INDUSTRIAL

MODIFIED FOR INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT STUDENTS

Abstract

The main aim to undertake this research is to identify the importance of logistics management with the use of different tools and techniques: In the manufacturing firms in India. In this research, different logistics firms that use the different tools and techniques for managing the logistics process are taken for generating the valid research outcomes and to accomplish the research aim successfully.

With the respect of this, there are different techniques and the methods that are also used by the researcher in this research. The reason in this is that it assisted the researcher to complete the research objectives successfully and to generate the reliable outcomes.

In addition, researcher also used the survey through questionnaire and in this; researcher approached the 50 employees of the different manufacturing firms from India. The reason in this is that it is one of the effective ways that assisted the researcher to get the maximum responses in limited time and in an effective manner.

At the same time, in order to present the findings of the research, the table and graph is used by the researcher. It is because it made easy the researcher to presents the findings of the research and also made easy for the other person to get the clear and in depth understating about the findings of the research. As well as, in this, different examples of the firm related to the logistics management are also discussed.

In addition to this, in this research, the detail description about the logistics management is also presented as well as the importance of using the different tools and techniques related to logistics management by the manufacturing firms are also determined in this research.

Along with the importance of different tools and techniques such as enterprise resource planning, just in time, lean manufacturing, six sigma, etc of logistics management, the issue and the challenges that manufacturing firms during the use of these tools and techniques are also discussed in this research.

With the respect of this, there are also some ways including use of radio frequency identification techniques, electronic data exchange, etc that are also discussed for the all manufacturing firms in order to overcome the logistics management issues and the challenges.

In addition to this, in this research, it is also determined in this research that further research can be conducted on the different firms of the different countries in order to generate the more valid research outcomes.

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Background

Nowadays, the one of the main aim of the firm is to business expansion and to increase the customer base. The reason behind this is that there is an increasing level of the competition in the market that creates the issue and the challenges for the firms to sustain in the market and to expand their business.

Because of this, there are different strategies and the ways that are used by the firms to manage these issues. In the same concern of this, logistic and supply chain management is also one of the major ways that is used by the firms for getting better marketing position and the customer base (Rushton et al., 2014).

It is because the logistics management assists the firm to manage the supply chain, inventory management, overcome the extra production cost, minimise the risk, etc that is quite vital for the firm in the competitive enrvioemet.

Additionally, there are different tools and techniques in logistics management such as statistic inventory control, manufacturing requirement planning, and capacity requirement planning, just in time, etc that are widely used by the firms. It is because these all tools and techniques and logistics management make easy the firm to successful manage the whole process of logistics.

In the same way, In India, there are also different manufacturing firms that are providing their services across the world. In this, there is major focus of the firms on the logistics managements because it is the process that starts from the point of origin to point of consumption.

Because of this, there are also different tools and techniques that are also used by the Indian manufacturing firms for providing the better services to the customers (Bose, & Pal, 2012).

That is why it can be determined that the logistics management is one of the major parts of the business that assists the firm to get the competitive advantage to increase the customer base.

Likewise, there are also different issue and the challenges that are also faced by the firm in the logistics management process. But at the same time, the use of logistic management tools and techniques assists the firm to manage the issues and to improve the logistics management of the firm.

Liberalisation and globalisation of India’s economy has resulted in huge opportunities as well as challenges before Indian companies. Companies which have earlier enjoyed the benefit of Licence system before liberalisation have to face the intense competition from global as well as local players.

The reach of market is expanding rapidly. The level of competition has risen sharply among Indian companies. Although, these organisations have gained much from global operations ,but, have to face many challenges  accompanying many problems which are typical and intrinsic in relation to India.

The solutions of some of the problems are still to be devised. One such problem or challenge faced by Indian organisations is associated with Logistic Management (Supply Chain Management) and its scope, nature, opportunities and threats linked with logistic management in relation to Indian context.

The scope, nature, challenges and opportunities related to logistic management in Indian scenario provides motivation for this research study. Globalisation of business has offered many sophisticated technologies to manufacturers, suppliers as well as 3rd party logistic providers.

Because of this, logistic management has become an effective tool in realising the consistent success of the companies (Yuan& Wang, 2009).  In the present environment, suppliers are not just a simple vendor satisfying the requirements of customers whenever such requirement arises but in fact, today’s supplier are playing the role of a strategic partners with the client organisations, through a strategic alliance with them.

As a result, the competencies of such companies have increased manifolds. This kind of scenario has changed the mind set of industrialists in India. Subsequently, this has resulted in creation of a knowledge sharing portal. The phenomenon requires in-depth analysis for devising a well-integrated as well as well coordinated approach covering all entities of logistic management.

1.2 Indian scenario and logistics issues

The economy in India has witnessed sharp growth in the last decade showing the consistent effort of the country in the path of growth during the last decade. As per an estimate, the Economy in India will surpass the economy of USA by the end of 2050.

As per the report of IMF, the PPP (Purchasing Power Parity) of India stood around $ 4.4 trillion, which is 3rd best in the globe. The report also confirmed that India is the 2nd fastest growing economy only after China and is at 5th position in the world with respect to GNP of the country.

Even the global recession of 2008 has not affected much the growing pace of the country.  India is the fastest expanding market of the world and have around 1/5th share in the output at global level.

India is on 10th position in the list of top ten consumers markets of the world. The Indian consumer market is worth 250 billion USD (approx.).  The logistic sector of India is in a growing stage. The global market of logistic industry is worth 3.5 trillion USD (Tokar, 2010).

The cost related to logistics is normally ranges between nine to twenty percent of the GDP of a nation. The logistic market of India has a share of 13 % in the GDP of the country and growing at a rate of 20 %.

India is successful in attracting huge FDI, mainly in the sector of electronics and automobile.  This would have positive impact of the development of the country. Similarly, allowance of FDI in retail industry would also provide a boost to the economy of India.

In addition to that, rise in the agricultural processing industries and organised retailing is supposed to have major effect on the economic well-being of the country.  India has the advantage of talented human resource, technology as well as methodical resources.

The entrepreneurial talent is present in the country.  Various economic developments like reforms, rise in production, credit at lower rates, easy financing, growth in the income of middle class, implementation of VAT (value added tax), proposal of GST (Goods and service tax), and rise in the education level of lower as well as middle class has increased the consumption level of the country which has taken the economy of the country to a new height (Yuan& Wang, 2009).

Well Educated Customers: Global companies have realised that consumers in India are well educated now.  Consumers are very much concerned about the prices as well as quality of products and services in the market.

They are not willing to pay for more than the economic value of the product with a particular standard.  Therefore, marketers would not bear much logistic cost as consumers are already price conscious otherwise they will lose their market share.

Poor Economic Conditions of Customers: Huge population in India belongs to the bottom position in pyramid of economy. Thirty seven percent of population in India is below the line of poverty and seventy two percent people reside in interior rural regions.

This untapped market is hard to reach because of poor infrastructure in rural areas.  Therefore, it is difficult of Indian companies to extend its supply chain to these markets. Poor Infrastructure:  The infrastructure in India is low in comparison to infrastructure in other developing and developed nations.

The connectivity is poor, whether through roads, rails, and air or sea ways is struggling in the country.  India is at 54th position in the list of infrastructure development countries.  The logistic infrastructure in India is in poor state due to presence of transportation and warehouse in unorganised sector.  Owing to this, Indian companies have to spend twelve to fifteen per cent of revenue on logistics.

Poor Socio-economic condition of India:  The spirit of competition in India is massively impacted by the factors like price admiration, license raj system, and ownership of government in some sectors, massive tariff and trade barriers, unstable government, currency fluctuations and prevailing corruption.

The distribution network of the nation is also not up to the mark.  The problem is further intensified with diversities in the population in different geography, market fragmentation and obsolete technology.

These challenges could only be countered by Indian manufacturing companies through their quality products and services. And for this, it is crucial to overcome the deficiencies in the logistics management of these companies.  After that, the Indian manufacturing industry will be able to fight the competition at global level.

In this direction, Indian companies have considered logistic management as a part of their strategic decisions.  The logistics management provides huge opportunities to Indian companies to enhance their market share as well as brand value through effectively planning their supply chain.

This requires good planning, availability of infrastructure, sharing of knowledge and of course, a deep study of the prevailing system and future requirements.

1.3 Research Aim and Objectives

The main aim of this research is to identify the importance of logistics management with the use of different tools and techniques: In the manufacturing firms in India

In order to accomplish the aim successfully, there are different objectives that will also be addressed by the researcher for better research outcomes.

1.4 Research Objectives

  • To develop the concept and theoretical aspects of logistics management: In the context of manufacturing firms in India
  • To determine the issues and challenges faced by the firm in the logistics management
  • To identify the role and the importance of logistics management tools & techniques to mitigate the issues and challenges: In the context of manufacturing firms in India

1.5 Research Questions

  • What is the logistics management?
  • What are the ways to use in the logistics management?
  • What is the role of logistics management techniques in the logistics management?
  • What are the techniques used in the logistics management?
  • What are the issue and challenges faced by the firm in the logistics management?

1.6 Statement of the problem

An organization operates all its operational processes and value chains on the focus around satisfaction of the customers and minimization of the total cost of supply chain. In the view of Rushton et al., (2014), in current scenario of competition; competition is not among organizations but it is among supply chain of all organization.

The crucial perspective of the value chain is the difficult structure of logistic management which affects different mechanisms in a manufacturing firm. On the other hand, having an edge over such crucial parameters related to logistic management involves sound knowledge of the vital components attached with it as well as the manner the components attached with each other and its effect on the performance of the organization which will have the managers to make important decision with respect to logistic management.

Therefore, in the present scenario of competition, where there are limited available resources to utilize to an organization; need to understand logistic management to utilize all the resources appropriately and so manufacturing organization can offer better value to its consumers and increase the performance in the efficient manner.

1.7 Research Significance

This research will be quite helpful for the reseaedher to get the in-depth understanding about the use of logistics management in the working process of the firm. This research will also provide the understanding about the tools & techniques that are used by the firm in the logistics management for improving the service of firms (Grawe, 2009).

