country which is growing at a fast pace so in this context, this kind of discrimination can create the situation of dissatisfaction among the people and can create the situation of dispute. So, it is essential to eliminate the chances of any kind of discrimination to make healthy relationship between the government and the citizens. Additionally, from the research paper, it can be understood that migrant workers have given huge contribution towards the growth of the country so, in this context, it is unjustifiable to not to offer adequate rights and opportunities to these workers and their families. Additionally, there is a need of providing proper fund to the local government so that adequate welfare facilities can be provided to the migrant workers. In like manner, there is a need of decreasing the strictness in the context of documentation as it is creating issue towards the admission of migrant workers children and it is one of the major reasons behind the hindrance towards quality education. So, there is a need of increasing the flexibility in the state school so that migrant workers do not take admission of their children in any unrecognized school. Government needs to focus towards offering the equal facilities to the children. Moreover, need to boost up the migrant workers to offer at least primary education to their child and should also provide proper facility so that the employees become able to accomplish this rule. There should be the provision of strict punishment, if any individual found discriminating with the migrant children or taking money for admission.

Chapter 6: Conclusion and Research Implications

6.1 Conclusion

Above study has supported to achieve the research objectives moderately and has enabled to conclude the research effectively. This research paper has given huge contribution towards offering clear picture of China through utilizing primary as well as secondary data. This study has become able to achieve the research objectives at a higher extent. This paper not only remained assistive to offer the understanding regarding the educational system of China and its loop whole in the context of inequity but also supported to recommend the ways regarding how to improve this system. In like manner, it has enabled to make the reader understand regarding the reason behind why there is a need of improving the educational system of China and to design equity based system, especially, in the context of migrants.

In this research paper, researcher has utilized survey questionnaire method which has allowed collecting first hand data for the study purpose. It has enabled to understand the point of view, perspectives and suggestions of the migrant workers, who are selected as the respondents. For this purpose, sample size of 100 migrant workershas taken as respondents.In like manner, this research paper has enabled to represent the data on the basis of statistics which has enabled to understand the research outcome in a glance and has supported to represent the data in a statistical manner.

This study has remained assistive to analyse the challenges faced by China in the context of equity of education of the migrant workers’ children. Furthermore, this study has supported to recommend the ways for the purpose of improving the equity based system of education. In this study, researcher has analysed the point of view of the respondents who are the migrant workers, which have enabled to offer the in-depth knowledge regarding the views of the respondents.

This research paper has supported to achieve the research objectives. It can be explained on the basis of following:

To define equity of education

Under this objective, this research has supported to analyse that equity and equality, both are different terms. Equality is related to offer equal opportunity to everyone. However equity depicts to offer equal life style to overall population. For this purpose, in equity based system, there is not equality instead of that in this system government focus to uplift those society people who are facing challenges to link them from the main stream.

To analyse the challenges related to equity of education for the migrant workers’ Children in China

Under this objective, this research has supported to analyse that migrant workers children are facing challenge in the context of education as the system of China not offering the facility of equity based education. This inequality based situation has increased the concern of migrant workers regarding to their children education. It is directly impacting the life of the migrant workers. Moreover, this study has supported to analyse that migrant workers have given their huge contribution towards the economic growth of the country. So, there is a need of focusing towards offering the opportunity to the rural-migrant workers. This study has supported to analyse all the challenges related to migrant workers education from documentation to discrimination and strict rules and regulations. In like manner, this study has supported to understand that focusing towards equity based system will remain assistive for China to increase the development growth.

To recommend the ways to improve the situation equity of education for the migrant workers’ Children in China

This study has supported to offer recommend the ways to eliminate the situation of inequity. It is essential to eliminate the situation of inequality, which can only be achieved through equity based system. This system will remain supportive to increase the positive and healthy environment in the society and will assist to offer equal opportunity of education to all the students. Employing the recommendations will remain supportive to develop effective education system and will support to improve the system. This improvement will not only remain assistive to increase the opportunity of education but also support to increase the access towards health, safety and many other state facilities. Moreover this study also offer the recommendations regarding allocating the specific funds for the development of migrant workers’ children education system.

In this research, researcher has given huge focus towards ethical parameters which has enabled to increase the ethicality of this research. This study has supported to give consideration towards the research problem while offering the ways to eliminate the issues or challenges in the context of the research topic. This research paper is highly focused to conduct the study in the right direction while utilizing the structural framework. This study is based on quantitative data analysis method which has supported to find out the research outcome in a statistical manner and has supported to understand the research outcome in a glance. However there are few limitations of this study too such as researcher has taken small sample size and has not included the qualitative data analysis approach. It has offered opportunity for the future researchers to apply these strategies to increase the effectiveness of the future research outcome.

6.2 Research Implications

This research study will remain assistive for the purpose of academic implication. It will remain assistive for the future researcher to utilize the findings of this study for their study purpose. This research paper has supported to offer clear picture of China education system in the context of migrant workers and has supported to recommend the ways regarding improving the system. In like manner, this study can be utilized for the purpose of getting understanding regarding equity based education system.

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Survey Questionnaire

Demographic Questions:

  1. Age:
  • 20 – 30
  • 31 – 40
  • 41 – 50
  • 51 – 60
  1. Gender
  • Male
  • Female

Survey Questions:

  1. Do you feel that there is a need of equity based education system in China?
  • Yes
  • No
  1. What is the major concern you have as a migrant?
  • Job security
  • Higher level Education of Children
  • Access to Health Care
  • Access to Social Welfare
  • Nothing
  1. Is the rules and regulations for the admission is same for localized students and migrant students?
  • Yes
  • No
  1. According to your views, is the migrant children has to face the issue of discrimination in the education centre?
  • Yes
  • No
  1. Do you agree that there is a need of connection, to provide admission to the children in the state school?
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Do you agree that government of china is focused towards offering equity based education facility?
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Do you agree that equity based education system will remain assistive to develop future economy of the country?
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Do you agree that teachers in the state school give proper attention towards the migrant workers’ children?
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. Do you agree that the state schools are offering equity based services to the migrant workers’ children, in the context of management and other facilities (accept teaching)?
  • Strongly Agree
  • Agree
  • Neutral
  • Disagree
  • Strongly Disagree
  1. According to you, how much education do you think is enough for the children?
  • Lower secondary-level education
  • Upper secondary-level education
  • Vocational and technical school
  • College or Universities

 

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