At the same time, this research will also increase the knowledge of the researcher about the issue and the challenges that are faced by the manufacturing firm in the logistics management. As well as, the outcomes of this research will also be helpful for another researcher to do the better research on the same topic with detail understanding.

This study will aim at analysing the scope of logistic management and on the base of which models will be formulated which will help in improving the performance of supply chain management as well as overall organization. More specifically the study will focus on the influence of logistic management of the performance of the manufacturing organizations.

Moreover, the research is an attempt in the direction of construction of reliable and valid tool for determining the degree of effect that supply chain management and logistics management will have on the overall performance of manufacturing organizations.

This research study would definitely helpful for managers of manufacturing units in order to take tactical, operational and strategically decision for their organization. Therefore, the research study will be useful for organizations in the field of manufacturing and useful to practitioners, academicians, researchers and policy makers.

1.8 Scope of this research work

Many researchers worked on several issues related to logistic management and its relationship with supply chain management. But, this research study focuses to identify the importance of logistics management with the use of different tools and techniques and their influence on the organizational performance of Manufacturing Industries.

Therefore, this research study is all about logistic management and focusing on issues and challenges faced by the firm in the logistics management, role and the importance of logistics management tools & techniques and theoretical aspects of logistics management.

The concentration of the current study work is on manufacturing firms in India and perceptions of the mangers of the manufacturing organizations on logistic management concern, practice of logistic management, tools and techniques of logistics management, performance of supply chain management and overall performance of the firm.

This study work has been done on the basis of collection of primary data with the use of questionnaire which contains several variables of manufacturing sector such as organizational performance in relation with tools and techniques of logistic management and supply chain management as well. Secondary data was also analysed for this research work to understand tools and techniques of logistic management and to know manufacturing industry in India in better way.

1.9 Structure of the research

Chapter 1 Introduction

The introduction chapter explains the different challenges, opportunities and nature of logistic management and its comparative significance with respect to organization’s development and moreover development of the India. The chapter involves significance of the study work, introduces the aims and objectives of the research, and describes statement of the problem, scope of the research, research questions and structure of the current study work.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

This chapter involves a summary i.e. an academic summary of current state of the topic and issue by studying various significant literature attempts by past researchers with respect to logistic management in the field of manufacturing in India. Related issues which are covered: Impact of tools and techniques of logistic management, issues and challenges faced by the firm in logistic management, Recommendations and ways to overcome the issues with respect to logistic management.

Chapter 3 Research methodology

Research methodology is very important chapter because it explains the collection of data in order to analyse. This chapter includes Research philosophy, approach to the research, research methods, time horizon, collection of data, data analysis methods, sampling ethical issues, limitation of the research followed by conclusion of the whole chapter.

Chapter 4 Data analysis

This is an explanation of consequence of survey. It comprises of analysis of data. Firstly, there is an introduction of the chapter. Then there is analysis and finding of the research. It comprises of some graphs and charts in order to present findings from the survey. The analysis is done by the software MS Excel.

Chapter 5: Conclusion and recommendations

Conclusion chapter comprises of overall summary of all chapter. After that there will be recommendations, further implications and limitations of the study.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter of this research is quieted helpful for the researcher to achieve the objectives of the research by analyzing the different journal articles, textbooks and the textbooks. It is because it helps the researcher develop a theoretical background of the research issues.

At the same time, in this chapter, the importance of using the different tools and techniques of the logistics management by the manufacturing firm is discussed.

There are also different issues and the challenges that are faced by Indian firms during the use of logistic management are also discussed.  As well as, in this chapter of the research, various ways are also suggested that can be used by the firm in order to manage the different issue and challenges effectively.

2.2 Impact of Logistics Management Tools & Techniques

To identify the concept of logistics management in the manufacturing firms, views of different authors and scholar has been analyzed for developing in-depth understanding about the subject topic. The relevant information has been gathered from different articles and journals as the concept of logistics management is increasing in the dynamic environment for satisfying the ever changing demands of the customers.

According to Chaharsooghi, et al. (2008), the key components involved in logistics management are transport, inventory, warehousing, etc. Logistics play a vital role in transferring the products from one place to another by making effective utilization of available resources. The logistics and distribution management is a crucial element in supply chain management, which helps in formulating the plans in concerned with the flow of goods and services.

In the views of Bose, & Pal, (2012), it is illustrated that the logistics management is one of the major business part of the firms that assists the firm to get the competitive advantage and to provide the better services for the customers. In addition, from the research of Grawe (2009), it is determined that the logistics management process start from the raw material and end the consumption of the products by the customers.

The companies to control the activities in an effective and successful manner execute multiple decisions in favour of different goods and services for meeting the desires of ends users from the point of origin to the point of consumption.

From the research of Christopher (2016), it has been observed that there are different operations such as inbound and outbound transportation management, fleet management, materials handling, warehousing, inventory management, supply chain management, etc that are done in the logistics management process by the firm for achieving its target on time.

In regard to this, from the research of Lin (2009), it is interpreted that in the logistics management, there is a vital role of the transportation in order to manage the all operations of the logistics management.

It is because get the products and deliver the products for the customer through the transportation is managed by the transportation only. Because of this, it can be determined that in transportation has its major importance in the logistics management.

The companies in context with the manufacturing firms in India make effective use of logistics department’s for carrying out its managerial activities to increase its operational performance. In addition, in the research of Diabat&Govindan (2011), it has been outlined that there is a significant impact of logistics management tools & techniques in the managerial activities for transferring the goods and services from one place to another.

Lean manufacturing concept is implemented, within the conceptual framework by the manufacturing companies for handling and managing the resources in an appropriate and effective manner. In like manner, from the views of Fernie and Sparks (2014), it has been determined that lean production facilitates the companies in creating sustainable development in the competitive environment for gaining competitive advantage over its rivalry companies.

On the other hand, in the research of Hugos, (2011), it has been claimed that there lean manufacturing process is not effective because it encounters various problems due to culture difference, country origin and other reasons.

In the research of of Fernie and Sparks (2014), it is determined that because of increasing level of the competition, there is a vital role of the lean manufacturing for the firms. It is because the use of lean manufacturing techniques in the logistics management helps the firm to handle the entire activities effectively.

It increases the use of existing resources effectively and also overcome the possibilities to generate the wastages. Due to this, in the all logistics management, the logistics manager highly prefers the use of lean manufacturing in the project.

As well as, from the research of Hugos, (2011), it is also illustrated that the use of lean manufacturing also helps the firm and the logistics manager minimise the wastages of the materials and use the existing resources at high extant that is quite important for the firms to have the better control on the logistics process. From the study of Monczka, et al. (2015),

there are different ways that are used by the firm in order to sustain the market and to increase the efficiency in the operation process of the firm., in the dame concern of this, in the research of of Monczka, et al. (2015), it is also formulated that Six- Sigmais an effective tool which helps in reducing and eliminating errors and faults from the manufacturing process.

The concept of Sig Sigma is highly used by the companies for maintaining quality in the products and services for diminishing the overall cost of production and building customer’s satisfaction. In like manner, this tool is used for introducing continuous improvement in the management system by implementing standardizes process and method.

In support of this statement, from the reach of Monczka, et al. (2015), it is illustrated that Six-Sigma helps in bringing improvement in the business process by reducing the wastage and cycle time in the organization. Moreover, the tools facilitate in increasing the productivity, quality and supports in making the working operations smoother.

The major characteristics of six sigma aid in changing the leadership style’s, bring positive attitude, develop effective communication, target orientation and creates deep understanding about the business practices. But at the same time, in the research of Fernie& Sparks (2014),

it is researched that although there is a vital role of the six sigma techniques in the manufacturing process of the firm but at the same time there are also different issues and the challenges that are also faced by the firms at the time of using the six sigma techniques in their business process.

In this, the cost is one of the major issues that are faced by the firm. It is because in order to use the six sigma techniques, there are lots of costs that is occurred and creates the financial issue for the firm. Because of this, it can be stated that the use of six sigma techniques is only possible for the firm that operates their business at high level or have the high brand name in the market.

In addition, from the views of Fernie& Sparks (2014), it has been identified that Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is the best tool for the manufacturing firms in India for increasing its operational activities.

The tool assists in handling entire system of the organization from sales marketing to production, from inventory to final goods because each and every step is recorded in the centralized document. The raw material purchased or dispatched in the form of finished goods is recorded on the basis of real time.

But at the same time, in the research of……., it is determined that the use of Enterprise Resource Planning is one of the best ways that is used by the firm but this is also cost and time consuming process that also creates the issue for the firms. It is because in order to use the ERP system, there is a need for the firms to have a skilled and the knowledgeable staffs that can easily handle the all operation and threw working of ERP.

For this, firms provide the training for the employees at high level and also always try to keep updates the system as per the new technology and the innovation. Due to this concern, it can also be stated that the use of ERP system is also a costly process for the firms.

In the same concern of this, it is also stated in the research of Bala (2014), by deter mining that the use of ERP is better but in India, there is not high use of the technology and there is less use of ERP system by the firms. It is because the use of ERP is quite bases on the high technology that creates the issue and the problem for the employees and the labour of the firm.

The labour of the firm is not much educated and also not has their willingness to work under the high technology, due to this, it can be stated that in the concern of the India, the use of ERP system is not a good option for the all manufacturing firm to make much better the logistics management system.

On the other hand, in contract to this, in the findings of Bala (2014), it has been described that Distribution Requirement Planning (DRP) is a significant tool that make effective utilization of diverse distribution system.

The demand of customers in different geographical level is identified with the help of DRP tool. The tool then assists in supplying the products and maintaining effective flow of goods from one region to another.

In the support of this statement, in the research of Costinot, et al. (2013), it is illustrated that the use of DRP is quite effective for the firm to get the competitive advantage and to develop the good customer base.

The reason in this is that the use of DRP assists the firm to supply the products for the customers on time and effectively that overcomes the issue of the firm related to products delivery and makes a positive image of the firm in the customer mind. Due to this, it can be determined that the use of DRP system is quite better for the firm to increase the brand name and the customer base.

At the same time, the research of et al., (2012) stated that Automated Inventory Tracking System (AITS) consolidate the company by giving the information on the real time basis. The information about the inventory level at the entire retail store, warehouse etc. is made available for maintaining the records.

Likewise, form the research of of Ngai et al., (2011), it is stated that the use of Automated Inventory Tracking System (AITS) technology of the inventory management that is used by the firm in order to increase the efficiency of the logistics process and to have a good flow in the business. In the research of Babu et al.,  (2012), it is elaborated that at present, there is an increasing level of the competition and every firm tries to grab the market opportunities and to develop a good customer base.

Because of this, they provide the different offers and the benefits for the customers. At the same time, they always try to identify the need of the customers and accordingly provide the products for the customers on time and effectively.

In this, the use of Automated Inventory Tracking System (AITS) helps the firm by determining and providing the exact information about the inventory levels about the all stores of the firm and accordingly firm manage the products and the demand of the products. Due to this, it can be depicted that the use Automated Inventory Tracking System (AITS) is much better for the all manufacturing firm in India.

In addition to this, it is also stated that in case of some changes, information is directly communicated to the supplier for making optimum utilization of resources in the supply chain. In addition, from the views of Costinot, et al. (2013), it has been determined that Just-in-Time is the modern technique, which helps the organization in accomplishing manufacturing objectives on time.

It is used for eliminating the wasteful activities such as flow time, response time from the production cycle for increasing the efficiency. The elimination of wastages from the manufacturing firms in India helps in achieving the goals quickly because of optimal consumption of various resources, which contribute towards maximizing the profit margin.

At the same time, according to the, Lin, & Ho (2009), there us vital role of the Juts in time approach in the logistics management of the firm. It is because Just in time approach make easy the all manufacturing firms to complete the all task successfully on time and to have a good flow in the manufacturing process of the firm.

In the research of Ngai et al., (2011), it is also determined that by using the just in time approach, it is easy for the firms to successfully get the competitive advantage and to provide the right products for the customers on right time. Due to this, it can be exhibited that there is a significant role of the just in time approach in the manufacturing process of the firm.

2.3 Issues and Challenges faced by the firm in the Logistics Management

At the same time, from the research of Ngai et al., (2011), it is identified that although, the logistics management is one of the major business aspects of the firm but at the same time, there are also different issues and the challenges that are also faced by the firm at the time of using the logistics management.

At the same time, by supporting the research findings of Grawe (2009), from the research of Lin, & Ho (2009), it is defined that the all process decides the successfulness and unsuccessfulness of the firm.

It is because any error and issue in the all process of the logistics management can affect the customer base of the firm and the market value. Because of this, it can be stated that there is a vital use of the logistics management in the success of the firm.

In the same concern of this, in the research of Prajogo, &Olhager (2012), it is also determined that manage the supply chain and inventory cost are the major issue that are faced by the firm in the logistics management. It is because it is a broad concept that takes so much time and the cost of the firm.

Due to this, it can be interpreted that cost is one of the major issues in the supply chain management. In the same concern of this, in the research of Ustundag, &Tanyas (2009), it is determined that due to continuous change in the technology and the need of the customers, the use of different tools of the logistics management is also one if the major issue for the firms.

It is because due to timely change in the technology, firm has need to change he existing system, that increase the cost of the firm and creates the financial issue fir the firm, because of this, it can be staged that most of the firms usually avoid the use of different logistics management tools.

In addition, from the views of Ustundag, &Tanyas (2009), it is also determined that manage the transportation is also one of the major issue in the supply chain management that creates the hurdle for the firm in the better management of the logistics process. The reason behind this is that in order to manage the supply chain process and to provide the products for the customers on time and successfully, the firms have the need to manage the vehicles such as truck on time and effectively.

Sometimes, in case of lots of products delivering, managing the supply chain is one of the main issues for the firms. Because of this, it can be defined that the transportation is the major issue that is faced by the firms in the logistics management.

In the same concern of this, it is also determined in the research of, the research of Verhoef et al., (2009) defined that the security of the all products, employees’ engagement to manage the all logistics management process are also the major issues that is faced by the firm in the logistics management.

On the other hand, the research of Tayur, et al. (2012), described that the manufacturing firms in India, while catering the needs of the customers faces various challenges and issues due to the adverse changes in the market trends. The changes in the marketing trends create the variations in the taste, nature, preferences, lifestyle and attitude of the customers related to the subject matter.

Moreover, the changes in market demand effects the manufacturing firms in respect with the operational activities. There is a cost burden on the companies because of increase in the Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) in the distribution center, which directly influence the logistics management.

In the same concern of this, from the research of Van Meldert and De Boeck (2016), it is identified that the increase in marketing and distribution channels also impacts the performance of the company. It is due to obstacles in the supply chain network the unfavourable condition in the market hinders the efficiency level of the company.

On the other hand, the findings of Tokar (2010) stated that the major challenge that the manufacturing companies in India encounters is due to globalization. It is because in globalization there is rapid development in the technology, which increases the cross border transaction, investment and movement of people from one place to the other.

The opportunities for international companies are created and the profit margin of local retailers and manufactures outlines a major decline for supplying their products to the end customers. Advancement in the technology had resulted into globalization in informational and communication technology and innovation, which has resulted into cut throat competition in the existing market.

In the same concern of this, in the research of Çelebi, et al. (2010), it has been understood that the government also play an important role for promoting global transaction of goods, services and investment. But at the same time, the research of Sezhiyan, et al. (2011), stated that the government by framing rigid policies in consideration with logistic management for the manufacturing firms acts as a major obstacle for attaining the objectives on time.

The government by charging high taxation and heavy excise duty restricts the performance of the manufacturing firms, which creates a major issue for delivering the products on time from one place to another.

The issues results in delay and insufficient services to the customers and restricts the operational activities of the manufacturing companies in India to maximize their profit margin. In India, there is absence of adequate infrastructure, which halts the operations of manufacturing firms to develop their connectivity with the rural and other areas.

Similarly, the research of Msimangira & Venkatraman (2014), explained that the challenges faced by manufacturing firms in logistics management is due to informational and technological process.

The slow implementation of the technological actions, within the managerial framework restricts the operational efficiency of the companies for attaining the objective on time. The companies running their activities with the help of traditional methods instead of modern methods also face various problems such as increase in the managerial cost.

In the views of Bosona&Gebresenbet (2013), the manager in logistic management area of the organisation has to face some challenges in relation to synchronising the objectives of logistic management with the strategies of the company as a whole.

In the recent past, it has been observed that top management of companies has shown interest in the logistics management; however, in many cases the interest was taken not for improvement, but, in fact for some problems in logistic management or for reducing cost of company (Bose& Pal, 2012).

However, some companies mainly in manufacturing sector have realised the crucial-ness of logistic management in managing operations at global level and gaining competitive advantage. As per commented by Çelebi, Bayraktar&Bingöl (2010),

Integration of corporates at global level in the form of MNC’s underlines the benefit in the deal in which differences among amalgamating companies like product differences, capital difference, sharing of learning, promoting innovation and managing the competition as well as economic risks prevails in different economic environment of different countries.

Although, the present business environment in mostly all industries and sector is full of deadly competition and the environment surrounding the business is full of turbulence.

Various studies have been performed in relation to the challenges faced during integration of logistic management.  Such challenges before logistic management can be broadly seen as system relationships challenges. There exists two types of relationships in logistic management, one relationship is between various sub systems another is association between the corporate strategies and logistics management objectives (Dekker, Bloemhof&Mallidis, 2012).

The classification helps in better understanding the technical challenges which generates from such relationship between the business strategies internally and logistics management system. However, classification of challenges in relation to these two relationships overlooks the challenges associated with the external environment affecting the logistics management.

In the view of Ngai, Chau& Chan (2011), in logistic management various problems are faced during sharing of information.  One main challenge regarding this is consideration of interest of all parties involved.   For instance, the effectiveness reduced one employee thinks that hiding information or non-cooperating will increase his/ her importance or his /her profit.

In practise, each of the partner is cautious in sharing information with the fear of other party will misuse the information or will derive all benefits from that information.  For instance, the partners of logistic management hardly share information relatedto the cost data like buying price of parts or data related to production etc.

However, economists think it to be consistent.  According to economists the monopolistic partner could take all the benefits from other partner and for defending the interest of weaker partner the logistics management is required to be well integrated.  For effective integration of logistic management, the challenges related to following areas required to be dealt with –

  • Micro environment of the business: E.g.  Changes in company’s policies, resource allocation
  • Macro environment around the business: e.g. government laws affecting logistic management etc.
  • Technical challenges: Technology used in managing logistic management has become obsolete.
  • Flexibility management: Stringent system to adapt new changes quickly.
  • Management of customer’s orders: e.g. order taking over phones etc.
  • Strategic planning issues
  • Problems in logistic management
  • Flexibility in operations
  • Problem in evaluation of logistic management benefits.
  • Procurement management problems.
  • Integration of different activities of enterprises.
  • Challenge related to business process integration
  • Suppliers requirements
  • Globalisation affecting business operations
  • Integration of data and information at various centres located at far places.
  • Software integration
  • Extranet and intranet concept.

In a study done by Prajogo&Olhager (2012), in relation to hidden cost in managing private and superior information, he mentioned that profit linked with the superior or crucial information is commonly termed as informational rent.  Even in situation when each and every partner  has agreement of a guaranteed gain in relation to sharing of information, the partner might be non-cooperative in sharing vital information and thinks of ‘ how much’ will be my share.

This mechanism or ideology possesses all potential to fail the information sharing system. Hence, cooperation as well as trust is a necessary ingredient in logistic management integration.  In the same way, the cooperation and trust requires to be rationalised through economic benefits to the parties.

The game theory of cooperation provides an initial point for affecting the solution for a problem; however, in reality the problems might be much more sophisticated due to applicability of many other factors.  Another issue relating to sharing of information is confidentiality matter.

For instance, in a case, a supplier provides an important part of machine to two different manufacturers which are competitors of each other in same market. There are chances that manufacturer would resist in sharing the information such as sales forecast  or exact requirement with his supplier, unless the supplier guarantees that such provided information will not reach to other manufacturer ( the competitor).

In the same case, the condition becomes more complicated when the supplier himself is also the manufacturer in the same market. It is also important to note that sharing of information in certain contracts is totally prohibited as per antitrust regulations.

For e.g., two of the manufacturers provide their estimated requirement to the distributor forth coming 10 weeks. Such estimate by one manufacturer denotes his future plan including his campaign in relation to future sales in coming weeks.

And when such information is passed on to the other next manufacturer by the supplier, then the situation might be exploited by the other manufacturer by stocking the products for later selling the other manufacturer at higher rate. This would result in making the competition in the market unfair which is required to be checked by the antitrust authorities.

Therefore, in such situation, supplier is required to ensure that such shared information would not be used apart from the intended usage.  The element of technology is another hurdle in the system of information sharing (Prajogo&Olhager, 2012).

Implementing an information system capable of sharing information across organisational basis is very time consuming as well as costly and full of risks also. There is huge probability that partners would not get convinced with all the specifications like EDI standards, the manner to distribute cost among various factors.  The effective integrated system also requires information sharing to be accurate and timely.

Manufacturers in personal computer industry many times complaint that they are not enabled to get correct information from the resellers. Some sellers share their requirements on monthly basis, in that, moth definition varies from reseller to reseller like one consider it from 1st day of calendar month, other consider it from 15th to 15th of next month  andso on.

On the other hand there are some resellers who provide data weekly.  And since, manufacturers are more concerned with the data in totality for estimating their sell; it requires huge efforts for considering the data aggregately. At last it is crucial to understandthat sharing of information will just make one better coordinator and planner for managing logistic management.

Therefore, it is required at companies end to effectively utilise the shared data and information.  There are also cases where data is collected by the manufacturers direct from the POS station of manufacturer, however, companies failed in utilising the data for planning their manufacturing and selling activities. Hence, the   utility of information sharing have not been utilised fully.

2.4 Recommendation and ways to overcome the issues related to the Logistics Management

The Indian manufacturing sector is growing so the role of supply chain is more prominent in this competitive environment. It should be more responsive and adaptive for the customers for satisfying there demand on time.  In the research of Ngai et al., (2011), it is illustrated that the role of supply chain management in manufacturing sector is self-centric that means there us a mutual partnership between retailers and the manufactures.

And this will indicate that they are loss free from the external hurdles and the response of that will give to growth to top and bottom management. As we take the example of diverse products in the manufacturing sector then definitely we found that there are many problems, which must be overcome for increasing the efficiency of the organization.

This is so for the nature of supply chain is very fragmented. This determines that there is an important role of supply chain management in the manufacturing firms in India.

At the same time, in the research of Bosona&Gebresenbet (2013), it has been illustrated that in the manufacturing firms the role of supply chain is very important for the customer. It is because the company will be able to provide diversification in the product mix to the customers at affordable price.

It is the supply chain that ensures to the customer in all the various offerings that a company decides for its customers, be it cost, service, or the quickness in responding to ever changing tastes of the customer. The infrastructure in India in terms of road, rail, and air links are not sufficient. And so warehousing plays a major role as an aspect of supply chain operations.

In order to overcome these problems, the Indian firms should try to reduce transportation costs as well as invest in logistics through partnership or directly. In regard to this, from the research of Yuan & Wang (2009), it is interpreted that the company must implement innovative ideas and technology in the transportation mechanism because the process helps in transferring the products from one place to another safely and within the time frame.

The company by recruiting specialized skills and experienced employees can increase its efficiency within the managerial framework. The professional knowledge can makes the manufacturing process more evolving and improved by implementing creative techniques.

In like manner, the research study of Dekker et al., (2012) explained that the company for making the customer satisfied and aware of their distribution system can implemented unique Matrix technological concept, which can assists in collecting relevant information about the recent trends.

It is because the informational technology system facilitates in gathering the information from the customers and analyzing the performance of the company, with the help of sales and return accounts.

At the same time, from the research of Richey et al., (2010), it is identified that the manufacturing companies by eliminating the use of traditional methods can increases its operational activities. Modern methods, technology, instruments, tools etc. facilitates in attaining competitive advantage over the competitors as well as helps in developing the goodwill and brand image.

The unique technique, which can be implemented by the organization for accomplishing its objective, can be done with the help of a Lean program. The lean production assists the organization to eliminate the seven wastages such as transport, inventory, motion, waiting, over-processing, overproduction and defects.

In the same concern of this, from the research of Lin (2009), it has been illustrated that the companies by maintaining the quality in the products and keeping all the products safe from thieves and cyber crime provides advantage in the market to achieve success and develop better customer base.

In contract to this, the research of Tang, & Musa (2011) depicted that in the logistics and distribution management; company can follow the holistic approach and should implement end to end process for administrating the operational activities related to supply chain.

The manufacturing firms in India should frame the policies by keeping in mind the perspective of the customers because it provides assistance in making optimize utilization of the available resources.

For example, the strategy namely ‘Think like the Customer’ can be helpful for increasing the efficiency in the supply chain process. It also supports in developing the brand awareness about the business in the market by establishing continuous improvement in the managerial framework.

In the research of Sarac et al., (2010), it is illustrated that the green practices can be implemented by the companies for showing their commitment towards the environmental concern.

It is because the sustainability practices can help the manufacturing companies to reduce its wastage by using lean production. The companies with the help of green practices and eco practices are able to share their benefits with the customers.

It is because the green practices facilitate in reducing the operational cost and the customers will be able in availing the services in minimum price. The company by giving due concern to the development and advancement of technology within the order processing system can increase its profit margin, with the support of flexibility and efficiency in the logistics management.

In addition, from the views of Rushton et al., (2014), it has been identified that the manufacturing companies by providing customization in the products and services can reinforce its brand image in front of the customers.

In customized system the needs and demands of the customers are fulfilled by providing tailor-made products and making them loyal towards the company for a longer period of time. The manufacturing firms in India for increasing the customer’s base by providing effective services in the supply chain can sign an agreement with the leading companies in the logistics and distribution management.

It can facilitate the manufacturing companies in India to provide various benefits to the customers in concern with flexibility, on-time delivery, superior quality and cost effective medium of transportation. In oppose of this, the research of Ross (2013) outlined that the modular and flexible system in the logistics and distribution management can support the manufacturing companies to reduce the risk of failure in the market by increasing the satisfaction level within the customers.

Each organisation relying on Shipping of products at minimum cost and quickly, whether may be a company of manufacturing or an industrial product company, is facing a major challenge due to low availability of transportation facility.  The slowdown in the economy in recent past has laid the organisation to take harsh decisions regarding their unused transportation vehicles and fleets for sustaining profitability and managing maintenance cost.

And because of this, there is now a serious shortage in capacity of transportation. With the rise in the economy and building of consumers’ confidence, the manufacturers, distributors and retailers are working hard for making their goods available in the receiving stores and docks quickly. But, many a times such opportunity is lost.

The logistics managers have to face a critical situation where they have to choose either to pay extra premium for hiring alternative transport or lose the opportunity.

Although, the problem of low capacity to transport is not new but, it remains always a challenge for managers to manage the various downs and ups in the economy. This variability might be a result of economic slowdown or quick quarter end sales the manufacturing business is full of uncertainty.

For managing this challenge with respect to logistic management, many manufacturers are adapting long term view for deciding their strategy for transportation which would help in countering the problem of variations in availability of carrier as well as in demand of the customers. The variations in the nature of transportation business made it necessary for the shipping companies to shift their focus from short term view to long term view.  This is required for managing both shortages in transportation as well as excess capacity during that long term period of 2 to 3 years. This might be huge change for the shippers, but is the only strategy for sustaining business along with consistence improvement as well as learning within the organisation.  Planning proactively would help the companies to have competitive advantage reflecting their flexibility and agility in extreme conditions.

Now a day, planning process empowers the managers of logistic management to estimate the requirement of capacity and plan their transportation requirement for future with the observation of trends in the markets as well as shifting capacity. Efficient and effective strategies helps the managers in attaining the targets and profitability figures even when there are issues related to short or excess capacity. For instance, if trends indicate that capacity will fall short during peak season then leading shipping companies will forecast the demand and plan their action for securing their business by adding more capacity through technique of fright allocation with other large carriers. In this, the most crucial aspect is the learning from historic results making the logistics management leaders competent to continuous improves the process of planning.  Although, each and every company measures its performance through quantitative data, only effective manager’s bandleaders would be able in analysing the root cause of shortfall in performance and act accordingly for a better future.

2.5 Conclusion

From the above discussion, it can also be stated that there are different tools and techniques such as lean manufacturing, six sigma, enterprise resource planning, just in time, distribution requirement planning, etc that are used by the manufacturing firms in order to successful use of the logistics management process and to have the business growth. In addition, it can also be summarized that there are different issues such as supply chain inventory cost, manage the transportation, government policies, etc that are faced by the manufacturing firms during the use of different tools and the techniques. In addition, from this research, it can also be recommended that there are also different ways like use the new technology, RFID technology (radio frequency identification), electronics data exchanges, etc that can be used by the firms in order to manage the different issues and the challenges and to have a better use of the logistics management tools and the techniques in the operation process of the manufacturing firms.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

The aim behind the study is to analyse the tools and techniques of logistic management with respect to manufacturing firms of India.  And for doing so, research methodology chapter has special importance as the chapter provides the outline about how the research performed for completing the research in an effective way.  This includes deciding research techniques, research methods, research approaches etc. for the research. Apart from that the researcher decided the data collection method, techniques of data analysis in this part of the research for generating valid out and completing the research in a successful manner. Therefore for making a research successful, this section provides the ingredients required and the selection of most effective alternative from the available options.

3.1 Research Philosophy

As per the literature three types of research philosophies options are available before the researcher, namely, positivism research approach, realism research approach and interpretivism research approach (Elisabete, 2014).  Selection of type of philosophy depends on the research requirements.  With respect to this research, the use of interpretivism research philosophy was more appropriate than using positivism or realism philosophies. The reason behind this is that interpretivism philosophy could provide clear and more valid results as per issues of the research. Use of interpretivism research approach over the two approaches was more appropriate for the research as it could provide results which were capable of comparing with the literature. This way researcher was in better position to validate the findings of the research as well as generalising those findings.

While making the decision of using interpretivism research philosophy, the researcher avoided using positivism philosophy for the reason as in positivism philosophy, there was compulsion on researcher to use experimented data in the research and there is no requirement for this research to use such experimented data. Because of this, researcher did not use the positivism philosophy and considered the interpretivism research philosophy. Similarly, the realism research philosophy is discarded for the research as this philosophy is fully depended on natural reality and the topic of the research has no relation with neutrality. Hence, by concerning the all aspects, it can be determined that use of interpretivism philosophy was the most appropriate option for this research.

3.2 Research Approach

This section deals with the application of type of research approach for the research. The selection of research approach is based on the basis of convenience of the researcher as well as requirement of the research (Isadore, 2013). In literature, two types of research approaches are mentioned. One is inductive research approach and another one is deductive research approach. In deductive research approach, already established theories are used for performing the research. Under this hypothesis is formed based on the theories available and then tested in the light of collected data to either accept the hypothesis or reject the hypothesis. The main benefit of using this approach is large availability of data for forming hypothesis.

On the contrary, inductive research approach is completely opposite of deductive research approach. This is so, because in inductive research approach, the researcher himself generates his/ her theory on the basis of data collected that have been analysed by the researcher in the research. Thus, in inductive research approach fresh theories are formed while in deductive approach old theories are used. In relation to this particular study, use of inductive research approach was more appropriate due to the suitability of the research objectives and the issues.  Using inductive approach could help in developing own theory based on the data collected for the research. Such self-developed theories were more relevant to the topic of the study and could assist the researcher in getting more valid and accurate outcomes.

Also, the findings were more real time as in deductive approach theories were based on old data which might not be applicable at the time of performing research.  Because of this, the researcher has avoided application of deductive research approach for this research. Also, the real facts and figures formed the base for generating theories which were more relevant to the issues of the research. Hence, inductive research is preferred for the research by the researcher.

3.4 Research Methods

This section of the research methodology is helpful for the researcher for gathering data. Three alternatives are available before the researcher under this i.e. qualitative research method. Quantitative research method and mixed research method using which helped him in gathering data quickly and accurately (Holloway, 2011). The selection of research method depends on the type of research data required for the research.  With respect to this research, the researcher has used the mixed research approach for applying both interview and questionnaire methods for the collection of data. At the same time, the selection of the research methods helps in deciding the manner data has been collected for the research.  Among the three alternatives the researcher made the selection based on his convenience as well as the requirement of the research. The use of qualitative research method was more relevant when there is requirement in the research to understand the human behaviour or nature of someone. Some more factors were also associated with qualitative research like Likert’s scale etc. which helped in getting valid and accurate results.

On the other hand, in quantitative research method, researcher makes use of data which is in numerical form, which permits application of statistical tools. Such data is usually collected through surveys like by using questionnaires etc.  The research is popular for knowing exact requirements related to the research and requirements of people relating to a specific condition.  At last, the mixed research method includes application of both quantitative research method as well as qualitative research method in the research. In the view of the researcher both the data qualitative and quantitative in nature was best selection then mixed research approach has been used.  In the concern of this research study, the researcher has applied mixed method in which data is gathered through questionnaires as well as interviews.  The data is collected regarding the role of logistic management technique with respect to the research. Using this method researcher was in the position to get more valid outcomes.

3.5 Time Horizon

Time Horizon is a crucial part of any study as it helps in completing the research in time and getting outcomes which was more valuable and reliable (Elisabete, 2014). Two types of time horizon are available to the researcher, namely, longitudinal time horizon and cross sectional time horizon. The section of type of horizon depends on the researcher’s requirement as well as the requirement of the research. For instance, cross –sectional time horizon was more appropriate when researcher is required to gather data for just one time i.e. once a day or once a week, or once a month etc. Besides this, the cross sectional time horizon was also useful when the number of participants is corporately low for the research.

The main benefit of applying cross sectional time horizon when the participants are less is that it provided  more reliable and valid findings  which otherwise not possible with other  time horizon method. Although, the method is very effective  when participants for the research are low, there are risk related to losing of data along with the safety  of data for longer duration of time as data is collected for once only in this method. Because of these two reasons, many researchers try to avoid the cross sectional time horizon method.

On the contrary, application of longitudinal time horizon method could provide the researcher the option to gather data many times he / she like with no such limitation or hurdle. The longitudinal time horizon method is very effective for the research for having appropriate information as well as knowledge regarding the issues in the research and for getting reliable and valid outcomes from the research.  However, the limitation with this method of time Horizon is that there are chances of data manipulation as collection of data is done multiple times in the research.

As far as this research is concerned, the researcher has used the longitudinal time horizon method in place of cross sectional time horizon method. The prime reason behind making this selection is for performing the research effectively and getting more reliable and valid outcomes, as data collection for this research is required to be done multiple times which helped in overcoming the issues related to safety of data for longer period and to generate effective outcomes. And hence, for avoiding the risk related to safety of data and collection of data for just once the researcher has not applied the cross sectional time horizon and used the longitudinal time horizon method.

3.6 Collection of Data

For accomplishment of the research study in successful manner and for generating valid and reliable data, this part is most important and crucial part of the study. In this way, two kinds of methods can be used for data collection namely primary data collection method and secondary data collection method. The selection of research method is depended on the issue of the research. With respect to the research study, secondary data can be gathered from the websites, journals and books etc. in addition to this, huge usage of Google Scholar and Science-Direct also raise the effectiveness of data. On the other hand, the methods through which primary data is gathered are such as case study, survey, focus group and observation. In this way, both methods primary data collection method and secondary data collection method are effective if appropriately used but likewise, secondary data collection methods are cost and time effective and opposite to primary data gathering method which is cost as well as time consuming. On the other hand, through primary data collection methods, researcher can get more reliable as well as valid results and findings rather than secondary data collection methods.

With respect to this research, researcher used primary data collection method as well as secondary data collection method. Researcher used the secondary data to gather the information related to significance of logistic management techniques. At the same time, researcher used primary data to find out real life examples to elaborate use of logistic managment techniques with respect to different situations. In this way, researcher used survey through questionnaire method as primary data collection method and in order to gather secondary data researcher used journals and articles etc.

3.7 Data Analysis Methods

It is one of the most important parts of the research because it helps the researcher in analyzing the data collected for the research. The major methods used under data analysis are statistical data analysis, content data analysis, factor analysis and cluster analysis, the selection of the method is based on the requirement of the issue under study (Crowther&Lancaster, 2012). However, for this study, the researcher has selected statistical data analysis method in place of remaining methods. The reason in this is that the statistical analysis method assisted the researcher in presenting the research findings in the form of graphs and table for better explaining the research, which otherwise could not be possible with the use of other data analysis methods. Because of this, it can be determined that this chapter of the research is quite helpful for the researcher to accomplish the research and to generate the valid research outcomes.

3.8 Sampling

Sampling method is used in the research for saving the time as well as cost of the research. Sampling method is used for deciding sample capable of representing whole population of the research.  Sampling helps the researcher in completing the research within time. The two sampling methods commonly used in research are probability sampling technique and non- probability sampling technique.  The selection of sampling technique depends on the requirement of the research. Moreover, probability sampling is used when the researcher wants to provide equal chances of selection for all the respondents of the research. On the other hand, in non-probability sampling method, there could not be equal chances of selection for all the respondents required to be covered in the research.  In non-probability sampling subjective requirements forms the criteria of deciding the sample population.

Based on the requirements of this research, the researcher has applied the probability sampling technique for the research in place of non-probability sampling technique for distributing questioners for the research. The selection of probability sampling method helped the researcher in getting replies from the technical official of forensic department based on the income, age etc. which helped the researcher in getting more valid findings and performing the study in successful manner. For the research, researcher has avoided the non-probability sampling method because under this, there is more risk of biasness for selection of the participants for the research. And therefore, researcher has used the probability sampling technique instead of non-probability method of sampling.

3.9 Ethical Issues

Ethical issues are important aspects of a research as in the absence of this it could not be possible to perform the research in ethical way and to get valid and reliable outcome. The researcher is required to deal with ethical issues related to the research in a responsible and ethical manner (Crouch & Pearce, 2012). With respect to this the different ethical issues to be considered are secrecy of responses provided by participants, data safety, plagiarism, copyright issues etc. by the researcher. The ethical issues related to primary data collection include respondent’s responses security which could not be disclosed to any other person by the researcher   without taking respondent’s permission. This is because it might impact the professional as well as personal life of the respondents.

The ethical issues related to the secondary data collection are issues of plagiarism, copy write etc.  Under this researcher is required to provide accurate referencing relating to secondary data used in the research.   Compliance of ethical practices in research helped in completing the research in accurate way and timely. Therefore, the researcher is required to consider all ethical factors associated with secondary and primary data collection for avoiding any adverse effect related to ethical issues.

3.10 Limitation of the Research

In order to accomplish the research study, researcher faced a number of different limitations which could also disturb the research study. In this research study, during the data collection by survey; at the time of questionnaire, some people were not showing their willingness for giving answers of researcher’s question because of their busy timings and this lack of willingness research answers and outcome could be affected. At the same time researcher also faced time as well as budget related limitations for accomplishment of this research study.

3.11 Conclusion

In conclusion, researcher used survey strategy through questionnaire in order to collect data with inductive approach to conduct this research study in successful manner. Interpretivism philosophy has been used by the researcher. In order to collect the data for the analysis, primary data collection method as well as secondary data collection methods both kind of data collection methods were used. Ethical practices also followed by the researcher at the time of conducting research in order to generate reliable and valid outcomes in successful manner.

Chapter 4: Data Presentation and Analysis

4.1 Introduction

In order to analysis the collected data from primary and secondary sources, this part of the research is quote helpful for the researcher. It is because in order to complete the research on time and to accomplish the aim the presenting of the findings is quite necessary. Additionally, the all analyzed data by the researcher is presented in the table and the graph format. It is because it is one of the best ways to present the finding of the research on time effectively. It also assists the researcher to generate the valid research outcomes and to accomplish the research on time. At the same time, in order to present the data in the table and graph format, the statistical data method is used by the researcher because it made easy the researcher in the data representing.

4.2 Analysis and Findings

In order to conduct the primary research, researcher targeted 50 employees of the different manufacturing firm in India in order to identify the importance of logistics management with the use of different tools and techniques: In the manufacturing firms in India.  In addition to this, for this, research used the survey through questionnaire for better conducting the research.

Additionally, at initial level, reseaedher targeted approx 100 employees. But at the same time, due to some personal and professional reasons, some of the employees denied to be a part of the research. Finally, 50 employees were agreed to be a part of the research. In this, researcher used the email method to target the employees to have the responses from them. It is because it is one of the best and rapid ways for getting the answer the table and graph format

Section 1: Demographic result

In the concern of this research, research \focused on the age, experience and the gender of the employees. It is because in the successful research findings and the research accomplishment, these demographic results were appropriate for the researcher. For these characteristics, the following responses are obtained:-

Figure 1 Gender

From the above graph, it can be the exhibited that in the concern of this research, researcher targeted the both male and female employees of the manufacturing firm in India. The reason behind to target the both male and female is that it assisted the researcher rectify the biasness issue and to increase possibilities for successful research accomplishment. In like manner, from the above graph, it can also be interpreted that most of the respondents were male because at the time of getting the response, the availability of male is high as compared to female. Because of this, there is high male targeted by the researcher.

Figure 2 Age

From the above graph, it can be determined that there are different age group of people those work in the manufacturing firms in India. It is because there are different post in the department and for these jobs, the requirement of the job are also too different. Because of this there are different age group of people those are working.

At the same time, the above graph also states that most of the respondents that are targeted by the researcher were between 20-35 ages of group. The reason behind this is that researcher targeted the employees those are directly and indirectly related to the logistics management and in this; the most of the employees were between 20-35 ages of group. Because of this concern researcher targeted these types of age group of people.

Figure 3 Experience

From the above graph, it can be determined that there is a high experience level of the employees in the manufacturing firm India. It is because in order to successful manage the all working process and the customer base, the experience in the employees is quite effective for the firm.

At the same time, from the above graph, it can also be stated that most of the employees those are targeted by the researcher were among 2 to 6 years. It is because in order to successful manage the logistic process of the firm, the experience in the employees assist the firm to manage the all process and better improvement in logistics management.

Figure 4 Role of the logistics management

From the above graph, it is identified that due to increasing levelcompetition in the market and to continuous change in technology, manage the business and to and the all operation process of the firm is one of the major importance work for the all manufacturing firm India. At the same time, from the above graph, it can also be depicted that most of the respondents were strongly agreed on that there is a vital role of the logistics management in the success of the firm. It is because logistics management increase the revenue of the firm and improve operating cost structure that is quite necessary in the success of the firm.

Due to this, in the concern of this, Diabat&Govindan (2011) determined that logistics managements is one of the major business parts of the manufacturing firms because it provides the competitive advantage for the firm and also increase the market value along with customer base of the firm. Because of this it can be interpreted that the logistics management is one of the major important work for Indian manufacturing firms.

Figure 5 Logistics management is part of process

From the above graph, it can be determined that most of the respondents were strongly agreed on that logistics management is part of working process of the firm. The reason behind this is that it makes easy the supply chain process of the firm and also increases the working effectiveness of the firm that is quite necessary for the firm to get the succession the competitive environment and to increase the customer base of the firm.

In the same concern of this, from the research ofChaharsooghi, et al. (2008), it is illustrated that logistics management is a process that is start from the raw material and end the consumption of the products by the customers. Because of this it can be interpreted that whole process and the working of the firm is totally depended on the management of the logistics. Due to this, it can be summarized that logistics management is also a part of working process of the firm that has its significant impact on the working of the firm. In like manner, from the above graph, it can also be stated that some of the respondents are stated that there were not agreed on that there is any role of the logistics management process in the success of the firm to manage the entire work. It is because they stated that there are also different ways that can be used instead of logistics management for better management of the working process of the firm.

Figure 6Logistics Management helpful to increase the customer base

From the above graph, it can be determined that most of the respondents were strongly agreed on that most of the respondents were agreed on that there is a vital role of the logistics management process in order to develop a good customer base because of providing the on time products for the customer as per the need of the customers and the location.

In support of this statement, from the research of Christopher (2016), sit is determined that there are different works such as inbound and outbound transportation management, fleet management, materials handling, warehousing, inventory management, supply chain management, etc that are handled and managed by the firms in the logistics management process. Because of this it can be interpreted that there is a significant role of the logistics management process in the success of the firm and to increase the customer base. In like manner, from the research of Lin (2009), sit is also determined that some of the respondents were not agreed on that there is a not any role of the logistics management process in order to make a good customer base and to increase the brand value.

Figure 7 Lean manufacturing

From the above graph, it is identified that there are different techniques that are used by the firm in the logistics management. In addition, the above graph also states that most of the respondents were agreed on that lean manufacturing is one of the best ways and the techniques that are used by the firm for managing the all resources of the logistics management and to make a better process of the logistics management. In regard to this, in the research of Diabat&Govindan (2011), it is stated that the lean manufacturing is a process from where the logistics department try to maximum utilization and minimum wastages of the existing resources that increase the effectiveness of the firm and also increase the value of the firm.

Because of this concern, it can be stated that there is a significant role of the lean manufacturing techniques of the logistics management in order to make more effective the process of logistics managements and to increase the customer base as well as the market value of the firm in the market. In addition to this, from the above graph, it is also illustrated that some of the respondents were disagree on that there is any role of the lean manufacturing

techniques of the logistics management. It is because they thought that there are different other ways also that can also be used to better management of the logistics management and to make much better the performance of the firm.

Figure 8 SIX Sigma

From the above graph, it can be determined that most of the respondents had their positive view on that in order to make more effective the process of the logistics management, there are different techniques that are used by the firm and in this, six sigma is one of the effective technique that is used. This technique is used by the firm to managing the issues and challenges in the logistics management process and to minimise the risk in the logistics management process. Because of this, most of the respondents were agreed on that Six Sigma is an effective technique to use in the management of the logistics management.

In the support of these findings, from the research ofFernie and Sparks (2014),it is determined that Six- Sigma is an effective tool that is helpful in reducing and eliminating errors and faults from the manufacturing process that is quite necessary for the better handling of logistics management. But at the same time, from the above graph, it can also be determined that some of the respondents denied to consider this the Six Sigma technique has its vital importance in the logistics management. It is because they thought that there are also different techniques to use instead of Six Sigma and there is a limited use of Six Sigma. Because of this, it can be stated that finally Six Sigma has its vital importance in the logistics management.

Figure 9Enterprise Resource planning

From the above graph, it can be stated that there are different techniques that are used by the logistics firms to manage the customer base and the all logistics operation of the firm. At the same time, the above graph also states that enterprise resource planning is one of the effective tools of the logistics management that is used by the firm to successful manage the logistics management. In the same concern of this, Fernie& Sparks (2014) stated that in order to successfully handle the all operation of the logistics firms such as marketing, production, sales, etc, there is a vital role of the enterprise resource planning technique.

From the above graoh, it is also illustrated in the research of Fernie& Sparks (2014) that by using the ERP process, it is easy for the firm to have the control on the all process of the firm operation from the raw material to finishing goods. Because of this, there is a vital role of the ERP process in the logistics management of the firm. At the same time, the above graph also states that some of the respondents were not agreed on that because they thought that there are also different ways instead of RRP (enterprise resource planning) that can also be used by the logistics firms in order increase the customer base and the efficiency in the operation management.

Figure 10JIT (just In Time)

From the above graph, it can be stated that JIT (just in time) approaches that can be used by the logistics firms in order to increase the operational efficiency of the firm and to manage the all customer base effectively. At the same time, from the above graph, it can also be determined that most of the respondents were agreed on that JIT is one of the effective and the useful approaches that is used by the firms to manage the all operation management work. The reason behind to use this approach is that the Just in time approach is quite helpful for the logistics firms to manage the wastages of goods and increase the efficiency that is quite necessary for the logistics firms to survive in the market and to have a good efficiency in the operational department..

In support of all these findings, Costinot, et al. (2013) stated that JIT is helpful for the all logistics firms to keep safe the extra cost of the firm and timely deliver the products for the customers.s But at the same time, the above graph also states that some of the respondents were strongly disagreed on that there is any role of the JIT approach in the logistics management. The reason behind this is that the considered that manages the wastages is only the work of logistics management because there are also different works that are also handled and for all these works, there is not any role of the JIT approach. Because of this, they have their negative concern on the JIT approach.

Figure 11DRP (Distribution Requirement planning)

From the above graph, it can be stated that in order to increase the efficiency of the operational management process, there is a need for the firm to use the different techniques of the logistics management. In the same concern of this, from the above graph, it can also be stated that most of the respondents were strongly agreed on that there is a vital of the DRP (Distribution Requirement planning) technique in the successful management of the logistics management process. It is because they considered that it assists the firm to provide the clear view about the different geographical level from where firms can supply their products and can improve the customer base as well. Because of this, there is a positive response of the respondents in the use of Distribution Requirement planning technique in the logistics management.

In the support of this finding, it is also illustrated in the research of Bala (2014) that in order to do the better utilization of the diverse distribution system, there is a vital importance of the Distribution Requirement Planning technique. It is because it assists the firm to manage the supply of goods form one region to another region. Because of this, there were positive responses of the respondents about the use of Distribution Requirement Planning technique in the management of the logistics process of the firm.

Apart from this, from the above graph, it can also be stated that some of the respondents denied to agree on that there is any vital use of the Distribution Requirement Planning technique in the logistics management. It is because they considered that it is very time and cost consuming way and instead of this, there are also different techniques that can be used by the logistics firms for better operational management and the logistics management.

Figure 12AITS (Automated Inventory tracking system)

From the above graph, it can be stated that there are different techniques, which are quite helpful for the firm to effectively manage the customer base and the all logistics management process. By elaborating this statement, from the above graph, it can be determined that there was a contradictory view of the employees about the use of AITS (Automated Inventory tracking system) technique. It is because some of the respondents thought that this technique is only helpful to maintain the record of all activities like warehouses management, record of all entire retail store, etc that can be done by using other techniques, while, some of the respondents stated that it is the best technique to use the logistics management. Because of this, there is a contradictory view on this statement.

In the same concern of this, it is depicted in the research of Babu et al., (2012) AITS technology has its vital importance in the success of the logistics firm and to increase the logistics process of the firm. It is because by suing the AITS technology, it is easy for the firm to have the exact idea about the all process of retail store related to inventory, warehouses, etc. it increase the operation efficiency if the firm and also provides the competitive advantage for the firm because of this the use of AITS technology is quite better for the logistics firms. But at the same time, some of the respondents stated that there is not any role of the AITS technology in the logistics firm. It is because is only helpful for small logistics firms rather than large firms. Because of this, they denied to consider that there is any role of the AITS technology in logistics management.

Figure 13Supply chain and inventory cost

From the above graph, it can be illustrated that there are different issues that are face by the firm at the firm of operating the logistics management business. But at the same time, the above graph also stated that the supply chain and inventory cost one of the major issues that are faced by the firm in the logistics management. The reason in this is that there are different operations that are done by the firm and these all operation increase the cost of the firm.

In the same concern of this, It is also sated in the research of Grawe (2009), that there are different types of risks and the issues that are faced by the logistics firm in the supply chain management process that increase the extra cost of the firm and make the cause of ineffective supply chain process. Because of this, it is stated that supply chain and inventory cost is the major issue for the logistics firm that affect the business and the supply chain process of the firm.

Additionally, the abovegraph also states that some of the respondents stated that y chain and inventory cost is not issue that affect the business and logistics management process of the firm. It is because this cost can be managed by the firm by using the different techniques such ads JIT, etc. they also defined that there are some other issue such as employees engagement, etc that affect the business of the logistics firm.

Figure 14Manage the Transportation

From the above graph, it can be determined that although there are different issue that are faced by the firm in the logistics management process. But at the same time, the transport management is one of the major issues that is faced by the firms and affect the supply chain and the logistic management process of the firm. At the same time, from the above graph, it can also be stated that moist of the respondents have their positive view on that transport management is one of the major issues that is faced by the firm and crate the big issue and the challenges for the firm in the successful business management. It is because the all process and the work of the logistics firm are totally depended on the transportation in order to carry the material from one location to other location. Due to this, there is a vital role of the transportation in the success of the firm.

In like manner, in the same context of this, from the research of Ustundag, &Tanyas (2009), it is illustrated that in order tomanage the supply chain process of the firm successfully and to timely deliver the products for the customer, the better management of the transportation such as truck, plain, etc is quite mandatory for the firm. But in case, there is any issue faced by the firm in the better management of the transportation then it affects the overall process of the firm and also make the cause of business loss for the firm. Due to this, it can be illustrated that transport management is one of the major issue in the logistics management.

With the respect of these findings, it is also exhibited in the research of Grawe (2009) by stating that there are different expanses of using the transportation vehicles like fuel, maintenance, service, etc that also increase the cost of the firm and creates the issue in the successful management of the logistics process. In addition, from the above graph, it can also be depicted that some of the respondents have their negative view on that transport management is not a big issue because the major priority of the firm is to handle the all transport operation. Because of this, transportation management is not a big issue that affect the business of the firm.

Figure 15Security of all Products

From the above graph, it can be stated that there are different issues and challenges that are faced by the logistics firms in the business practices. In addition, from the above graph, it can also be determined that most of the respondents were strongly agreed on that security of the products is one of the major issues that are faced by the logistics firm. The reason in this is that all deliver the products on time for the other party without damaging the products is quiet necessary for the firms. It is because any issue in the products related to security of the products can affect the overall market and the customer base of the firm.

Due to this concern, the security of the products is one of the major issues that is faced by the firm and affect the overall market of the firm as well. With the respect of these findings, from the research of Bosona&Gebresenbet (2013), it is determined that there are different equipments such as camera, guard, ware houses; etc that ate used by the firms that increase the cost of the firm and make the cause of financial issues for the firm. Because of this, the security of the all products is one of the major issues that is faced by the firms during the use of logistics management services.

On the other hand, from the above graph, it can also be determined that most of the respondents were also strongly disagreed on that security of the products is one of the major issues that are faced by the logistics firm. It is because there are different security features such as camera, guard, etc that are used by the firm and keep secure the safety of the products. Because of this, it is not acceptable by the different employees that there is any role of the security of the products for affecting the business and the customer base of the firm.

Figure 16Government Policies

From the above graph, it can be stated that there are different issue related to internal and external environment that affect the business of the firm. But at the same time, the above graph also stated that there were positive views of the respondents on that the government policy is one of the major issues that are faced by the logistics firms and affect the market and customer base of the firm as well. It is because there are different rules and taxes such as service tax, transportation tax, inventory management, supply chain management, etc that are faced by the logistics firms and affect their business practices.  Because of this, it is one of the major issues that affect the business of the logistics firms.

In the support of this, Tayur, et al. (2012) defined that there are different strict rules that are followed by the all logistic firm at the time of successfully operating the business. It is because there are different processes related to supply chain etc that some time makes the cause of miss happening like scam, fraud, etc. Because of this concern, there are different rules and regulation that are made by the government to overcome these issues and to make a good working platform of logistics firms.

But at the same time, from the above graph, it can also be determined that some of the respondents were strongly disagreed on that government policies are the issue that affect the business of the firm. It is because they considered that in order to successful mange the business, follow the all rules and regulation made by government is quite necessary for the firm. It is because it overcomes the possibilities of arising the any issue and the errors as well as also improves the supply chain management process of the firm. Because of this, it can be determined that the government policies are not the major issue that affect the business of the logistics firm.

Figure 17Modern ways (use new technology)

From the above graph, it can be determined that there are different strategies that can be used by the firms in order to manage the issue and the challenges that are faced by the firm. In the same concern of this, from the above graph, it can be stated that most of the employees considered that the use of new technology and the ways can be the better ways for the firm to manage the issue and the challenges in the logistics management.  In relation to this, in the research of Bosona&Gebresenbet (2013), it is determined that there are different techniques such as RFID, ERP, DRP, etc that can be used by the firm to manage the all issue and the challenges in the logistics management and can improve the operation management performance of the firm.

Besides from this, the above graph also states that some of the respondents were not agreed on that the use of new technology in the logistics management process can be the effective ways for the firms to manage the issue and the challenges. The reason behind this is that there are also different ways that can also be used by the firm instead of different technologies like RFID, ERP, DRP, etc. It is because the use of all these technologies increase the cost of the firm in terms of technology adoption, provide the training for the employees regarding the use of that technology, etc. Because of this, some of the respondents were not agreed on that the use of new technology can be the better way for the firm to manage the issue and the challenges.

Figure 18Electronic Data Interchange

From the above graph, it can be stated that there are different ways that can be used by the logistics firms to manage the issue and the challenges that are occurred in the logistics management process. But at the same time, it can also be illustrated that electronic data exchange is also one of the major ways that can be used by the firm to manage the issue and overcome the possibilities of arising any errors in the logistics management process.  The reason behind this is that it overcomes the manual effort of the firm and also helps to save the extra cost of the firm.

These findings also supported in the research of Yuan & Wang (2009), by stating that the use of electronic data exchange assists the firm by increasing the effectiveness of the supply chain management process of the firm as well as also assist the firm to timely deliver the products on time and effectively.  Due to this concern, there was a positive response of the respondents regarding the use of electronic data exchange technology to overcome the issue and challenges that the face in the business.

In addition, from the above graph, it can aloe be depicted that some of the respondents were not agreed on that because they thought that electronic data exchange is not better because of high cost and the lots of effort to complete the process of this technique. That is why, some of the respondents denied to consider that the use of electronic data exchange can be the better option for the firm to manage the issue and challenges.

Figure 19Eliminating the use of traditional methods

From the above graph, it can be depicted that eliminating the use of traditional methods is the best easy that can be used by the firms to manage the issue and to have a good market vase. It is because it will increase the working effeminacy of the firm as well as will also reduce the possibilities of generating the errors. There are different technologies that can be used in the new way of the business by the firm that will also be advantageous for the firm.

In the support of these findings, Richey et al., (2010 defined that there are now different stages such as transport, inventory, motion, waiting, over-processing, overproduction and defects that are used by the firms and all these process and the activities overcome the issue of the firm. Due to this, there was a positive concern of the people on that the use of eliminating the use of traditional methods is a better option for the firms to successful manages the all business operation related to logistics management.

Chapter 5: Conclusion & Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

In this chapter of the research, all findings of the research is presented by the researcher with the full of consideration of the research objectives. As well as, in this chapter of the research, all findings of the research is presented in the concise format by the researcher that make easy the researcher and to other people to get the clear view about the reasons behind to accomplish the research. In addition, by considering the all findings of the research, some recommendations are also provided by the researcher for the further researcher on the same topic. It is because it will help the further researcher to generate the more valid research outcomes as well as to rectify the existing issues of the research.

5.2 Conclusion

From the above discussion, it can be concluded that there is a vital role of the operation department is the success of the firm. It is because it is one of the major important parts of the firm because of handling the all process related to supply chain, inventory management, etc. But at the same time, it can also be stated that in the operation department, the logistics management has its vital importance because ye all work of the firm related to operation id depended on the logistics process of the firm. It is because to deliver the products from one location to another location on time and with quality is come under the logistics management. So, due to have the major importance in the operation process of the firm, there are different tools and techniques that are used by the logistics firms.

In this, Lean manufacturing is one of the major tools and techniques that are used by the logistics firm in order to manage the all logistics process effectively. It is because by using the lean manufacturing techniques firms can easily handle and manage the all existing resources in an appropriate way and effective manner. Because of this, there is a vital role of the lean manufacturing process in the logistics management.

At the same time, it can also be concluded that along with Lean manufacturing, Six Sigma is also one of the major effective that is also used by the logistics firms to manage the all operation management process and to handle the all work of logistics management. The reason behind this is that the use of Six Sigma is effective for the firm to manage the quality of the work and also help the firm to manage the waste material. To manage the waste material is one of the major important part of the logistics firm that provide the competitive advantage for the firm in terms of misnaming the production cost and to increase the operation efficiency. Because of this, it can be concluded that there is a significant role of the Six Sigma technique is the logistics management. In addition to this, it can also be summarised that Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is also one of the major important techniques that can also be used by the logistics firm to make better logistics management process.

The use of ERP technique increases the all operational activities of the firm. This technique helps the firm by handling the all process of the firm such as production, sales, marketing, inventory control, etc and all process and the steps is recorded through ERP system. It overcome the possibilities of arising the any issue and the error in the all process of the firm as well as also increases the operation efficiency of the logistics firm.

In addition, it can also be summarized that there are also deferment other techniques of the logistics management such as Distribution Requirement Planning, Automated Inventory Tracking System, Just-in-Time, etc that are also highly used by the firm in order to manage the all process of the firm and to increase the market value. The Distribution Requirement Planning is quite helpful for the firms to have the exact and clear idea about the flow of good effectively from one region to another that is not possible by using the other ways and the techniques. Due to this concern, this technique is highly preferred and used by the logistics firms.

Furthermore, the Automated Inventory Tracking System is used by the logistics firm to manage the inventory level at the entire retail store as well as to track the all demand and the products at retail store. In addition, the Just-in-Time is also used by the firm logistics firms in order to complete all manufacturing process effectively and to achieve the goals of the firm effectively and quickly. Because of this, it can be interpreted that that are deferment logistics management tools and techniques that are used by the firm to manage the all logistics management process and to get the competitive advantage over the competitors.

From the above discussion, it can be determined that that are different issue and challenges that are faced by the logistics firms in their business practices and provide the competitive issue for the firma s well. In like manner, it can also be summarised that manage the supply chain and inventory cost are the major issue that are faced by the firms and create the business issue for the firm as well. It is because it is a time consuming process and takes so much time to complete the process. Because of this, it is the major issue for the firms that affect the business operation of the logistics firm.

Likewise, it can also be concluded that manage the transportation is also one of the major issue that affect the business of the logistics fie and also create the operation issue for the firm as well. The reason behind this is that manage the vehicles such as truck, Aircargo, etc for timely deliver the products for the customers is a major challenges because this is the major work of the firm that probed the competitive advantage for the firm and also assist the firm by developing the customer base. Due to this, it is one of the major issues that is faced by the firm and create the business challenge for the firm as well.

In addition to this, it can also be defined that changing need of the customers and the market tread are also the major issues that are faced by the firm at the time of successful operating the logistics management business. It is because in order to sustain in the competitive enrvioemet and to have a good customer base there is need for the firm to provide the products as per the need of the customers that make the cause of high cost for the firm and also affect the businesses of the firm. Because of this, changing need of the customers and the market are the major factors that affect the business of the firm and create the issue in the business.

As well as, it can also be determined that globalization is also one of the major issue for the logistics firms in their business. It is because due to globalization, there is an increasing ratio for the firms in the market due to liberal rules and regulation to do the business across the boundary. Because of this, globalisation is one of the major issues that are faced by the firms in order to manage the business and the all logistics management operations.

But at the same time, it can also be defined that government rules and regulations regarding the transport the business is also the major issue that can be faced by the firm at the time of managing he supply chain process and the logistics management. That is why, it can be stated that it is one of the major issue that us faced by the firm and affect the business of the logistics firm.

5.3 Recommendation

From the above discussion, it is also recommended that there are different ways that can be used by the logistics firms in order to manage the all issues and the challenges effectively. At the same time, in the same concern of this, it is recommended that RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology is one of the major important ways that can be used by the firm in order to overcome the all issue that are faced by the firms in their business practices. It is because by using this technology, it is easy for the firm to manage the business by identifying a person, package or an item effectively on time, it increase the operation efficiency of the firm and also provide the competitive advantage for the firm as well.

In addition, it is also helpful for the firm to manage the all operation and logistical operation and to get a competitive advantage for the firms. Because of this, it can be determined that the use of RFID technology is one of the major important ways that can be used by the firm at the time of managing the all logistics operation. At the same time, it can also be recommended that the use of electronic data interchange technology is one of the best ways that can also be used by the firm in order to manage the logistics management issue and to develop a good customer base. It is because it is totally deepened on the computer and the software because there is minimum chance for the firms to loss the all accounting data and to face any issue related to delay in the product delivery and products damage. Because of this, it can be recommended that the use of electronic data interchange technology is one of the quite effective ways that can be used by the firms to manage the all logistics management issues and to increase the market value.

In like manner, it can also be recommended that the use of eliminating the use of traditional methods is also one of the effective ways that can also be used by the firm and can also be effective for the firm to manage the all process of the logistics management as well as to improve the supply chain process of the firm. The reason in this is that the traditional methods are too much time and cost consuming as well as there are high possibilities in the traditional methods of arising the issue and the errors.

In addition, by using the traditional methods of logistics management, most of the firm face the issue related to ineffective inventory management and slow process of the supply chain that make the cause of financial and business loss of the firm. Due to this concern, it can be stated that the use of traditional methods is not effective for the logistics firms there is a need for the firm to eliminate the use of traditional methods and use the new ways of the logistics management.

5.4 Limitation and Future Research Implications

In order to successful accomplish the research successfully, there are different limitations that researcher also faced.  But at the same time, the cost and the time are the major research limitations of this research. It is because there are different objectives in this research that are accomplished by the researcher. But at the same, in order to accomplish the research objectives successfully, there were need for the researcher to do the in-depth understanding for all topics that takes so much time and the cost. Due to this, it can be determined that the time and the cost were the major research limitation for the researcher that creates the issue for the researcher to accomplish the goal of the research on time and to develop the valid research outcomes.

So, in order to overcome this issue and to have a good control on the research, survey through questionnaire is used by the researcher instead of some other methods of the data collections like interview, focus group, etc. the reason on this is that the other ways instead of survey through questionnaire were time and cost consuming, while the survey through questionnaire assisted the researcher to overcome the time and cost related issues and to develop a valid research outcomes.

Furthermore, it can also be stated that the further research can be conducted on the different logistics firms in different countries. It is because it will be helpful in order to generate the more valid and effective research outcomes and also help to explore the concept the logistics management, tools and techniques, etc. Due to this concern, it can be finalised that the further research can be conducted on the different logistics firm of different countries.

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Appendix 1

Questionnaire

Demographic Questions

Gender

  • Male
  • Female

Age

  • Under 25 [  ]
  • 25 – 30 [  ]
  • 31 – 45 [  ]
  • 46 – 50 [  ]
  • Above 50 [  ]

Experience 

  • Below one year
  • 2-4 years
  • 4-6 years
  • 6-8 years
  • More than eight years

Are you agreed on that there is a vital role of the logistics management in the success of the firm?

  • Strongly agreed
  • Agreed
  • Neutral
  • Disagreed
  • Strongly Disagreed

Do you agree on that due to increasing level of the competition and the market demand, the supply chain and the logics management are the vital business in the operation of the firm?   

  • Strongly agreed
  • Agreed
  • Neutral
  • Disagreed
  • Strongly Disagreed

To what extent do you agree on that logics management is helpful to make a good customer base and to increase the brand value of the firm?

  • Strongly agreed
  • Agreed
  • Neutral
  • Disagreed
  • Strongly Disagreed

Provide your concern regarding the use of Lean manufacturing techniques that are used by the Indian manufacturing firm in the logistics management   

  • Strongly agreed
  • Agreed
  • Neutral
  • Disagreed
  • Strongly Disagreed

Provide your concern regarding the use of Six Sigma techniques that are used by the Indian manufacturing firm in the logistics management   

  • Strongly agreed
  • Agreed
  • Neutral
  • Disagreed
  • Strongly Disagreed

Provide your concern regarding the use of ERP (Enterprise Resource planning) that are used by the Indian manufacturing firm in the logistics management   

  • Strongly agreed
  • Agreed
  • Neutral
  • Disagreed
  • Strongly Disagreed

Provide your concern regarding the use of Just in Time that are used by the Indian manufacturing firm in the logistics management   

  • Strongly agreed
  • Agreed
  • Neutral
  • Disagreed
  • Strongly Disagreed

Provide your agreeableness about the Supply chain and inventory cost issue and challenges that is faced by Indian manufacturing firm in the logistics management?

  • Strongly agreed
  • Agreed
  • Neutral
  • Disagreed
  • Strongly Disagreed

Provide your agreeableness about the Supply chain and inventory co Manage the Transportation issue and challenges that is faced by Indian manufacturing firm in the logistics management?

  • Strongly agreed
  • Agreed
  • Neutral
  • Disagreed
  • Strongly Disagreed

Provide your agreeableness about the Security of all Products issue and challenges that is faced by Indian manufacturing firm in the logistics management?

  • Strongly agreed
  • Agreed
  • Neutral
  • Disagreed
  • Strongly Disagreed

Provide your agreeableness about the Government Policies issue and challenges that is faced by Indian manufacturing firm in the logistics management?

  • Strongly agreed
  • Agreed
  • Neutral
  • Disagreed
  • Strongly Disagreed

Provide your concern regarding the ways and the techniques that can be used by the Indian manufacturing firm to manage the logistics management issues and challenges?

(1. Strongly Agree 2 Agree 3.Neutral 4. Disagree 5. Strongly disagree)

  • Modern ways (use new technology)
  • RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)
  • Electronic Data Interchange

Eliminating the use of

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